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Title: Search for Tensor, Vector, and Scalar Polarizations in the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background

Abstract

The detection of gravitational waves with Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo has enabled new tests of general relativity, including direct study of the polarization of gravitational waves. Although general relativity allows for only two tensor gravitational-wave polarizations, general metric theories can additionally predict two vector and two scalar polarizations. The polarization of gravitational waves is encoded in the spectral shape of the stochastic gravitational-wave background, formed by the superposition of cosmological and individually unresolved astrophysical sources. Using data recorded by Advanced LIGO during its first observing run, we search for a stochastic background of generically polarized gravitational waves. We determine no evidence for a background of any polarization, and place the first direct bounds on the contributions of vector and scalar polarizations to the stochastic background. Under log-uniform priors for the energy in each polarization, we limit the energy densities of tensor, vector, and scalar modes at 95% credibility to Ω$$^{T}_{0}$$ < 5.58 × 10 -8, Ω$$^{V}_{0}$$ < 6.35 × 10 -8, and Ω$$^{S}_{0}$$ < 1.08 × 10 -7 at a reference frequency f 0 = 25 Hz.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Contributing Org.:
LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1544277
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 120; Journal Issue: 20; Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9007
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS

Citation Formats

Abbott, B. P., Abbott, R., Abbott, T. D., Acernese, F., Ackley, K., Adams, C., Adams, T., Addesso, P., Adhikari, R. X., Adya, V. B., Affeldt, C., Afrough, M., Agarwal, B., Agathos, M., Agatsuma, K., Aggarwal, N., Aguiar, O. D., Aiello, L., Ain, A., Ajith, P., Allen, B., Allen, G., Allocca, A., Altin, P. A., Amato, A., Ananyeva, A., Anderson, S. B., Anderson, W. G., Angelova, S. V., Antier, S., Appert, S., Arai, K., Araya, M. C., Areeda, J. S., Arnaud, N., Ascenzi, S., Ashton, G., Ast, M., Aston, S. M., Astone, P., Atallah, D. V., Aufmuth, P., Aulbert, C., AultONeal, K., Austin, C., Avila-Alvarez, A., Babak, S., Bacon, P., Bader, M. K. M., Bae, S., Baker, P. T., Baldaccini, F., Ballardin, G., Ballmer, S. W., Banagiri, S., Barayoga, J. C., Barclay, S. E., Barish, B. C., Barker, D., Barkett, K., Barone, F., Barr, B., Barsotti, L., Barsuglia, M., Barta, D., Bartlett, J., Bartos, I., Bassiri, R., Basti, A., Batch, J. C., Bawaj, M., Bayley, J. C., Bazzan, M., Bécsy, B., Beer, C., Bejger, M., Belahcene, I., Bell, A. S., Berger, B. K., Bergmann, G., Bero, J. J., Berry, C. P. L., Bersanetti, D., Bertolini, A., Betzwieser, J., Bhagwat, S., Bhandare, R., Bilenko, I. A., Billingsley, G., Billman, C. R., Birch, J., Birney, R., Birnholtz, O., Biscans, S., Biscoveanu, S., Bisht, A., Bitossi, M., Biwer, C., Bizouard, M. A., Blackburn, J. K., Blackman, J., Blair, C. D., Blair, D. G., Blair, R. M., Bloemen, S., Bock, O., Bode, N., Boer, M., Bogaert, G., Bohe, A., Bondu, F., Bonilla, E., Bonnand, R., Boom, B. A., Bork, R., Boschi, V., Bose, S., Bossie, K., Bouffanais, Y., Bozzi, A., Bradaschia, C., Brady, P. R., Branchesi, M., Brau, J. E., Briant, T., Brillet, A., Brinkmann, M., Brisson, V., Brockill, P., Broida, J. E., Brooks, A. F., Brown, D. A., Brown, D. D., Brunett, S., Buchanan, C. C., Buikema, A., Bulik, T., Bulten, H. J., Buonanno, A., Buskulic, D., Buy, C., Byer, R. L., Cabero, M., Cadonati, L., Cagnoli, G., Cahillane, C., Calderón Bustillo, J., Callister, T. A., Calloni, E., Camp, J. B., Canepa, M., Canizares, P., Cannon, K. C., Cao, H., Cao, J., Capano, C. D., Capocasa, E., Carbognani, F., Caride, S., Carney, M. F., Diaz, J. Casanueva, Casentini, C., Caudill, S., Cavaglià, M., Cavalier, F., Cavalieri, R., Cella, G., Cepeda, C. B., Cerdá-Durán, P., Cerretani, G., Cesarini, E., Chamberlin, S. J., Chan, M., Chao, S., Charlton, P., Chase, E., Chassande-Mottin, E., Chatterjee, D., Cheeseboro, B. D., Chen, H. Y., Chen, X., Chen, Y., Cheng, H. -P., Chia, H., Chincarini, A., Chiummo, A., Chmiel, T., Cho, H. S., Cho, M., Chow, J. H., Christensen, N., Chu, Q., Chua, A. J. K., Chua, S., Chung, A. K. W., Chung, S., Ciani, G., Ciolfi, R., Cirelli, C. E., Cirone, A., Clara, F., Clark, J. A., Clearwater, P., Cleva, F., Cocchieri, C., Coccia, E., Cohadon, P. -F., Cohen, D., Colla, A., Collette, C. G., Cominsky, L. R., Constancio, M., Conti, L., Cooper, S. J., Corban, P., Corbitt, T. R., Cordero-Carrión, I., Corley, K. R., Cornish, N., Corsi, A., Cortese, S., Costa, C. A., Coughlin, E., Coughlin, M. W., Coughlin, S. B., Coulon, J. -P., Countryman, S. T., Couvares, P., Covas, P. B., Cowan, E. E., Coward, D. M., Cowart, M. J., Coyne, D. C., Coyne, R., Creighton, J. D. E., Creighton, T. D., Cripe, J., Crowder, S. G., Cullen, T. J., Cumming, A., Cunningham, L., Cuoco, E., Canton, T. Dal, Dálya, G., Danilishin, S. L., D’Antonio, S., Danzmann, K., Dasgupta, A., Da Silva Costa, C. F., Dattilo, V., Dave, I., Davier, M., Davis, D., Daw, E. J., Day, B., De, S., DeBra, D., Degallaix, J., De Laurentis, M., Deléglise, S., Del Pozzo, W., Demos, N., Denker, T., Dent, T., De Pietri, R., Dergachev, V., De Rosa, R., DeRosa, R. T., De Rossi, C., DeSalvo, R., de Varona, O., Devenson, J., Dhurandhar, S., Díaz, M. C., Di Fiore, L., Di Giovanni, M., Di Girolamo, T., Di Lieto, A., Di Pace, S., Di Palma, I., Di Renzo, F., Doctor, Z., Dolique, V., Donovan, F., Dooley, K. L., Doravari, S., Dorrington, I., Douglas, R., Dovale Álvarez, M., Downes, T. P., Drago, M., Dreissigacker, C., Driggers, J. C., Du, Z., Ducrot, M., Dupej, P., Dwyer, S. E., Edo, T. B., Edwards, M. C., Effler, A., Eggenstein, H. -B., Ehrens, P., Eichholz, J., Eikenberry, S. S., Eisenstein, R. A., Essick, R. C., Estevez, D., Etienne, Z. B., Etzel, T., Evans, M., Evans, T. M., Factourovich, M., Fafone, V., Fair, H., Fairhurst, S., Fan, X., Farinon, S., Farr, B., Farr, W. M., Fauchon-Jones, E. J., Favata, M., Fays, M., Fee