skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Fundamental catalytic challenges to design improved biomass conversion technologies

Abstract

During the past ten years, there has been significant interest and investment in the study of catalytic conversion of biomass-derived feedstocks into renewable fuels and chemicals. In the United States, an estimated $25 billion has been spent by venture capitalists, industry, and government agencies during this period of time to commercialize “renewable technologies” including solar energy, wind power, batteries, and biofuels (e.g., cellulosic ethanol). Four societal factors are driving these investments including: (1) the increased price of crude oil; (2) concerns about global warming; (3) the desire to improve rural economies where biomass is produced, and; (4) national goals to become energy self-sufficient. Furthermore, underlying these efforts is the realization that lignocellulosic biomass is the only realistic, near-term and non-food-competitive source of renewable organic carbon. To this end, legislative efforts, such as the US Renewable Fuel Standards, have been implemented to create subsidies, tax credits, mandates, and loan guarantees to help bring renewable fuel technologies to market. However, the representative body of industrial efforts to this end has faced significant challenges, with several startup companies having commercialized biomass conversion technologies but having struggled to reach commercial scale; in fact, many of these companies have filed for bankruptcy. This situation ismore » likely due to the challenges associated with scaling up unproven pioneer processes, as well as neophyte investors not understanding the decade-long time frames and the sheer amount of funding that is often required to bring chemical process technologies to market. Nevertheless, several emerging catalytic technologies have either entered the market place, or are currently demonstrating their technologies in fully integrated pilot plants. Commercial and near commercial technologies for second generation biomass conversion technologies to-date include, among others: biomass-derived jet and diesel fuel from both waste vegetable oils and ethanol; small scale production of renewable jet and diesel from landfill gases via Fischer-Tropsch synthesis; catalytic conversion of carbohydrates into gasoline and aromatics; hydropyrolysis of biomass into gasoline and diesel, and; catalytic conversion of wood into aromatics. To be successful, biomass conversion technologies must ultimately be able to compete economically with petroleum technologies, which are already operating at large commercial scales and have been practiced for decades. To this end, various factors must be considered when evaluating the potential for new processes to compete with incumbent technologies; factors such as regional variations in feedstock quality and availability, government policy, subsidies and tax rates, and the proprietary positions of the ancillary technologies that might support the process. By any measure, however, a critical metric of the economic potential of a process is its efficiency with respect to the yield of products from raw materials, and this metric of performance is directly related to atom efficiency of the underlying chemical reactions. Therefore, while promising biomass conversion technologies continue to demonstrate progress towards commercialization, there remains an important need for the catalysis community to aid in this effort by: (1) designing more active, selective and stable catalysts, and (2) elucidating a more detailed understanding of the catalytic chemistries underlying these processes. Indeed, the study of catalytic biomass conversion has grown tremendously during the past decade; and new or emerging technologies that are in the laboratory stage have allowed for biomass to be converted into a wider variety of commodity chemicals and the full range of liquid fuels that are produced from petroleum. The objective of this perspective is to highlight some of the ongoing, fundamental challenges with respect to the catalytic conversion of biomass into renewable products, and to provide insight as to how the catalysis community can overcome several of these challenges. It is our belief that, as an international academic community of catalysis researchers, we can (and must) work together to address these challenges, and to drive progress toward the production of next-generation renewable chemicals and fuels from biomass.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1542787
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1635965
Grant/Contract Number:  
EE0006878; SC0018409; FC02-07ER64494
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Catalysis
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 369; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0021-9517
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
09 BIOMASS FUELS

