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Title: Trihalomethane precursor reactivity changes in drinking water treatment unit processes during a storm event

Abstract

Source water quality can significantly impact the efficacy of water treatment unit processes and the formation of chlorinated and brominated trihalomethanes (THMs). Current water treatment plant performance models may not accurately capture how source water quality variations, such as organic matter variability, can impact treatment unit processes. To investigate these impacts, a field study was conducted wherein water samples were collected along the treatment train for 72 hours during a storm event. Systematic sampling and detailed analyses of water quality parameters, including non-purgeable organic carbon (NPOC), UV absorbance, and THM concentrations, as well as chlorine spiking experiments, reveal how the THM formation potential changes in response to treatment unit processes. Results show that the NPOC remaining after treatment has an increased reactivity towards forming THMs, and that brominated THMs form more readily than chlorinated counterparts in a competitive reaction. Thus both the reactivity and quantity of THM precursors must be considered to maintain compliance with drinking water standards, a finding that should be incorporated into the development of model-assisted treatment operation and optimization. Advanced granular activated carbon (GAC) treatment beyond conventional coagulation–flocculation–sedimentation processes may also be necessary to remove the surge loading of THM-formation precursors during a storm event.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [3];  [1]
  1. Evironmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)
  2. Evironmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China).
  3. Greater Cincinnati Water Works, Cincinnati, OH (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1544714
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-18-25099
Journal ID: ISSN 1606-9749
Grant/Contract Number:  
89233218CNA000001
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Water Supply
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 19; Journal Issue: 7; Journal ID: ISSN 1606-9749
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; Earth Sciences; Disinfection byproducts, Chlorination, Water treatment, Trihalomethanes, Turbidity, Climate variability

Citation Formats

Neil, Chelsea W., Zhao, Yingying, Zhao, Amy, Neal, Jill, Meyer, Maria, and Yang, Y. Jeffrey. Trihalomethane precursor reactivity changes in drinking water treatment unit processes during a storm event. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.2166/ws.2019.089.
Neil, Chelsea W., Zhao, Yingying, Zhao, Amy, Neal, Jill, Meyer, Maria, & Yang, Y. Jeffrey. Trihalomethane precursor reactivity changes in drinking water treatment unit processes during a storm event. United States. doi:10.2166/ws.2019.089.
Neil, Chelsea W., Zhao, Yingying, Zhao, Amy, Neal, Jill, Meyer, Maria, and Yang, Y. Jeffrey. Mon . "Trihalomethane precursor reactivity changes in drinking water treatment unit processes during a storm event". United States. doi:10.2166/ws.2019.089.
@article{osti_1544714,
title = {Trihalomethane precursor reactivity changes in drinking water treatment unit processes during a storm event},
author = {Neil, Chelsea W. and Zhao, Yingying and Zhao, Amy and Neal, Jill and Meyer, Maria and Yang, Y. Jeffrey},
abstractNote = {Source water quality can significantly impact the efficacy of water treatment unit processes and the formation of chlorinated and brominated trihalomethanes (THMs). Current water treatment plant performance models may not accurately capture how source water quality variations, such as organic matter variability, can impact treatment unit processes. To investigate these impacts, a field study was conducted wherein water samples were collected along the treatment train for 72 hours during a storm event. Systematic sampling and detailed analyses of water quality parameters, including non-purgeable organic carbon (NPOC), UV absorbance, and THM concentrations, as well as chlorine spiking experiments, reveal how the THM formation potential changes in response to treatment unit processes. Results show that the NPOC remaining after treatment has an increased reactivity towards forming THMs, and that brominated THMs form more readily than chlorinated counterparts in a competitive reaction. Thus both the reactivity and quantity of THM precursors must be considered to maintain compliance with drinking water standards, a finding that should be incorporated into the development of model-assisted treatment operation and optimization. Advanced granular activated carbon (GAC) treatment beyond conventional coagulation–flocculation–sedimentation processes may also be necessary to remove the surge loading of THM-formation precursors during a storm event.},
doi = {10.2166/ws.2019.089},
journal = {Water Supply},
number = 7,
volume = 19,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {6}
}

Journal Article:
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Works referenced in this record:

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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Measurement of THM and Precursor Concentrations Revisited: The Effect of Bromide Ion
    journal, January 1993


    Percutaneous Absorption of Trihalomethanes, Haloacetic Acids, and Haloketones
    journal, October 2002

    • Xu, Xu; Mariano, Thomas M.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.
    • Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Vol. 184, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1006/taap.2002.9494

    Characterization of natural organic matter (NOM) derived from sewage sludge compost. Part 1: chemical and spectroscopic properties
    journal, March 2005


    Comparison of seven kinds of drinking water treatment processes to enhance organic material removal: A pilot test
    journal, August 2007


    Chlorination and chloramination of high-bromide natural water: DBPs species transformation
    journal, January 2013


    Reactivity of natural organic matter with aqueous chlorine and bromine
    journal, March 2004


    Comparison of disinfection byproduct formation from chlorine and alternative disinfectants
    journal, April 2007


    Extreme weather events: Should drinking water quality management systems adapt to changing risk profiles?
    journal, November 2015


    Fluctuations of Dissolved Organic Matter in River Used for Drinking Water and Impacts on Conventional Treatment Plant Performance
    journal, June 2005

    • Volk, Christian; Kaplan, Louis A.; Robinson, Jeff
    • Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 39, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.1021/es040480k

    Water Chlorination: Essential Process or Cancer Hazard?
    journal, January 1995

    • Bull, Richard J.; Birnbaum, Linda; Cantor, Kenneth P.
    • Toxicological Sciences, Vol. 28, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1093/toxsci/28.2.155

    Drinking Water Source and Chlorination Byproducts II. Risk of Colon and Rectal Cancers
    journal, January 1998


    The formation and control of emerging disinfection by-products of health concern
    journal, October 2009

    • Krasner, Stuart W.
    • Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 367, Issue 1904
    • DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2009.0108

    Enhancing climate adaptation capacity for drinking water treatment facilities
    journal, January 2016

    • Levine, Audrey D.; Yang, Y. Jeffrey; Goodrich, James A.
    • Journal of Water and Climate Change, Vol. 7, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.2166/wcc.2016.011

    Effect of increasing bromide concentration on toxicity in treated drinking water
    journal, November 2015

    • Sawade, Emma; Fabris, Rolando; Humpage, Andrew
    • Journal of Water and Health, Vol. 14, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.2166/wh.2015.127