, C., Fehrmann, H., Feicht, J., Fejer, M. M., Fernandez-Galiana, A., Ferrante, I., Ferreira, E. C., Ferrini, F., Fidecaro, F., Finstad, D., Fiori, I., Fiorucci, D., Fishbach, M., Fisher, R. P., Fitz-Axen, M., Flaminio, R., Fletcher, M., Fong, H., Font, J. A., Forsyth, P. W. F., Forsyth, S. S., Fournier, J. -D., Frasca, S., Frasconi, F., Frei, Z., Freise, A., Frey, R., Frey, V., Fries, E. M., Fritschel, P., Frolov, V. V., Fulda, P., Fyffe, M., Gabbard, H., Gadre, B. U., Gaebel, S. M., Gair, J. R., Gammaitoni, L., Ganija, M. R., Gaonkar, S. G., Garcia-Quiros, C., Garufi, F., Gateley, B., Gaudio, S., Gaur, G., Gayathri, V., Gehrels, N., Gemme, G., Genin, E., Gennai, A., George, D., George, J., Gergely, L., Germain, V., Ghonge, S., Ghosh, Abhirup, Ghosh, Archisman, Ghosh, S., Giaime, J. A., Giardina, K. D., Giazotto, A., Gill, K., Glover, L., Goetz, E., Goetz, R., Gomes, S., Goncharov, B., González, G., Gonzalez Castro, J. M., Gopakumar, A., Gorodetsky, M. L., Gossan, S. E., Gosselin, M., Gouaty, R., Grado, A., Graef, C., Granata, M., Grant, A., Gras, S., Gray, C., Greco, G., Green, A. C., Gretarsson, E. M., Groot, P., Grote, H., Grunewald, S., Gruning, P., Guidi, G. M., Guo, X., Gupta, A., Gupta, M. K., Gushwa, K. E., Gustafson, E. K., Gustafson, R., Halim, O., Hall, B. R., Hall, E. D., Hamilton, E. Z., Hammond, G., Haney, M., Hanke, M. M., Hanks, J., Hanna, C., Hannam, M. D., Hannuksela, O. A., Hanson, J., Hardwick, T., Harms, J., Harry, G. M., Harry, I. W., Hart, M. J., Haster, C. -J., Haughian, K., Healy, J., Heidmann, A., Heintze, M. C., Heitmann, H., Hello, P., Hemming, G., Hendry, M., Heng, I. S., Hennig, J., Heptonstall, A. W., Heurs, M., Hild, S., Hinderer, T., Hoak, D., Hofman, D., Holt, K., Holz, D. E., Hopkins, P., Horst, C., Hough, J., Houston, E. A., Howell, E. J., Hreibi, A., Hu, Y. M., Huerta, E. A., Huet, D., Hughey, B., Husa, S., Huttner, S. H., Huynh-Dinh, T., Indik, N., Inta, R., Intini, G., Isa, H. N., Isac, J. -M., Isi, M., Iyer, B. R., Izumi, K., Jacqmin, T., Jani, K., Jaranowski, P., Jawahar, S., Jiménez-Forteza, F., Johnson, W. W., Jones, D. I., Jones, R., Jonker, R. J. G., Ju, L., Junker, J., Kalaghatgi, C. V., Kalogera, V., Kamai, B., Kandhasamy, S., Kang, G., Kanner, J. B., Kapadia, S. J., Karki, S., Karvinen, K. S., Kasprzack, M., Katolik, M., Katsavounidis, E., Katzman, W., Kaufer, S., Kawabe, K., Kéfélian, F., Keitel, D., Kemball, A. J., Kennedy, R., Kent, C., Key, J. S., Khalili, F. Y., Khan, I., Khan, S., Khan, Z., Khazanov, E. A., Kijbunchoo, N., Kim, Chunglee, Kim, J. C., Kim, K., Kim, W., Kim, W. S., Kim, Y. -M., Kimbrell, S. J., King, E. J., King, P. J., Kinley-Hanlon, M., Kirchhoff, R., Kissel, J. S., Kleybolte, L., Klimenko, S., Knowles, T. D., Koch, P., Koehlenbeck, S. M., Koley, S., Kondrashov, V., Kontos, A., Korobko, M., Korth, W. Z., Kowalska, I., Kozak, D. B., Krämer, C., Kringel, V., Królak, A., Kuehn, G., Kumar, P., Kumar, R., Kumar, S., Kuo, L., Kutynia, A., Kwang, S., Lackey, B. D., Lai, K. H., Landry, M., Lang, R. N., Lange, J., Lantz, B., Lanza, R. K., Lartaux-Vollard, A., Lasky, P. D., Laxen, M., Lazzarini, A., Lazzaro, C., Leaci, P., Leavey, S., Lee, C. H., Lee, H. K., Lee, H. M., Lee, H. W., Lee, K., Lehmann, J., Lenon, A., Leonardi, M., Leroy, N., Letendre, N., Levin, Y., Li, T. G. F., Linker, S. D., Littenberg, T. B., Liu, J., Lo, R. K. L., Lockerbie, N. A., London, L. T., Lord, J. E., Lorenzini, M., Loriette, V., Lormand, M., Losurdo, G., Lough, J. D., Lousto, C. O., Lovelace, G., Lück, H., Lumaca, D., Lundgren, A. P., Lynch, R., Ma, Y., Macas, R., Macfoy, S., Machenschalk, B., MacInnis, M., Macleod, D. M., Magaña Hernandez, I., Magaña-Sandoval, F., Magaña Zertuche, L., Magee, R. M., Majorana, E., Maksimovic, I., Man, N., Mandic, V., Mangano, V., Mansell, G. L., Manske, M., Mantovani, M., Marchesoni, F., Marion, F., Márka, S., Márka, Z., Markakis, C., Markosyan, A. S., Markowitz, A., Maros, E., Marquina, A., Martelli, F., Martellini, L., Martin, I. W., Martin, R. M., Martynov, D. V., Mason, K., Massera, E., Masserot, A., Massinger, T. J., Masso-Reid, M., Mastrogiovanni, S., Matas, A., Matichard, F., Matone, L., Mavalvala, N., Mazumder, N., McCarthy, R., McClelland, D. E., McCormick, S., McCuller, L., McGuire, S. C., McIntyre, G., McIver, J., McManus, D. J., McNeill, L., McRae, T., McWilliams, S. T., Meacher, D., Meadors, G. D., Mehmet, M., Meidam, J., Mejuto-Villa, E., Melatos, A., Mendell, G., Mercer, R. A., Merilh, E. L., Merzougui, M., Meshkov, S., Messenger, C., Messick, C., Metzdorff, R., Meyers, P. M., Miao, H., Michel, C., Middleton, H., Mikhailov, E. E., Milano, L., Miller, A. L., Miller, B. B., Miller, J., Millhouse, M., Milovich-Goff, M. C., Minazzoli, O., Minenkov, Y., Ming, J., Mishra, C., Mitra, S., Mitrofanov, V. P., Mitselmakher, G., Mittleman, R., Moffa, D., Moggi, A., Mogushi, K., Mohan, M., Mohapatra, S. R. P., Montani, M., Moore, C. J., Moraru, D., Moreno, G., Morriss, S. R., Mours, B., Mow-Lowry, C. M., Mueller, G., Muir, A. W., Mukherjee, Arunava, Mukherjee, D., Mukherjee, S., Mukund, N., Mullavey, A., Munch, J., Muñiz, E. A., Muratore, M., Murray, P. G., Napier, K., Nardecchia, I., Naticchioni, L., Nayak, R. K., Neilson, J., Nelemans, G., Nelson, T. J. N., Nery, M., Neunzert, A., Nevin, L., Newport, J. M., Newton, G., Ng, K. K. Y., Nguyen, T. T., Nichols, D., Nielsen, A. B., Nissanke, S., Nitz, A., Noack, A., Nocera, F., Nolting, D., North, C., Nuttall, L. K., Oberling, J., O’Dea, G. D., Ogin, G. H., Oh, J. J., Oh, S. H., Ohme, F., Okada, M. A., Oliver, M., Oppermann, P., Oram, Richard J., O’Reilly, B., Ormiston, R., Ortega, L. F., O’Shaughnessy, R., Ossokine, S., Ottaway, D. J., Overmier, H., Owen, B. J., Pace, A. E., Page, J., Page, M. A., Pai, A., Pai, S. A., Palamos, J. R., Palashov, O., Palomba, C., Pal-Singh, A., Pan, Howard, Pan, Huang-Wei, Pang, B., Pang, P. T. H., Pankow, C., Pannarale, F., Pant, B. C., Paoletti, F., Paoli, A., Papa, M. A., Parida, A., Parker, W., Pascucci, D., Pasqualetti, A., Passaquieti, R., Passuello, D., Patil, M., Patricelli, B., Pearlstone, B. L., Pedraza, M., Pedurand, R., Pekowsky, L., Pele, A., Penn, S., Perez, C. J., Perreca, A., Perri, L. M., Pfeiffer, H. P., Phelps, M., Piccinni, O. J., Pichot, M., Piergiovanni, F., Pierro, V., Pillant, G., Pinard, L., Pinto, I. M., Pirello, M., Pitkin, M., Poe, M., Poggiani, R., Popolizio, P., Porter, E. K., Post, A., Powell, J., Prasad, J., Pratt, J. W. W., Pratten, G., Predoi, V., Prestegard, T., Prijatelj, M., Principe, M., Privitera, S., Prodi, G. A., Prokhorov, L. G., Puncken, O., Punturo, M., Puppo, P., Pürrer, M., Qi, H., Quetschke, V., Quintero, E. A., Quitzow-James, R., Raab, F. J., Rabeling, D. S., Radkins, H., Raffai, P., Raja, S., Rajan, C., Rajbhandari, B., Rakhmanov, M., Ramirez, K. E., Ramos-Buades, A., Rapagnani, P., Raymond, V., Razzano, M., Read, J., Regimbau, T., Rei, L., Reid, S., Reitze, D. H., Ren, W., Reyes, S. D., Ricci, F., Ricker, P. M., Rieger, S., Riles, K., Rizzo, M., Robertson, N. A., Robie, R., Robinet, F., Rocchi, A., Rolland, L., Rollins, J. G., Roma, V. J., Romano, J. D., Romano, R., Romel, C. L., Romie, J. H., Rosińska, D., Ross, M. P., Rowan, S., Rüdiger, A., Ruggi, P., Rutins, G., Ryan, K., Sachdev, S., Sadecki, T., Sadeghian, L., Sakellariadou, M., Salconi, L., Saleem, M., Salemi, F., Samajdar, A., Sammut, L., Sampson, L. M., Sanchez, E. J., Sanchez, L. E., Sanchis-Gual, N., Sandberg, V., Sanders, J. R., Sassolas, B., Saulson, P. R., Sauter, O., Savage, R. L., Sawadsky, A., Schale, P., Scheel, M., Scheuer, J., Schmidt, J., Schmidt, P., Schnabel, R., Schofield, R. M. S., Schönbeck, A., Schreiber, E., Schuette, D., Schulte, B. W., Schutz, B. F., Schwalbe, S. G., Scott, J., Scott, S. M., Seidel, E., Sellers, D., Sengupta, A. S., Sentenac, D., Sequino, V., Sergeev, A., Shaddock, D. A., Shaffer, T. J., Shah, A. A., Shahriar, M. S., Shaner, M. 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V., Toland, K., Tonelli, M., Tornasi, Z., Torres-Forné, A., Torrie, C. I., Töyrä, D., Travasso, F., Traylor, G., Trinastic, J., Tringali, M. C., Trozzo, L., Tsang, K. W., Tse, M., Tso, R., Tsukada, L., Tsuna, D., Tuyenbayev, D., Ueno, K., Ugolini, D., Unnikrishnan, C. S., Urban, A. L., Usman, S. A., Vahlbruch, H., Vajente, G., Valdes, G., van Bakel, N., van Beuzekom, M., van den Brand, J. F. J., Van Den Broeck, C., Vander-Hyde, D. C., van der Schaaf, L., van Heijningen, J. V., van Veggel, A. A., Vardaro, M., Varma, V., Vass, S., Vasúth, M., Vecchio, A., Vedovato, G., Veitch, J., Veitch, P. J., Venkateswara, K., Venugopalan, G., Verkindt, D., Vetrano, F., Viceré, A., Viets, A. D., Vinciguerra, S., Vine, D. J., Vinet, J. -Y., Vitale, S., Vo, T., Vocca, H., Vorvick, C., Vyatchanin, S. P., Wade, A. R., Wade, L. E., Wade, M., Walet, R., Walker, M., Wallace, L., Walsh, S., Wang, G., Wang, H., Wang, J. Z., Wang, W. H., Wang, Y. F., Ward, R. 