Citation Formats

Walker, Theodore W., Motagamwala, Ali Hussain, Dumesic, James A., and Huber, George W.. Fundamental catalytic challenges to design improved biomass conversion technologies. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcat.2018.11.028.
Walker, Theodore W., Motagamwala, Ali Hussain, Dumesic, James A., & Huber, George W.. Fundamental catalytic challenges to design improved biomass conversion technologies. United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcat.2018.11.028
Walker, Theodore W., Motagamwala, Ali Hussain, Dumesic, James A., and Huber, George W.. Tue . "Fundamental catalytic challenges to design improved biomass conversion technologies". United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcat.2018.11.028. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1542787.
@article{osti_1542787,
title = {Fundamental catalytic challenges to design improved biomass conversion technologies},
author = {Walker, Theodore W. and Motagamwala, Ali Hussain and Dumesic, James A. and Huber, George W.},
abstractNote = {During the past ten years, there has been significant interest and investment in the study of catalytic conversion of biomass-derived feedstocks into renewable fuels and chemicals. In the United States, an estimated $25 billion has been spent by venture capitalists, industry, and government agencies during this period of time to commercialize “renewable technologies” including solar energy, wind power, batteries, and biofuels (e.g., cellulosic ethanol). Four societal factors are driving these investments including: (1) the increased price of crude oil; (2) concerns about global warming; (3) the desire to improve rural economies where biomass is produced, and; (4) national goals to become energy self-sufficient. Furthermore, underlying these efforts is the realization that lignocellulosic biomass is the only realistic, near-term and non-food-competitive source of renewable organic carbon. To this end, legislative efforts, such as the US Renewable Fuel Standards, have been implemented to create subsidies, tax credits, mandates, and loan guarantees to help bring renewable fuel technologies to market. However, the representative body of industrial efforts to this end has faced significant challenges, with several startup companies having commercialized biomass conversion technologies but having struggled to reach commercial scale; in fact, many of these companies have filed for bankruptcy. This situation is likely due to the challenges associated with scaling up unproven pioneer processes, as well as neophyte investors not understanding the decade-long time frames and the sheer amount of funding that is often required to bring chemical process technologies to market. Nevertheless, several emerging catalytic technologies have either entered the market place, or are currently demonstrating their technologies in fully integrated pilot plants. Commercial and near commercial technologies for second generation biomass conversion technologies to-date include, among others: biomass-derived jet and diesel fuel from both waste vegetable oils and ethanol; small scale production of renewable jet and diesel from landfill gases via Fischer-Tropsch synthesis; catalytic conversion of carbohydrates into gasoline and aromatics; hydropyrolysis of biomass into gasoline and diesel, and; catalytic conversion of wood into aromatics. To be successful, biomass conversion technologies must ultimately be able to compete economically with petroleum technologies, which are already operating at large commercial scales and have been practiced for decades. To this end, various factors must be considered when evaluating the potential for new processes to compete with incumbent technologies; factors such as regional variations in feedstock quality and availability, government policy, subsidies and tax rates, and the proprietary positions of the ancillary technologies that might support the process. By any measure, however, a critical metric of the economic potential of a process is its efficiency with respect to the yield of products from raw materials, and this metric of performance is directly related to atom efficiency of the underlying chemical reactions. Therefore, while promising biomass conversion technologies continue to demonstrate progress towards commercialization, there remains an important need for the catalysis community to aid in this effort by: (1) designing more active, selective and stable catalysts, and (2) elucidating a more detailed understanding of the catalytic chemistries underlying these processes. Indeed, the study of catalytic biomass conversion has grown tremendously during the past decade; and new or emerging technologies that are in the laboratory stage have allowed for biomass to be converted into a wider variety of commodity chemicals and the full range of liquid fuels that are produced from petroleum. The objective of this perspective is to highlight some of the ongoing, fundamental challenges with respect to the catalytic conversion of biomass into renewable products, and to provide insight as to how the catalysis community can overcome several of these challenges. It is our belief that, as an international academic community of catalysis researchers, we can (and must) work together to address these challenges, and to drive progress toward the production of next-generation renewable chemicals and fuels from biomass.},
doi = {10.1016/j.jcat.2018.11.028},
journal = {Journal of Catalysis},
number = C,
volume = 369,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {12}
}

Journal Article:

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 9 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Venture Capital and Cleantech: The wrong model for energy innovation
journal, March 2017


Catalytic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fine chemicals and fuels
journal, January 2011

