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Title: Algal-fungal symbiosis leads to photosynthetic mycelium

Abstract

Mutualistic interactions between free-living algae and fungi are widespread in nature and are hypothesized to have facilitated the evolution of land plants and lichens. In all known algal-fungal mutualisms, including lichens, algal cells remain external to fungal cells. Here, we report on an algal–fungal interaction in which Nannochloropsis oceanica algal cells become internalized within the hyphae of the fungus Mortierella elongata. This apparent symbiosis begins with close physical contact and nutrient exchange, including carbon and nitrogen transfer between fungal and algal cells as demonstrated by isotope tracer experiments. This mutualism appears to be stable, as both partners remain physiologically active over months of co-cultivation, leading to the eventual internalization of photosynthetic algal cells, which persist to function, grow and divide within fungal hyphae. Nannochloropsis and Mortierella are biotechnologically important species for lipids and biofuel production, with available genomes and molecular tool kits. Based on the current observations, they provide unique opportunities for studying fungal-algal mutualisms including mechanisms leading to endosymbiosis.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3];  [4]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [6]
  1. Department of Energy-Plant Research Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States, Department of Plant Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States
  2. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States, Department of Plant Biochemistry, Albrecht-von-Haller-Institute for Plant Sciences, Georg-August-University, Göttingen, Germany, Centre of Modern Interdisciplinary Technologies, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Toruń, Poland
  3. Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States
  4. Department of Integrative Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States, DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States
  5. Department of Energy-Plant Research Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States, DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States, Department of Plant Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States
  6. Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States, DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States, Department of Plant, Soil and Microbial Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). MSU-DOE Plant Research Laboratory
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES)
OSTI Identifier:
1542666
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1542667; OSTI ID: 1607874
Grant/Contract Number:  
FG02-91ER20021; SC0018409; FC02-07ER64494
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
eLife
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: eLife Journal Volume: 8; Journal ID: ISSN 2050-084X
Publisher:
eLife Sciences Publications, Ltd.
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

Citation Formats

Du, Zhi-Yan, Zienkiewicz, Krzysztof, Vande Pol, Natalie, Ostrom, Nathaniel E., Benning, Christoph, and Bonito, Gregory M. Algal-fungal symbiosis leads to photosynthetic mycelium. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.47815.
Du, Zhi-Yan, Zienkiewicz, Krzysztof, Vande Pol, Natalie, Ostrom, Nathaniel E., Benning, Christoph, & Bonito, Gregory M. Algal-fungal symbiosis leads to photosynthetic mycelium. United States. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.47815
Du, Zhi-Yan, Zienkiewicz, Krzysztof, Vande Pol, Natalie, Ostrom, Nathaniel E., Benning, Christoph, and Bonito, Gregory M. Tue . "Algal-fungal symbiosis leads to photosynthetic mycelium". United States. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.47815.
@article{osti_1542666,
title = {Algal-fungal symbiosis leads to photosynthetic mycelium},
author = {Du, Zhi-Yan and Zienkiewicz, Krzysztof and Vande Pol, Natalie and Ostrom, Nathaniel E. and Benning, Christoph and Bonito, Gregory M.},
abstractNote = {Mutualistic interactions between free-living algae and fungi are widespread in nature and are hypothesized to have facilitated the evolution of land plants and lichens. In all known algal-fungal mutualisms, including lichens, algal cells remain external to fungal cells. Here, we report on an algal–fungal interaction in which Nannochloropsis oceanica algal cells become internalized within the hyphae of the fungus Mortierella elongata. This apparent symbiosis begins with close physical contact and nutrient exchange, including carbon and nitrogen transfer between fungal and algal cells as demonstrated by isotope tracer experiments. This mutualism appears to be stable, as both partners remain physiologically active over months of co-cultivation, leading to the eventual internalization of photosynthetic algal cells, which persist to function, grow and divide within fungal hyphae. Nannochloropsis and Mortierella are biotechnologically important species for lipids and biofuel production, with available genomes and molecular tool kits. Based on the current observations, they provide unique opportunities for studying fungal-algal mutualisms including mechanisms leading to endosymbiosis.},
doi = {10.7554/eLife.47815},
journal = {eLife},
number = ,
volume = 8,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {7}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.47815

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 7 works
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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Algae and fungi move from the past to the future
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