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Title: Revisiting the Fanaroff–Riley dichotomy and radio-galaxy morphology with the LOFAR Two-Metre Sky Survey (LoTSS)

Abstract

Abstract The relative positions of the high and low surface brightness regions of radio-loud active galaxies in the 3CR sample were found by Fanaroff and Riley to be correlated with their luminosity. We revisit this canonical relationship with a sample of 5805 extended radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) from the LOFAR Two-Metre Sky Survey (LoTSS), compiling the most complete data set of radio-galaxy morphological information obtained to date. We demonstrate that, for this sample, radio luminosity does not reliably predict whether a source is edge-brightened (FRII) or centre-brightened (FRI). We highlight a large population of low-luminosity FRIIs, extending three orders of magnitude below the traditional FR break, and demonstrate that their host galaxies are on average systematically fainter than those of high-luminosity FRIIs and of FRIs matched in luminosity. This result supports the jet power/environment paradigm for the FR break: low-power jets may remain undisrupted and form hotspots in lower mass hosts. We also find substantial populations that appear physically distinct from the traditional FR classes, including candidate restarting sources and ‘hybrids’. We identify 459 bent-tailed sources, which we find to have a significantly higher SDSS cluster association fraction (at z < 0.4) than the general radio-galaxy population, similar tomore » the results of previous work. The complexity of the LoTSS faint, extended radio sources not only demonstrates the need for caution in the automated classification and interpretation of extended sources in modern radio surveys, but also reveals the wealth of morphological information such surveys will provide and its value for advancing our physical understanding of radio-loud AGN.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [5];  [4];  [3];  [6];  [4];  [7]; ORCiD logo [8];  [2]; ORCiD logo [9]; ORCiD logo [7];  [7];  [10];  [11]
  1. School of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, UK
  2. Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB, UK
  3. SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, UK
  4. Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden, the Netherlands
  5. ASTRON, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, NL-7990 AA Dwingeloo, the Netherlands, Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, NL-9700 AV Groningen, the Netherlands
  6. Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden, the Netherlands, ASTRON, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, NL-7990 AA Dwingeloo, the Netherlands
  7. INAF-Istituto di Radioastronomia, Via P. Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy
  8. CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science (CASS), PO Box 1130, Bentley, WA 6102, Perth, Australia
  9. Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH, UK
  10. School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK
  11. School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1544921
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Journal Volume: 488 Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Mingo, B., Croston, J. H., Hardcastle, M. J., Best, P. N., Duncan, K. J., Morganti, R., Rottgering, H. J. A., Sabater, J., Shimwell, T. W., Williams, W. L., Brienza, M., Gurkan, G., Mahatma, V. H., Morabito, L. K., Prandoni, I., Bondi, M., Ineson, J., and Mooney, S. Revisiting the Fanaroff–Riley dichotomy and radio-galaxy morphology with the LOFAR Two-Metre Sky Survey (LoTSS). United Kingdom: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz1901.
Mingo, B., Croston, J. H., Hardcastle, M. J., Best, P. N., Duncan, K. J., Morganti, R., Rottgering, H. J. A., Sabater, J., Shimwell, T. W., Williams, W. L., Brienza, M., Gurkan, G., Mahatma, V. H., Morabito, L. K., Prandoni, I., Bondi, M., Ineson, J., & Mooney, S. Revisiting the Fanaroff–Riley dichotomy and radio-galaxy morphology with the LOFAR Two-Metre Sky Survey (LoTSS). United Kingdom. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz1901.
Mingo, B., Croston, J. H., Hardcastle, M. J., Best, P. N., Duncan, K. J., Morganti, R., Rottgering, H. J. A., Sabater, J., Shimwell, T. W., Williams, W. L., Brienza, M., Gurkan, G., Mahatma, V. H., Morabito, L. K., Prandoni, I., Bondi, M., Ineson, J., and Mooney, S. Wed . "Revisiting the Fanaroff–Riley dichotomy and radio-galaxy morphology with the LOFAR Two-Metre Sky Survey (LoTSS)". United Kingdom. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz1901.
@article{osti_1544921,
title = {Revisiting the Fanaroff–Riley dichotomy and radio-galaxy morphology with the LOFAR Two-Metre Sky Survey (LoTSS)},
author = {Mingo, B. and Croston, J. H. and Hardcastle, M. J. and Best, P. N. and Duncan, K. J. and Morganti, R. and Rottgering, H. J. A. and Sabater, J. and Shimwell, T. W. and Williams, W. L. and Brienza, M. and Gurkan, G. and Mahatma, V. H. and Morabito, L. K. and Prandoni, I. and Bondi, M. and Ineson, J. and Mooney, S.},
abstractNote = {Abstract The relative positions of the high and low surface brightness regions of radio-loud active galaxies in the 3CR sample were found by Fanaroff and Riley to be correlated with their luminosity. We revisit this canonical relationship with a sample of 5805 extended radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) from the LOFAR Two-Metre Sky Survey (LoTSS), compiling the most complete data set of radio-galaxy morphological information obtained to date. We demonstrate that, for this sample, radio luminosity does not reliably predict whether a source is edge-brightened (FRII) or centre-brightened (FRI). We highlight a large population of low-luminosity FRIIs, extending three orders of magnitude below the traditional FR break, and demonstrate that their host galaxies are on average systematically fainter than those of high-luminosity FRIIs and of FRIs matched in luminosity. This result supports the jet power/environment paradigm for the FR break: low-power jets may remain undisrupted and form hotspots in lower mass hosts. We also find substantial populations that appear physically distinct from the traditional FR classes, including candidate restarting sources and ‘hybrids’. We identify 459 bent-tailed sources, which we find to have a significantly higher SDSS cluster association fraction (at z < 0.4) than the general radio-galaxy population, similar to the results of previous work. The complexity of the LoTSS faint, extended radio sources not only demonstrates the need for caution in the automated classification and interpretation of extended sources in modern radio surveys, but also reveals the wealth of morphological information such surveys will provide and its value for advancing our physical understanding of radio-loud AGN.},
doi = {10.1093/mnras/stz1901},
journal = {Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
number = 2,
volume = 488,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {2019},
month = {7}
}

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