  • Zhou, Chun-Hui; Xia, Xi; Lin, Chun-Xiang
  • Chemical Society Reviews, Vol. 40, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1039/c1cs15124j

Catalytic conversion of biomass to biofuels
journal, January 2010

  • Alonso, David Martin; Bond, Jesse Q.; Dumesic, James A.
  • Green Chemistry, Vol. 12, Issue 9, p. 1493-1513
  • DOI: 10.1039/c004654j

A roadmap for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to chemicals and fuels
journal, August 2012

  • Wettstein, Stephanie G.; Alonso, David Martin; Gürbüz, Elif I.
  • Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering, Vol. 1, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.coche.2012.04.002

Conversion of biomass platform molecules into fuel additives and liquid hydrocarbon fuels
journal, January 2014

  • Climent, Maria J.; Corma, Avelino; Iborra, Sara
  • Green Chemistry, Vol. 16, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1039/c3gc41492b

Carbon Footprint Analysis of Gasoline and Diesel from Forest Residues and Algae using Integrated Hydropyrolysis and Hydroconversion Plus Fischer–Tropsch (IH 2 Plus cool GTL)
journal, June 2018

  • Winjobi, Olumide; Tavakoli, Hossein; Klemetsrud, Bethany
  • ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, Vol. 6, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.8b02091

Synthesis of Transportation Fuels from Biomass: Chemistry, Catalysts, and Engineering
journal, September 2006

  • Huber, George W.; Iborra, Sara; Corma, Avelino
  • Chemical Reviews, Vol. 106, Issue 9, p. 4044-4098
  • DOI: 10.1021/cr068360d

Combustion properties of biomass
journal, March 1998


Liquid-Phase Catalytic Processing of Biomass-Derived Oxygenated Hydrocarbons to Fuels and Chemicals
journal, September 2007

  • Chheda, Juben N.; Huber, George W.; Dumesic, James A.
  • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 46, Issue 38, p. 7164-7183
  • DOI: 10.1002/anie.200604274

Pyrolysis of Wood/Biomass for Bio-oil: A Critical Review
journal, May 2006

  • Mohan, Dinesh; Pittman,, Charles U.; Steele, Philip H.
  • Energy & Fuels, Vol. 20, Issue 3, p. 848-889
  • DOI: 10.1021/ef0502397

Diffusion, adsorption and catalytic studies by gas chromatography
journal, February 1998

  • Katsanos, Nicholas A.; Thede, Richard; Roubani-Kalantzopoulou, Fani
  • Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 795, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1016/S0021-9673(97)00968-0

HPLC-analyses of plant biomass hydrolysis and fermentation solutions
journal, August 1984


Whole plant cell wall characterization using solution-state 2D NMR
journal, August 2012


The effect of lignin and inorganic species in biomass on pyrolysis oil yields, quality and stability
journal, June 2008


Kinetics of Levoglucosenone Isomerization
journal, December 2016

  • Krishna, Siddarth H.; Walker, Theodore W.; Dumesic, James A.
  • ChemSusChem, Vol. 10, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201601308

Kinetics of Aqueous Phase Dehydration of Xylose into Furfural Catalyzed by ZSM-5 Zeolite
journal, May 2009

  • O’Neill, Rebecca; Ahmad, Mohammad Najeeb; Vanoye, Laurent
  • Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, Vol. 48, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1021/ie801599k

Phase Modifiers Promote Efficient Production of Hydroxymethylfurfural from Fructose
journal, June 2006

  • Roman-Leshkov, Yuriy; Chheda, Juben N.; Dumesic, James A.
  • Science, Vol. 312, Issue 5782, p. 1933-1937
  • DOI: 10.1126/science.1126337

Reactions of lignin model compounds in ionic liquids
journal, September 2009


A kinetic study on the decomposition of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural into levulinic acid
journal, January 2006

  • Girisuta, B.; Janssen, L. P. B. M.; Heeres, H. J.
  • Green Chemistry, Vol. 8, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1039/b518176c

