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Title: The Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey: Giant Planet and Brown Dwarf Demographics from 10 to 100 au

Abstract

Here, we introduce a statistical analysis of the first 300 stars observed by the Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey. This subsample includes six detected planets and three brown dwarfs; from these detections and our contrast curves we infer the underlying distributions of substellar companions with respect to their mass, semimajor axis, and host stellar mass. We uncover a strong correlation between planet occurrence rate and host star mass, with stars M * > 1.5 M more likely to host planets with masses between 2 and 13$M$ Jup and semimajor axes of 3–100 au at 99.92% confidence. We fit a double power-law model in planet mass ($m$) and semimajor axis ($a$) for planet populations around high-mass stars (M * > 1.5 M ) of the form $${d}^{2}N/({dm}\,{da})\propto {m}^{\alpha }\,{a}^{\beta }$$, finding α = –2.4 ± 0.8 and β = –2.0 ± 0.5, and an integrated occurrence rate of $${9}_{-4}^{+5}$$% between 5–13M Jup and 10–100 au. A significantly lower occurrence rate is obtained for brown dwarfs around all stars, with $${0.8}_{-0.5}^{+0.8}$$% of stars hosting a brown dwarf companion between 13–80$M$ Jup and 10–100 au. Brown dwarfs also appear to be distributed differently in mass and semimajor axis compared to giant planets; whereas giant planets follow a bottom-heavy mass distribution and favor smaller semimajor axes, brown dwarfs exhibit just the opposite behaviors. Comparing to studies of short-period giant planets from the radial velocity method, our results are consistent with a peak in occurrence of giant planets between ~1 and 10 au. These trends, including the preference of giant planets for high-mass host stars, point to formation of giant planets by core/pebble accretion, and formation of brown dwarfs by gravitational instability, according to this work.

Authors:
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  1. Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
  2. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  3. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  4. NASA Ames Research Center (ARC), Moffett Field, Mountain View, CA (United States)
  5. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  6. Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)
  7. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  8. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)
  9. Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)
  10. National Research Council of Canada Herzberg, Victoria, BC (Canada)
  11. National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), Hilo, HI (United States)
  12. Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)
  13. Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)
  14. Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)
  15. Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  16. Univ. of Montreal, Quebec (Canada)
  17. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. Grenoble Alpes (France)
  18. Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)
  19. Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
  20. Amherst College, MA (United States)
  21. Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)
  22. National Research Council of Canada Herzberg, Victoria, BC (Canada); Univ. of Victoria, BC (Canada)
  23. Gemini Observatory, Hilo, HI (United States)
  24. Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
  25. European Southern Observatory, Santiago (Chile)
  26. Univ. of Exeter (United Kingdom)
  27. Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)
  28. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO (United States)
  29. Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)
  30. Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, Tucson, AZ (United States)
  31. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Carl Sagan Center, Mountain View, CA (United States)
  32. Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)
  33. Carl Sagan Center, Mountain View, CA (United States)
  34. Univ. of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)
  35. American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), New York, NY (United States)
  36. Space Telescope Science Inst., Baltimore, MD (United States)
  37. Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)
  38. Gemini Observatory, La Serena (Chile)
  39. Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)
  40. Leiden Univ. (Netherlands)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA); National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA); National Science Foundation (NSF); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22). Scientific User Facilities Division
OSTI Identifier:
1544731
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1597226
Report Number(s):
[LA-UR-18-30923; LLNL-JRNL-804153]
[Journal ID: ISSN 1538-3881]
Grant/Contract Number:  
[89233218CNA000001; AC02-05CH11231; ACI-1548562; AC52-07NA27344]
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astronomical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
[Journal Name: Astronomical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 158; Journal Issue: 1]; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-3881
Publisher:
IOP Publishing - AAAS
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; instrumentation: adaptive optics; planetary systems; planets and satellites: detection; Astronomy; Astrophysics

