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Title: Putative parapoxvirus-associated foot disease in the endangered huemul deer ( Hippocamelus bisulcus) in Bernardo O’Higgins National Park, Chile

Abstract

The huemul ( Hippocamelus bisulcus) is an endangered cervid endemic to southern Argentina and Chile. Here we report foot lesions in 24 huemul from Bernardo O’Higgins National Park, Chile, between 2005 and 2010. Affected deer displayed variably severe clinical signs, including lameness and soft tissue swelling of the limbs proximal to the hoof or in the interdigital space, ulceration of the swollen tissues, and some developed severe proliferative tissue changes that caused various types of abnormal wear, entrapment, and/or displacement of the hooves and/or dewclaws. Animals showed signs of intense pain and reduced mobility followed by loss of body condition and recumbency, which often preceded death. The disease affected both genders and all age categories. Morbidity and mortality reached 80% and 40%, respectively. Diagnostics were restricted to a limited number of cases from which samples were available. Histology revealed severe papillomatous epidermal hyperplasia and superficial dermatitis. Electron microscopy identified viral particles consistent with viruses in the Chordopoxvirinae subfamily. The presence of parapoxvirus DNA was confirmed by a pan-poxvirus PCR assay, showing high identity (98%) with bovine papular stomatitis virus and pseudocowpoxvirus. This is the first report of foot disease in huemul deer in Chile, putatively attributed to poxvirus. Given themore » high morbidity and mortality observed, this virus might pose a considerable conservation threat to huemul deer in Chilean Patagonia. Moreover, this report highlights a need for improved monitoring of huemul populations and synergistic, rapid response efforts to adequately address disease events that threaten the species.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [4]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [5];  [6];  [7];  [6];  [6];  [6]; ORCiD logo [8];  [9]
  1. Wildlife Conservation Society Chile, Punta Arenas (Chile)
  2. Univ. de Chile, Santiago (Chile)
  3. Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, NY (United States)
  4. Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)
  5. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  6. Corp. Nacional Forestal, Chillán (Chile)
  7. Univ. de Concepción, Chillán (Chile)
  8. Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)
  9. East Carolina Univ., Greenville, NC (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1542709
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-774201
Journal ID: ISSN 1932-6203; 965532
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-07NA27344
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
PLoS ONE
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 14; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 1932-6203
Publisher:
Public Library of Science
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
Biological and medical sciences; 60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES

Citation Formats

Vila, Alejandro R., Briceño, Cristóbal, McAloose, Denise, Seimon, Tracie A., Armién, Anibal G., Mauldin, Elizabeth A., Be, Nicholas A., Thissen, James B., Hinojosa, Ana, Quezada, Manuel, Paredes, José, Avendaño, Iván, Silva, Alejandra, Uhart, Marcela M., and Roper, Rachel L. Putative parapoxvirus-associated foot disease in the endangered huemul deer (Hippocamelus bisulcus) in Bernardo O’Higgins National Park, Chile. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0213667.
Vila, Alejandro R., Briceño, Cristóbal, McAloose, Denise, Seimon, Tracie A., Armién, Anibal G., Mauldin, Elizabeth A., Be, Nicholas A., Thissen, James B., Hinojosa, Ana, Quezada, Manuel, Paredes, José, Avendaño, Iván, Silva, Alejandra, Uhart, Marcela M., & Roper, Rachel L. Putative parapoxvirus-associated foot disease in the endangered huemul deer (Hippocamelus bisulcus) in Bernardo O’Higgins National Park, Chile. United States. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0213667.
Vila, Alejandro R., Briceño, Cristóbal, McAloose, Denise, Seimon, Tracie A., Armién, Anibal G., Mauldin, Elizabeth A., Be, Nicholas A., Thissen, James B., Hinojosa, Ana, Quezada, Manuel, Paredes, José, Avendaño, Iván, Silva, Alejandra, Uhart, Marcela M., and Roper, Rachel L. Wed . "Putative parapoxvirus-associated foot disease in the endangered huemul deer (Hippocamelus bisulcus) in Bernardo O’Higgins National Park, Chile". United States. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0213667. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1542709.
@article{osti_1542709,
title = {Putative parapoxvirus-associated foot disease in the endangered huemul deer (Hippocamelus bisulcus) in Bernardo O’Higgins National Park, Chile},
author = {Vila, Alejandro R. and Briceño, Cristóbal and McAloose, Denise and Seimon, Tracie A. and Armién, Anibal G. and Mauldin, Elizabeth A. and Be, Nicholas A. and Thissen, James B. and Hinojosa, Ana and Quezada, Manuel and Paredes, José and Avendaño, Iván and Silva, Alejandra and Uhart, Marcela M. and Roper, Rachel L.},
abstractNote = {The huemul (Hippocamelus bisulcus) is an endangered cervid endemic to southern Argentina and Chile. Here we report foot lesions in 24 huemul from Bernardo O’Higgins National Park, Chile, between 2005 and 2010. Affected deer displayed variably severe clinical signs, including lameness and soft tissue swelling of the limbs proximal to the hoof or in the interdigital space, ulceration of the swollen tissues, and some developed severe proliferative tissue changes that caused various types of abnormal wear, entrapment, and/or displacement of the hooves and/or dewclaws. Animals showed signs of intense pain and reduced mobility followed by loss of body condition and recumbency, which often preceded death. The disease affected both genders and all age categories. Morbidity and mortality reached 80% and 40%, respectively. Diagnostics were restricted to a limited number of cases from which samples were available. Histology revealed severe papillomatous epidermal hyperplasia and superficial dermatitis. Electron microscopy identified viral particles consistent with viruses in the Chordopoxvirinae subfamily. The presence of parapoxvirus DNA was confirmed by a pan-poxvirus PCR assay, showing high identity (98%) with bovine papular stomatitis virus and pseudocowpoxvirus. This is the first report of foot disease in huemul deer in Chile, putatively attributed to poxvirus. Given the high morbidity and mortality observed, this virus might pose a considerable conservation threat to huemul deer in Chilean Patagonia. Moreover, this report highlights a need for improved monitoring of huemul populations and synergistic, rapid response efforts to adequately address disease events that threaten the species.},
doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0213667},
journal = {PLoS ONE},
number = 4,
volume = 14,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {4}
}

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