skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Proton fixed-target scintillation experiment to search for millicharged dark matter

Abstract

We propose a low-cost and movable setup to probe minicharged particles (or milli-charged particles) using high-intensity proton fixed-target facilities. This proposal, FerMINI, consists of a milliQan-type detector, requiring multi-coincident (nominally, triple-coincident) scintillation signatures within a small time window, located downstream of the proton target of a neutrino experiment. During the collisions of a large number of protons on the target, intense minicharged particle beams may be produced via meson photo-decays and Drell-Yan production. We take advantage of the high statistics, shielding, and potential neutrino-detector-related background reduction to search for minicharged particles in two potential sites: the MINOS near detector hall and the proposed DUNE near detector hall, both at Fermilab. We also explore several alternative designs, including the modifications of the nominal detector to increase signal yield, and combining this detector technology with existing and planned neutrino detectors to better search for minicharged particles. The CERN SPS beam and associated experimental structure also provide a similar alternative. FerMINI can achieve unprecedented sensitivity for minicharged particles in the MeV to few GeV regime with fractional charge $$\varepsilon=Q_{\chi}/e $$ between $$10^{-4}$$ (potentially saturating the detector limitation) and $$10^{-1}$$.

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2]
  1. Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States). Theoretical Physics Dept.
  2. Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States). Kavli Inst. for Cosmological Physics
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
OSTI Identifier:
1545470
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1489390
Report Number(s):
arXiv:1812.03998; FERMILAB-PUB-18-668-A-PPD-T
Journal ID: ISSN 2470-0010; PRVDAQ; 1708533
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-07CH11359
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Physical Review D
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 100; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2470-0010
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS

Citation Formats

Kelly, Kevin J., and Tsai, Yu -Dai. Proton fixed-target scintillation experiment to search for millicharged dark matter. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.100.015043.
Kelly, Kevin J., & Tsai, Yu -Dai. Proton fixed-target scintillation experiment to search for millicharged dark matter. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.100.015043.
Kelly, Kevin J., and Tsai, Yu -Dai. Mon . "Proton fixed-target scintillation experiment to search for millicharged dark matter". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.100.015043.
@article{osti_1545470,
title = {Proton fixed-target scintillation experiment to search for millicharged dark matter},
author = {Kelly, Kevin J. and Tsai, Yu -Dai},
abstractNote = {We propose a low-cost and movable setup to probe minicharged particles (or milli-charged particles) using high-intensity proton fixed-target facilities. This proposal, FerMINI, consists of a milliQan-type detector, requiring multi-coincident (nominally, triple-coincident) scintillation signatures within a small time window, located downstream of the proton target of a neutrino experiment. During the collisions of a large number of protons on the target, intense minicharged particle beams may be produced via meson photo-decays and Drell-Yan production. We take advantage of the high statistics, shielding, and potential neutrino-detector-related background reduction to search for minicharged particles in two potential sites: the MINOS near detector hall and the proposed DUNE near detector hall, both at Fermilab. We also explore several alternative designs, including the modifications of the nominal detector to increase signal yield, and combining this detector technology with existing and planned neutrino detectors to better search for minicharged particles. The CERN SPS beam and associated experimental structure also provide a similar alternative. FerMINI can achieve unprecedented sensitivity for minicharged particles in the MeV to few GeV regime with fractional charge $\varepsilon=Q_{\chi}/e $ between $10^{-4}$ (potentially saturating the detector limitation) and $10^{-1}$.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.100.015043},
journal = {Physical Review D},
number = 1,
volume = 100,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {7}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.100.015043

Figures / Tables:

FIG. 1 FIG. 1: Expected number of χ particles to reach a perpendicular 1 m × 1 m detection area a distance of 574 m from a 120 GeV proton beam hitting a target, in agreement with the DUNE near detector hall. We assume 1 year of live-trigger time for the accumulatedmore » events, corresponding to 1021 POT. Different colors show the production of χ via meson decays and Drell-Yan production, as described in the text.« less

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

An absorption profile centred at 78 megahertz in the sky-averaged spectrum
journal, March 2018

  • Bowman, Judd D.; Rogers, Alan E. E.; Monsalve, Raul A.
  • Nature, Vol. 555, Issue 7694
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature25792

Possible interaction between baryons and dark-matter particles revealed by the first stars
journal, March 2018


Quantised Singularities in the Electromagnetic Field
journal, September 1931

  • Dirac, P. A. M.
  • Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 133, Issue 821
  • DOI: 10.1098/rspa.1931.0130

Exploring portals to a hidden sector through fixed targets
journal, November 2009