Citation Formats

Nielsen, Eric L., De Rosa, Robert J., Macintosh, Bruce, Wang, Jason J., Ruffio, Jean-Baptiste, Chiang, Eugene, Marley, Mark S., Saumon, Didier, Savransky, Dmitry, Mark Ammons, S., Bailey, Vanessa P., Barman, Travis, Blain, Célia, Bulger, Joanna, Burrows, Adam, Chilcote, Jeffrey, Cotten, Tara, Czekala, Ian, Doyon, Rene, Duchêne, Gaspard, Esposito, Thomas M., Fabrycky, Daniel, Fitzgerald, Michael P., Follette, Katherine B., Fortney, Jonathan J., Gerard, Benjamin L., Goodsell, Stephen J., Graham, James R., Greenbaum, Alexandra Z., Hibon, Pascale, Hinkley, Sasha, Hirsch, Lea A., Hom, Justin, Hung, Li-Wei, Ilene Dawson, Rebekah, Ingraham, Patrick, Kalas, Paul, Konopacky, Quinn, Larkin, James E., Lee, Eve J., Lin, Jonathan W., Maire, Jérôme, Marchis, Franck, Marois, Christian, Metchev, Stanimir, Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A., Morzinski, Katie M., Oppenheimer, Rebecca, Palmer, David, Patience, Jennifer, Perrin, Marshall, Poyneer, Lisa, Pueyo, Laurent, Rafikov, Roman R., Rajan, Abhijith, Rameau, Julien, Rantakyrö, Fredrik T., Ren, Bin, Schneider, Adam C., Sivaramakrishnan, Anand, Song, Inseok, Soummer, Remi, Tallis, Melisa, Thomas, Sandrine, Ward-Duong, Kimberly, and Wolff, Schuyler. The Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey: Giant Planet and Brown Dwarf Demographics from 10 to 100 au. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/ab16e9.
Nielsen, Eric L., De Rosa, Robert J., Macintosh, Bruce, Wang, Jason J., Ruffio, Jean-Baptiste, Chiang, Eugene, Marley, Mark S., Saumon, Didier, Savransky, Dmitry, Mark Ammons, S., Bailey, Vanessa P., Barman, Travis, Blain, Célia, Bulger, Joanna, Burrows, Adam, Chilcote, Jeffrey, Cotten, Tara, Czekala, Ian, Doyon, Rene, Duchêne, Gaspard, Esposito, Thomas M., Fabrycky, Daniel, Fitzgerald, Michael P., Follette, Katherine B., Fortney, Jonathan J., Gerard, Benjamin L., Goodsell, Stephen J., Graham, James R., Greenbaum, Alexandra Z., Hibon, Pascale, Hinkley, Sasha, Hirsch, Lea A., Hom, Justin, Hung, Li-Wei, Ilene Dawson, Rebekah, Ingraham, Patrick, Kalas, Paul, Konopacky, Quinn, Larkin, James E., Lee, Eve J., Lin, Jonathan W., Maire, Jérôme, Marchis, Franck, Marois, Christian, Metchev, Stanimir, Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A., Morzinski, Katie M., Oppenheimer, Rebecca, Palmer, David, Patience, Jennifer, Perrin, Marshall, Poyneer, Lisa, Pueyo, Laurent, Rafikov, Roman R., Rajan, Abhijith, Rameau, Julien, Rantakyrö, Fredrik T., Ren, Bin, Schneider, Adam C., Sivaramakrishnan, Anand, Song, Inseok, Soummer, Remi, Tallis, Melisa, Thomas, Sandrine, Ward-Duong, Kimberly, & Wolff, Schuyler. The Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey: Giant Planet and Brown Dwarf Demographics from 10 to 100 au. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/ab16e9.
Nielsen, Eric L., De Rosa, Robert J., Macintosh, Bruce, Wang, Jason J., Ruffio, Jean-Baptiste, Chiang, Eugene, Marley, Mark S., Saumon, Didier, Savransky, Dmitry, Mark Ammons, S., Bailey, Vanessa P., Barman, Travis, Blain, Célia, Bulger, Joanna, Burrows, Adam, Chilcote, Jeffrey, Cotten, Tara, Czekala, Ian, Doyon, Rene, Duchêne, Gaspard, Esposito, Thomas M., Fabrycky, Daniel, Fitzgerald, Michael P., Follette, Katherine B., Fortney, Jonathan J., Gerard, Benjamin L., Goodsell, Stephen J., Graham, James R., Greenbaum, Alexandra Z., Hibon, Pascale, Hinkley, Sasha, Hirsch, Lea A., Hom, Justin, Hung, Li-Wei, Ilene Dawson, Rebekah, Ingraham, Patrick, Kalas, Paul, Konopacky, Quinn, Larkin, James E., Lee, Eve J., Lin, Jonathan W., Maire, Jérôme, Marchis, Franck, Marois, Christian, Metchev, Stanimir, Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A., Morzinski, Katie M., Oppenheimer, Rebecca, Palmer, David, Patience, Jennifer, Perrin, Marshall, Poyneer, Lisa, Pueyo, Laurent, Rafikov, Roman R., Rajan, Abhijith, Rameau, Julien, Rantakyrö, Fredrik T., Ren, Bin, Schneider, Adam C., Sivaramakrishnan, Anand, Song, Inseok, Soummer, Remi, Tallis, Melisa, Thomas, Sandrine, Ward-Duong, Kimberly, and Wolff, Schuyler. Wed . "The Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey: Giant Planet and Brown Dwarf Demographics from 10 to 100 au". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/ab16e9.