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Abbott, B. P., Abbott, R., Abbott, T. D., Acernese, F., Ackley, K., Adams, C., Adams, T., Addesso, P., Adhikari, R. X., Adya, V. B., Affeldt, C., Afrough, M., Agarwal, B., Agathos, M., Agatsuma, K., Aggarwal, N., Aguiar, O. D., Aiello, L., Ain, A., Ajith, P., Allen, B., Allen, G., Allocca, A., Altin, P. A., Amato, A., Ananyeva, A., Anderson, S. B., Anderson, W. G., Angelova, S. V., Antier, S., Appert, S., Arai, K., Araya, M. C., Areeda, J. S., Arnaud, N., Ascenzi, S., Ashton, G., Ast, M., Aston, S. M., Astone, P., Atallah, D. V., Aufmuth, P., Aulbert, C., AultONeal, K., Austin, C., Avila-Alvarez, A., Babak, S., Bacon, P., Bader, M. K. M., Bae, S., Baker, P. T., Baldaccini, F., Ballardin, G., Ballmer, S. W., Banagiri, S., Barayoga, J. C., Barclay, S. E., Barish, B. C., Barker, D., Barkett, K., Barone, F., Barr, B., Barsotti, L., Barsuglia, M., Barta, D., Bartlett, J., Bartos, I., Bassiri, R., Basti, A., Batch, J. C., Bawaj, M., Bayley, J. C., Bazzan, M., Bécsy, B., Beer, C., Bejger, M., Belahcene, I., Bell, A. S., Berger, B. K., Bergmann, G., Bero, J. J., Berry, C. P. L., Bersanetti, D., Bertolini, A., Betzwieser, J., Bhagwat, S., Bhandare, R., Bilenko, I. A., Billingsley, G., Billman, C. R., Birch, J., Birney, R., Birnholtz, O., Biscans, S., Biscoveanu, S., Bisht, A., Bitossi, M., Biwer, C., Bizouard, M. A., Blackburn, J. K., Blackman, J., Blair, C. D., Blair, D. G., Blair, R. M., Bloemen, S., Bock, O., Bode, N., Boer, M., Bogaert, G., Bohe, A., Bondu, F., Bonilla, E., Bonnand, R., Boom, B. A., Bork, R., Boschi, V., Bose, S., Bossie, K., Bouffanais, Y., Bozzi, A., Bradaschia, C., Brady, P. R., Branchesi, M., Brau, J. E., Briant, T., Brillet, A., Brinkmann, M., Brisson, V., Brockill, P., Broida, J. E., Brooks, A. F., Brown, D. A., Brown, D. D., Brunett, S., Buchanan, C. C., Buikema, A., Bulik, T., Bulten, H. J., Buonanno, A., Buskulic, D., Buy, C., Byer, R. 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V., Toland, K., Tonelli, M., Tornasi, Z., Torres-Forné, A., Torrie, C. I., Töyrä, D., Travasso, F., Traylor, G., Trinastic, J., Tringali, M. C., Trozzo, L., Tsang, K. W., Tse, M., Tso, R., Tsukada, L., Tsuna, D., Tuyenbayev, D., Ueno, K., Ugolini, D., Unnikrishnan, C. S., Urban, A. L., Usman, S. A., Vahlbruch, H., Vajente, G., Valdes, G., van Bakel, N., van Beuzekom, M., van den Brand, J. F. J., Van Den Broeck, C., Vander-Hyde, D. C., van der Schaaf, L., van Heijningen, J. V., van Veggel, A. A., Vardaro, M., Varma, V., Vass, S., Vasúth, M., Vecchio, A., Vedovato, G., Veitch, J., Veitch, P. J., Venkateswara, K., Venugopalan, G., Verkindt, D., Vetrano, F., Viceré, A., Viets, A. D., Vinciguerra, S., Vine, D. J., Vinet, J. -Y., Vitale, S., Vo, T., Vocca, H., Vorvick, C., Vyatchanin, S. P., Wade, A. R., Wade, L. E., Wade, M., Walet, R., Walker, M., Wallace, L., Walsh, S., Wang, G., Wang, H., Wang, J. Z., Wang, W. H., Wang, Y. F., Ward, R. L., Warner, J., Was, M., Watchi, J., Weaver, B., Wei, L. -W., Weinert, M., Weinstein, A. J., Weiss, R., Wen, L., Wessel, E. K., Weßels, P., Westerweck, J., Westphal, T., Wette, K., Whelan, J. T., Whiting, B. F., Whittle, C., Wilken, D., Williams, D., Williams, R. D., Williamson, A. R., Willis, J. L., Willke, B., Wimmer, M. H., Winkler, W., Wipf, C. C., Wittel, H., Woan, G., Woehler, J., Wofford, J., Wong, K. W. K., Worden, J., Wright, J. L., Wu, D. S., Wysocki, D. M., Xiao, S., Yamamoto, H., Yancey, C. C., Yang, L., Yap, M. J., Yazback, M., Yu, Hang, Yu, Haocun, Yvert, M., Zadrożny, A., Zanolin, M., Zelenova, T., Zendri, J. -P., Zevin, M., Zhang, L., Zhang, M., Zhang, T., Zhang, Y. -H., Zhao, C., Zhou, M., Zhou, Z., Zhu, S. J., Zhu, X. J., Zucker, M. E., and Zweizig, J. Wed . "Search for Tensor, Vector, and Scalar Polarizations in the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.201102. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1544277.