Hydrodeoxygenation of guaiacol as model compound for pyrolysis oil on transition metal phosphide hydroprocessing catalysts
journal, January 2011


Functionality and molecular weight distribution of red oak lignin before and after pyrolysis and hydrogenation
journal, January 2017

  • McClelland, Daniel J.; Motagamwala, Ali Hussain; Li, Yanding
  • Green Chemistry, Vol. 19, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1039/C6GC03515A

Hydrothermal Carbon from Biomass: Structural Differences between Hydrothermal and Pyrolyzed Carbons via 13 C Solid State NMR
journal, December 2011

  • Falco, Camillo; Perez Caballero, Fernando; Babonneau, Florence
  • Langmuir, Vol. 27, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1021/la202361p

Rapid and accurate determination of the lignin content of lignocellulosic biomass by solid-state NMR
journal, February 2015


Advances in solid-state NMR of cellulose
journal, June 2014


Low temperature aqueous phase hydrogenation of the light oxygenate fraction of bio-oil over supported ruthenium catalysts
journal, January 2017

  • Bergem, Håkon; Xu, Run; Brown, Robert C.
  • Green Chemistry, Vol. 19, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1039/C7GC00367F

Formation and Growth of Humins via Aldol Addition and Condensation during Acid-Catalyzed Conversion of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural
journal, October 2011

  • Patil, Sushil K. R.; Lund, Carl R. F.
  • Energy & Fuels, Vol. 25, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1021/ef2010157

Isomeric equilibria of monosaccharides in solution. Influence of solvent and temperature
journal, January 1989

  • Franks, Felix; Lillford, Peter J.; Robinson, Geoffrey
  • Journal of the Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions 1: Physical Chemistry in Condensed Phases, Vol. 85, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1039/f19898502417

Structure, activity, and selectivity of bimetallic Pd-Fe/SiO2 and Pd-Fe/γ-Al2O3 catalysts for the conversion of furfural
journal, June 2017


Formal order-of-magnitude reasoning in process engineering
journal, September 1988


Catalyst deactivation: is it predictable?
journal, April 2001


Experimental methods in catalytic kinetics
journal, September 1999


Catalyst deactivation
journal, September 1999


Design of environmentally benign processes: integration of solvent design and separation process synthesis
journal, December 1999


Key issues in life cycle assessment of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass: Challenges and perspectives
journal, July 2010


Synergies between Bio- and Oil Refineries for the Production of Fuels from Biomass
journal, September 2007

  • Huber, George W.; Corma, Avelino
  • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 46, Issue 38, p. 7184-7201
  • DOI: 10.1002/anie.200604504

Hydrotreatment of Fast Pyrolysis Oil Using Heterogeneous Noble-Metal Catalysts
journal, December 2009

  • Wildschut, Jelle; Mahfud, Farchad H.; Venderbosch, Robbie H.
  • Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, Vol. 48, Issue 23, p. 10324-10334
  • DOI: 10.1021/ie9006003

Inhibition of Metal Hydrogenation Catalysts by Biogenic Impurities
journal, November 2014

  • Schwartz, Thomas J.; Brentzel, Zachary J.; Dumesic, James A.
  • Catalysis Letters, Vol. 145, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10562-014-1441-z

Hydrothermally stable regenerable catalytic supports for aqueous-phase conversion of biomass
journal, October 2014


Production of monosaccharides and whey protein from acid whey waste streams in the dairy industry
journal, January 2018

  • Lindsay, Mark J.; Walker, Theodore W.; Dumesic, James A.
  • Green Chemistry, Vol. 20, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1039/C8GC00517F

Conversion of Biomass into Chemicals over Metal Catalysts
journal, October 2013

  • Besson, Michèle; Gallezot, Pierre; Pinel, Catherine
  • Chemical Reviews, Vol. 114, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1021/cr4002269

Bimetallic heterogeneous catalysts for hydrogen production
journal, December 2012


Deactivation of metal catalysts in liquid phase organic reactions
journal, July 2003


Deactivation of solid catalysts in liquid media: the case of leaching of active sites in biomass conversion reactions
journal, January 2015