@article{osti_1544731,
title = {The Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey: Giant Planet and Brown Dwarf Demographics from 10 to 100 au},
author = {Nielsen, Eric L. and De Rosa, Robert J. and Macintosh, Bruce and Wang, Jason J. and Ruffio, Jean-Baptiste and Chiang, Eugene and Marley, Mark S. and Saumon, Didier and Savransky, Dmitry and Mark Ammons, S. and Bailey, Vanessa P. and Barman, Travis and Blain, Célia and Bulger, Joanna and Burrows, Adam and Chilcote, Jeffrey and Cotten, Tara and Czekala, Ian and Doyon, Rene and Duchêne, Gaspard and Esposito, Thomas M. and Fabrycky, Daniel and Fitzgerald, Michael P. and Follette, Katherine B. and Fortney, Jonathan J. and Gerard, Benjamin L. and Goodsell, Stephen J. and Graham, James R. and Greenbaum, Alexandra Z. and Hibon, Pascale and Hinkley, Sasha and Hirsch, Lea A. and Hom, Justin and Hung, Li-Wei and Ilene Dawson, Rebekah and Ingraham, Patrick and Kalas, Paul and Konopacky, Quinn and Larkin, James E. and Lee, Eve J. and Lin, Jonathan W. and Maire, Jérôme and Marchis, Franck and Marois, Christian and Metchev, Stanimir and Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A. and Morzinski, Katie M. and Oppenheimer, Rebecca and Palmer, David and Patience, Jennifer and Perrin, Marshall and Poyneer, Lisa and Pueyo, Laurent and Rafikov, Roman R. and Rajan, Abhijith and Rameau, Julien and Rantakyrö, Fredrik T. and Ren, Bin and Schneider, Adam C. and Sivaramakrishnan, Anand and Song, Inseok and Soummer, Remi and Tallis, Melisa and Thomas, Sandrine and Ward-Duong, Kimberly and Wolff, Schuyler},
abstractNote = {Here, we introduce a statistical analysis of the first 300 stars observed by the Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey. This subsample includes six detected planets and three brown dwarfs; from these detections and our contrast curves we infer the underlying distributions of substellar companions with respect to their mass, semimajor axis, and host stellar mass. We uncover a strong correlation between planet occurrence rate and host star mass, with stars M * > 1.5 M⊙ more likely to host planets with masses between 2 and 13$M$ Jup and semimajor axes of 3–100 au at 99.92% confidence. We fit a double power-law model in planet mass ($m$) and semimajor axis ($a$) for planet populations around high-mass stars (M * > 1.5 M⊙) of the form ${d}^{2}N/({dm}\,{da})\propto {m}^{\alpha }\,{a}^{\beta }$, finding α = –2.4 ± 0.8 and β = –2.0 ± 0.5, and an integrated occurrence rate of ${9}_{-4}^{+5}$% between 5–13M Jup and 10–100 au. A significantly lower occurrence rate is obtained for brown dwarfs around all stars, with ${0.8}_{-0.5}^{+0.8}$% of stars hosting a brown dwarf companion between 13–80$M$ Jup and 10–100 au. Brown dwarfs also appear to be distributed differently in mass and semimajor axis compared to giant planets; whereas giant planets follow a bottom-heavy mass distribution and favor smaller semimajor axes, brown dwarfs exhibit just the opposite behaviors. Comparing to studies of short-period giant planets from the radial velocity method, our results are consistent with a peak in occurrence of giant planets between ~1 and 10 au. These trends, including the preference of giant planets for high-mass host stars, point to formation of giant planets by core/pebble accretion, and formation of brown dwarfs by gravitational instability, according to this work.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-3881/ab16e9},
journal = {Astronomical Journal (Online)},
number = [1],
volume = [158],
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {6}
}