@article{osti_1544277,
title = {Search for Tensor, Vector, and Scalar Polarizations in the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background},
author = {Abbott, B. P. and Abbott, R. and Abbott, T. D. and Acernese, F. and Ackley, K. and Adams, C. and Adams, T. and Addesso, P. and Adhikari, R. X. and Adya, V. B. and Affeldt, C. and Afrough, M. and Agarwal, B. and Agathos, M. and Agatsuma, K. and Aggarwal, N. and Aguiar, O. D. and Aiello, L. and Ain, A. and Ajith, P. and Allen, B. and Allen, G. and Allocca, A. and Altin, P. A. and Amato, A. and Ananyeva, A. and Anderson, S. B. and Anderson, W. G. and Angelova, S. V. and Antier, S. and Appert, S. and Arai, K. and Araya, M. C. and Areeda, J. S. and Arnaud, N. and Ascenzi, S. and Ashton, G. and Ast, M. and Aston, S. M. and Astone, P. and Atallah, D. V. and Aufmuth, P. and Aulbert, C. and AultONeal, K. and Austin, C. and Avila-Alvarez, A. and Babak, S. and Bacon, P. and Bader, M. K. M. and Bae, S. and Baker, P. T. and Baldaccini, F. and Ballardin, G. and Ballmer, S. W. and Banagiri, S. and Barayoga, J. C. and Barclay, S. E. and Barish, B. 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abstractNote = {The detection of gravitational waves with Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo has enabled new tests of general relativity, including direct study of the polarization of gravitational waves. Although general relativity allows for only two tensor gravitational-wave polarizations, general metric theories can additionally predict two vector and two scalar polarizations. The polarization of gravitational waves is encoded in the spectral shape of the stochastic gravitational-wave background, formed by the superposition of cosmological and individually unresolved astrophysical sources. Using data recorded by Advanced LIGO during its first observing run, we search for a stochastic background of generically polarized gravitational waves. We determine no evidence for a background of any polarization, and place the first direct bounds on the contributions of vector and scalar polarizations to the stochastic background. Under log-uniform priors for the energy in each polarization, we limit the energy densities of tensor, vector, and scalar modes at 95% credibility to Ω$^{T}_{0}$ < 5.58 × 10-8, Ω$^{V}_{0}$ < 6.35 × 10-8, and Ω$^{S}_{0}$ < 1.08 × 10-7 at a reference frequency f0 = 25 Hz.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.201102},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
number = 20,
volume = 120,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {5}
}

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