  • Sádaba, Irantzu; López Granados, Manuel; Riisager, Anders
  • Green Chemistry, Vol. 17, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1039/C5GC00804B

Water-Tolerant Solid Acid Catalysts
journal, October 2002


Stability of Zeolites in Hot Liquid Water
journal, November 2010

  • Ravenelle, Ryan M.; Schüβler, Florian; D’Amico, Andrew
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol. 114, Issue 46
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp104639e

Stabilization of Copper Catalysts for Liquid-Phase Reactions by Atomic Layer Deposition
journal, November 2013

  • O'Neill, Brandon J.; Jackson, David H. K.; Crisci, Anthony J.
  • Angewandte Chemie, Vol. 125, Issue 51
  • DOI: 10.1002/ange.201308245

Catalyst Design with Atomic Layer Deposition
journal, February 2015

  • O’Neill, Brandon J.; Jackson, David H. K.; Lee, Jechan
  • ACS Catalysis, Vol. 5, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1021/cs501862h

Enhanced stability of cobalt catalysts by atomic layer deposition for aqueous-phase reactions
journal, January 2014

  • Lee, Jechan; Jackson, David H. K.; Li, Tao
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 7, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1039/c4ee00379a

Effects of γ-valerolactone in hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass to monosaccharides
journal, January 2014

  • Mellmer, Max A.; Martin Alonso, David; Luterbacher, Jeremy S.
  • Green Chem., Vol. 16, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1039/C4GC01768D

Novel dehydration of carbohydrates to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural catalyzed by Ir and Au chlorides in ionic liquids
journal, March 2011

  • Wei, Zuojun; Li, Yan; Thushara, Dilantha
  • Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, Vol. 42, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jtice.2010.10.004

Selective Production of Levulinic Acid from Furfuryl Alcohol in THF Solvent Systems over H-ZSM-5
journal, May 2015

  • Mellmer, Max A.; Gallo, Jean Marcel R.; Martin Alonso, David
  • ACS Catalysis, Vol. 5, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1021/acscatal.5b00274

Production of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural from Glucose Using a Combination of Lewis and Brønsted Acid Catalysts in Water in a Biphasic Reactor with an Alkylphenol Solvent
journal, April 2012

  • Pagán-Torres, Yomaira J.; Wang, Tianfu; Gallo, Jean Marcel R.
  • ACS Catalysis, Vol. 2, Issue 6, p. 930-934
  • DOI: 10.1021/cs300192z

Enhanced yields of furfural and other products by simultaneous solvent extraction during thermochemical treatment of cellulosic biomass
journal, January 2013

  • Zhang, Taiying; Kumar, Rajeev; Wyman, Charles E.
  • RSC Advances, Vol. 3, Issue 25
  • DOI: 10.1039/c3ra41857j

Organic Solvent Effects in Biomass Conversion Reactions
journal, December 2015


Local Phase Separation of Co-solvents Enhances Pretreatment of Biomass for Bioenergy Applications
journal, August 2016

  • Mostofian, Barmak; Cai, Charles M.; Smith, Micholas Dean
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 138, Issue 34
  • DOI: 10.1021/jacs.6b03285

Co-solvent Pretreatment Reduces Costly Enzyme Requirements for High Sugar and Ethanol Yields from Lignocellulosic Biomass
journal, February 2015


Nonenzymatic Sugar Production from Biomass Using Biomass-Derived  -Valerolactone
journal, January 2014


Reductive lignocellulose fractionation into soluble lignin-derived phenolic monomers and dimers and processable carbohydrate pulps
journal, January 2015

  • Van den Bosch, S.; Schutyser, W.; Vanholme, R.
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 8, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1039/C5EE00204D

Solvent Effects on the Hydrogenolysis of Diphenyl Ether with Raney Nickel and their Implications for the Conversion of Lignin
journal, April 2012


Dehydration of cellulose to levoglucosenone using polar aprotic solvents
journal, January 2015