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  • Sparks, William B.; Ford, Holland C.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 578, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/342401

Spectral and Photometric Diagnostics of Giant Planet Formation Scenarios
journal, January 2012


MK morphological study of Am stars at 66 Å/mm
journal, June 1991

  • Rao, S. Sreedhar; Abhyankar, K. D.
  • Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy, Vol. 12, Issue 2
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Asteroseismic masses of retired planet-hosting A-stars using SONG
journal, September 2017

  • Stello, Dennis; Huber, Daniel; Grundahl, Frank
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 472, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx2295

Dwarf K and M stars of high proper motion found in a hemispheric survey
journal, July 1986

  • Stephenson, C. B.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 92
  • DOI: 10.1086/114146

The LEECH Exoplanet Imaging Survey: Limits on Planet Occurrence Rates under Conservative Assumptions
journal, November 2018

  • Stone, Jordan M.; Skemer, Andrew J.; Hinz, Philip M.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 156, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-3881/aaec00

ALMA 1.3 mm Map of the HD 95086 System
journal, November 2017

  • Su, Kate Y. L.; MacGregor, Meredith A.; Booth, Mark
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 154, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-3881/aa906b

The Debris disk Around hr 8799
journal, October 2009


Maximum-likelihood method for estimating the mass and period distributions of extrasolar planets
journal, September 2002


Tidally Induced Brown Dwarf and Planet Formation in Circumstellar Disks
journal, June 2010


On the gravitational stability of a disk of stars
journal, May 1964


Search for associations containing young stars (SACY): I. Sample and searching method
journal, September 2006


Radial Velocity Survey of Members and Candidate Members of the TW Hydrae Association
journal, February 2003

  • Torres, Guillermo; Guenther, Eike W.; Marschall, Laurence A.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 125, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/345968

The EBLM Project: IV. Spectroscopic orbits of over 100 eclipsing M dwarfs masquerading as transiting hot Jupiters⋆⋆⋆
journal, December 2017


The SEEDS High-Contrast Imaging Survey of Exoplanets Around Young Stellar Objects
journal, February 2017


Validation of the new Hipparcos reduction
journal, August 2007


The International Deep Planet Survey: I. The frequency of wide-orbit massive planets around A-stars⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆
journal, July 2012


The Gemini Planet-Finding Campaign: the Frequency of Giant Planets Around Debris disk Stars
journal, August 2013


Dynamical Constraints on the HR 8799 Planets with GPI
journal, October 2018

  • Wang, Jason J.; Graham, James R.; Dawson, Rebekah
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 156, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-3881/aae150

THE ORBIT AND TRANSIT PROSPECTS FOR β PICTORIS b CONSTRAINED WITH ONE MILLIARCSECOND ASTROMETRY
journal, October 2016


Automated data processing architecture for the Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey
journal, January 2018

  • Wang, Jason J.; Perrin, Marshall D.; Savransky, Dmitry
  • Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems, Vol. 4, Issue 01
  • DOI: 10.1117/1.JATIS.4.1.018002

Aerodynamics of solid bodies in the solar nebula
journal, September 1977

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The Circumstellar Disk of HD 141569 Imaged with NICMOS
journal, November 1999

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  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 525, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/312334

Resolved Millimeter Observations of the HR 8799 Debris Disk
journal, March 2018

  • Wilner, David J.; MacGregor, Meredith A.; Andrews, Sean M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 855, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aaacd7

The γ Dor variable HR 8799: results from a multisite campaign
journal, February 1999


Rotational velocities of A-type stars: IV. Evolution of rotational velocities
journal, January 2012


The Carina-Near Moving Group
journal, September 2006

  • Zuckerman, B.; Bessell, M. S.; Song, Inseok
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 649, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/508060

The Tucana/Horologium, Columba, ab Doradus, and Argus Associations: new Members and Dusty Debris Disks
journal, April 2011


The β Pictoris Moving Group
journal, November 2001

  • Zuckerman, B.; Song, Inseok; Bessell, M. S.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 562, Issue 1
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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    TESS Hunt for Young and Maturing Exoplanets (THYME): A Planet in the 45 Myr Tucana–Horologium Association
    journal, July 2019

    • Newton, Elisabeth R.; Mann, Andrew W.; Tofflemire, Benjamin M.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 880, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ab2988