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Title: Main-ion intrinsic toroidal rotation across the ITG/TEM boundary in DIII-D discharges during ohmic and electron cyclotron heating

Abstract

Direct measurements of deuterium main-ion toroidal rotation spanning the linear ohmic to saturated ohmic confinement (LOC-SOC) regime and with additional electron cyclotron heating (ECH) are proposed and compared with the more commonly measured impurity (carbon) ion rotation in DIII-D. Main ions carry the bulk of the plasma toroidal momentum, and hence, the shape of the main-ion rotation is more relevant to the study of angular momentum transport in tokamaks. Both in the LOC regime and with ECH, the main-ion toroidal rotation frequency is flat across the profile from the sawtooth region to the plasma separatrix. However, the impurity rotation profile possesses a rotation gradient, with the rotation frequency being lower near the plasma edge, implying a momentum pinch or negative residual stress inferred from the impurity rotation that differs from the main-ion rotation. In the SOC regime, both the main-ion and impurity rotation profiles develop a deeply hollow feature near the midradius while maintaining the offset in the edge rotation, both implying a positive core residual stress. In the radial region where the rotation gradient changes most dramatically, turbulence measurements show that density fluctuations near the trapped electron mode (TEM) scale are higher when the rotation profile is flat andmore » drop significantly when the plasma density is raised and the rotation profile hollows, consistent with instabilities damped by collisions. Linear initial value gyrokinetic simulations with GYRO indicate that the transition from LOC-SOC in DIII-D occurs as TEMs are replaced by ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven modes from the outer radii inwards as the plasma collisionality increases, Zeff decreases, and the power flow through the ion channel progressively increases due to the electron-ion energy exchange. Gyrofluid modeling with trap gyro-Landau fluid (TGLF) successfully reproduces the plasma profiles at key times in the discharge and in time dependent simulations with predictive TRANSP. TGLF indicates that in the LOC and SOC regimes as well as with ECH, subdominant modes are present and that the plasma is not in a pure TEM or ITG binary state, but rather a more subtle mixed state. Predictions of the main-ion rotation profiles are observed with global nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations using GTS and reveal that the flat rotation is due to oscillatory variation of the turbulent residual stress across the profile, whereas the deeply hollow rotation profile is due to a larger-scale, dipole-like stress profile. In these cases, the predicted and observed main-ion rotation profile is consistent with the balance of turbulent residual stress and momentum diffusion.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [3];  [4]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [1];  [5]; ORCiD logo [1];  [6]
  1. Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States). Princeton Plasma Physics Lab
  2. General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)
  3. Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
  4. Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States)
  5. Univ. de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal)
  6. Univ. of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Washington D.C. (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Fusion Energy Sciences (FES)
OSTI Identifier:
1542941
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1507812; OSTI ID: 1508619; OSTI ID: 1565960
Grant/Contract Number:  
FG03-97ER54415; AC02-09CH11466; FC02-04ER54698; FG02-08ER54999; FG02- 08ER54984; FG02-04ER54235; FG02-07ER54917; FG02-08ER54984
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physics of Plasmas
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 26; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 1070-664X
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY

Citation Formats

Grierson, B. A., Chrystal, C., Haskey, S. R., Wang, W. X., Rhodes, T. L., McKee, G. R., Barada, K., Yuan, X., Nave, M. F. F., Ashourvan, A., and Holland, C. Main-ion intrinsic toroidal rotation across the ITG/TEM boundary in DIII-D discharges during ohmic and electron cyclotron heating. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1063/1.5090505.
Grierson, B. A., Chrystal, C., Haskey, S. R., Wang, W. X., Rhodes, T. L., McKee, G. R., Barada, K., Yuan, X., Nave, M. F. F., Ashourvan, A., & Holland, C. Main-ion intrinsic toroidal rotation across the ITG/TEM boundary in DIII-D discharges during ohmic and electron cyclotron heating. United States. doi:10.1063/1.5090505.
Grierson, B. A., Chrystal, C., Haskey, S. R., Wang, W. X., Rhodes, T. L., McKee, G. R., Barada, K., Yuan, X., Nave, M. F. F., Ashourvan, A., and Holland, C. Fri . "Main-ion intrinsic toroidal rotation across the ITG/TEM boundary in DIII-D discharges during ohmic and electron cyclotron heating". United States. doi:10.1063/1.5090505. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1542941.
@article{osti_1542941,
title = {Main-ion intrinsic toroidal rotation across the ITG/TEM boundary in DIII-D discharges during ohmic and electron cyclotron heating},
author = {Grierson, B. A. and Chrystal, C. and Haskey, S. R. and Wang, W. X. and Rhodes, T. L. and McKee, G. R. and Barada, K. and Yuan, X. and Nave, M. F. F. and Ashourvan, A. and Holland, C.},
abstractNote = {Direct measurements of deuterium main-ion toroidal rotation spanning the linear ohmic to saturated ohmic confinement (LOC-SOC) regime and with additional electron cyclotron heating (ECH) are proposed and compared with the more commonly measured impurity (carbon) ion rotation in DIII-D. Main ions carry the bulk of the plasma toroidal momentum, and hence, the shape of the main-ion rotation is more relevant to the study of angular momentum transport in tokamaks. Both in the LOC regime and with ECH, the main-ion toroidal rotation frequency is flat across the profile from the sawtooth region to the plasma separatrix. However, the impurity rotation profile possesses a rotation gradient, with the rotation frequency being lower near the plasma edge, implying a momentum pinch or negative residual stress inferred from the impurity rotation that differs from the main-ion rotation. In the SOC regime, both the main-ion and impurity rotation profiles develop a deeply hollow feature near the midradius while maintaining the offset in the edge rotation, both implying a positive core residual stress. In the radial region where the rotation gradient changes most dramatically, turbulence measurements show that density fluctuations near the trapped electron mode (TEM) scale are higher when the rotation profile is flat and drop significantly when the plasma density is raised and the rotation profile hollows, consistent with instabilities damped by collisions. Linear initial value gyrokinetic simulations with GYRO indicate that the transition from LOC-SOC in DIII-D occurs as TEMs are replaced by ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven modes from the outer radii inwards as the plasma collisionality increases, Zeff decreases, and the power flow through the ion channel progressively increases due to the electron-ion energy exchange. Gyrofluid modeling with trap gyro-Landau fluid (TGLF) successfully reproduces the plasma profiles at key times in the discharge and in time dependent simulations with predictive TRANSP. TGLF indicates that in the LOC and SOC regimes as well as with ECH, subdominant modes are present and that the plasma is not in a pure TEM or ITG binary state, but rather a more subtle mixed state. Predictions of the main-ion rotation profiles are observed with global nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations using GTS and reveal that the flat rotation is due to oscillatory variation of the turbulent residual stress across the profile, whereas the deeply hollow rotation profile is due to a larger-scale, dipole-like stress profile. In these cases, the predicted and observed main-ion rotation profile is consistent with the balance of turbulent residual stress and momentum diffusion.},
doi = {10.1063/1.5090505},
journal = {Physics of Plasmas},
number = 4,
volume = 26,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {4}
}

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