  • Cao, Fei; Schwartz, Thomas J.; McClelland, Daniel J.
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 8, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1039/C5EE00353A

Production of levoglucosenone and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural from cellulose in polar aprotic solvent–water mixtures
journal, January 2017

  • He, Jiayue; Liu, Mingjie; Huang, Kefeng
  • Green Chemistry, Vol. 19, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1039/C7GC01688C

Understanding solvent effects in the selective conversion of fructose to 5-hydroxymethyl-furfural: a molecular dynamics investigation
journal, January 2012

  • Mushrif, Samir H.; Caratzoulas, Stavros; Vlachos, Dionisios G.
  • Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 14, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1039/c2cp22694d

Multiscale molecular modeling can be an effective tool to aid the development of biomass conversion technology: A perspective
journal, January 2015

  • Mushrif, Samir H.; Vasudevan, Vallabh; Krishnamurthy, Chethana B.
  • Chemical Engineering Science, Vol. 121
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.ces.2014.08.019

Solvent effects in the liquid phase hydrodeoxygenation of methyl propionate over a Pd(1 1 1) catalyst model
journal, January 2016


Converting fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural: a quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics study of the mechanism and energetics
journal, April 2011


Solvent effects in catalysis: implementation for modelling of kinetics
journal, January 2016

  • Murzin, Dmitry Yu.
  • Catalysis Science & Technology, Vol. 6, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1039/C6CY00495D

Solvent effects in catalysis: rational improvements of catalysts via manipulation of solvent interactions
journal, January 2016

  • Dyson, Paul J.; Jessop, Philip G.
  • Catalysis Science & Technology, Vol. 6, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1039/C5CY02197A

Catalytic reaction rates in thermodynamically non-ideal systems
journal, December 2000


Solvent-enabled control of reactivity for liquid-phase reactions of biomass-derived compounds
journal, February 2018

  • Mellmer, Max A.; Sanpitakseree, Chotitath; Demir, Benginur
  • Nature Catalysis, Vol. 1, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1038/s41929-018-0027-3

Universal kinetic solvent effects in acid-catalyzed reactions of biomass-derived oxygenates
journal, January 2018

  • Walker, Theodore W.; Chew, Alex K.; Li, Huixiang
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 11, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1039/C7EE03432F

Creating solvation environments in heterogeneous catalysts for efficient biomass conversion
journal, August 2018


Methanol to Olefins (MTO): From Fundamentals to Commercialization
journal, February 2015


Production of renewable petroleum refinery diesel and jet fuel feedstocks from hemicellulose sugar streams
journal, January 2013

  • Olcay, Hakan; Subrahmanyam, Ayyagari V.; Xing, Rong
  • Energy Environ. Sci., Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1039/C2EE23316A

Five Rules for Measuring Biomass Pyrolysis Rates: Pulse-Heated Analysis of Solid Reaction Kinetics of Lignocellulosic Biomass
journal, November 2017

  • Maduskar, Saurabh; Facas, Gregory G.; Papageorgiou, Costas
  • ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.7b03785

Top ten fundamental challenges of biomass pyrolysis for biofuels
journal, January 2012

  • Mettler, Matthew S.; Vlachos, Dionisios G.; Dauenhauer, Paul J.
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 5, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1039/c2ee21679e

Biological conversion of carbon monoxide: rich syngas or waste gases to bioethanol
journal, January 2011

  • Abubackar, Haris Nalakath; Veiga, María C.; Kennes, Christian
  • Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, Vol. 5, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1002/bbb.256

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Catalytic Production of Alanine from Waste Glycerol
    journal, February 2020

    • Wang, Yunzhu; Furukawa, Shinya; Song, Song
    • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 59, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1002/anie.201912580

    Catalytic Production of Alanine from Waste Glycerol
    journal, December 2019


    Hybridization of ZSM‐5 with Spinel Oxides for Biomass Vapour Upgrading
    journal, January 2020


    Solvent‐Free Production of Isosorbide from Sorbitol Catalyzed by a Polymeric Solid Acid
    journal, October 2019