Unity of All Elementary-Particle Forces
journal, February 1974


Search for Millicharged Particles at SLAC
journal, August 1998


First Limit on the Direct Detection of Lightly Ionizing Particles for Electric Charge as Low as e / 1000 with the Majorana Demonstrator
journal, May 2018


Review of Particle Physics
journal, October 2016


Strong Constraints on Sub-GeV Dark Sectors from SLAC Beam Dump E137
journal, October 2014


Limits on millicharged matter from beam-dump experiments
journal, January 1987


New fixed-target experiments to search for dark gauge forces
journal, October 2009


Dark matter, millicharges, axion and scalar particles, gauge bosons, and other new physics with LDMX
journal, April 2019


Dark tridents at off-axis liquid argon neutrino detectors
journal, January 2019

  • de Gouvêa, André; Fox, Patrick J.; Harnik, Roni
  • Journal of High Energy Physics, Vol. 2019, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1007/JHEP01(2019)001

First Direct Limits on Lightly Ionizing Particles with Electric Charge Less than e / 6
journal, March 2015


Secluded WIMP dark matter
journal, April 2008


Unified Lepton-Hadron Symmetry and a Gauge Theory of the Basic Interactions
journal, August 1973


A small amount of mini-charged dark matter could cool the baryons in the early Universe
journal, May 2018


GeV-scale dark matter: production at the Main Injector
journal, February 2015

  • Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Frugiuele, Claudia
  • Journal of High Energy Physics, Vol. 2015, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1007/JHEP02(2015)019

New window to millicharged particles at the LHC
journal, August 2015


Millicharged Particles in Neutrino Experiments
journal, February 2019


Review of Particle Physics
journal, August 2018


Scintillations from Organic Crystals: Specific Fluorescence and Relative Response to Different Radiations
journal, October 1951


Search for fractionally charged particles in p p collisions at s = 7 TeV
journal, May 2013


Observing a light dark matter beam with neutrino experiments
journal, October 2011


Severely Constraining Dark-Matter Interpretations of the 21-cm Anomaly
journal, July 2018


Light scalars and dark photons in Borexino and LSND experiments
journal, October 2018


Constraints on millicharged particles with low-threshold germanium detectors at Kuo-Sheng Reactor Neutrino Laboratory
journal, February 2019


Updated bounds on milli-charged particles
journal, May 2000


New electron beam-dump experiments to search for MeV to few-GeV dark matter
journal, December 2013


Light dark matter in neutrino beams: Production modeling and scattering signatures at MiniBooNE, T2K, and SHiP
journal, February 2017


Demonstration of MeV-scale physics in liquid argon time projection chambers using ArgoNeuT
journal, January 2019


Looking for milli-charged particles with a new experiment at the LHC
journal, June 2015


New limit on millicharged particles from reactor neutrino experiments and the PVLAS anomaly
journal, April 2007


Scalar dark matter candidates
journal, April 2004


Closing the windows on MeV tau neutrinos
journal, January 1994


Parton distributions for the LHC
journal, July 2009


Detecting a heavy neutrino electric dipole moment at the LHC
journal, February 2018


Millicharged Dark Matter in Quantum Gravity and String Theory
journal, June 2013


Millicharged particles
journal, August 1990


Early-Universe constraints on dark matter-baryon scattering and their implications for a global 21 cm signal
journal, July 2018


The NuMI neutrino beam
journal, January 2016

  • Adamson, P.; Anderson, K.; Andrews, M.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 806
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2015.08.063

Dark matter beams at LBNF
journal, April 2016

  • Coloma, Pilar; Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Frugiuele, Claudia
  • Journal of High Energy Physics, Vol. 2016, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1007/JHEP04(2016)047

Dipole portal to heavy neutral leptons
journal, December 2018


An introduction to PYTHIA 8.2
journal, June 2015

  • Sjöstrand, Torbjörn; Ask, Stefan; Christiansen, Jesper R.
  • Computer Physics Communications, Vol. 191
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.cpc.2015.01.024

DAEδALUS and dark matter detection
journal, March 2015


Decaying dark matter as a probe of unification and TeV spectroscopy
journal, September 2009


Two U(1)'s and ϵ charge shifts
journal, January 1986


U(1)′ dark matter
journal, February 1990


Strong constraints on light dark matter interpretation of the EDGES signal
journal, November 2018

  • Barkana, Rennan; Outmezguine, Nadav Joseph; Redigolo, Diego
  • Physical Review D, Vol. 98, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.98.103005

    Figures / Tables found in this record:

      Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.