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Title: Bi-continuous pattern formation in thin films via solid-state interfacial dealloying studied by multimodal characterization

Abstract

Solid-state interfacial dealloying creates bi-continuous nanostructured thin films with 3D interconnected morphology, revealed by multimodal characterization, offering potential applications in catalysis, biomedical sensing and energy storage.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [2];  [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [4]
  1. Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States)
  2. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  3. National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States)
  4. Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES)
OSTI Identifier:
1542282
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1529999
Report Number(s):
BNL-211848-2019-JAAM
Journal ID: ISSN 2051-6347; MHAOAL
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0012704
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Materials Horizons
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 6; Journal Issue: 10; Journal ID: ISSN 2051-6347
Publisher:
Royal Society of Chemistry
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Zhao, Chonghang, Kisslinger, Kim, Huang, Xiaojing, Lu, Ming, Camino, Fernando, Lin, Cheng -Hung, Yan, Hanfei, Nazaretski, Evgeny, Chu, Yong, Ravel, Bruce, Liu, Mingzhao, and Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen. Bi-continuous pattern formation in thin films via solid-state interfacial dealloying studied by multimodal characterization. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1039/C9MH00669A.
Zhao, Chonghang, Kisslinger, Kim, Huang, Xiaojing, Lu, Ming, Camino, Fernando, Lin, Cheng -Hung, Yan, Hanfei, Nazaretski, Evgeny, Chu, Yong, Ravel, Bruce, Liu, Mingzhao, & Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen. Bi-continuous pattern formation in thin films via solid-state interfacial dealloying studied by multimodal characterization. United States. doi:10.1039/C9MH00669A.
Zhao, Chonghang, Kisslinger, Kim, Huang, Xiaojing, Lu, Ming, Camino, Fernando, Lin, Cheng -Hung, Yan, Hanfei, Nazaretski, Evgeny, Chu, Yong, Ravel, Bruce, Liu, Mingzhao, and Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen. Wed . "Bi-continuous pattern formation in thin films via solid-state interfacial dealloying studied by multimodal characterization". United States. doi:10.1039/C9MH00669A. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1542282.
@article{osti_1542282,
title = {Bi-continuous pattern formation in thin films via solid-state interfacial dealloying studied by multimodal characterization},
author = {Zhao, Chonghang and Kisslinger, Kim and Huang, Xiaojing and Lu, Ming and Camino, Fernando and Lin, Cheng -Hung and Yan, Hanfei and Nazaretski, Evgeny and Chu, Yong and Ravel, Bruce and Liu, Mingzhao and Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen},
abstractNote = {Solid-state interfacial dealloying creates bi-continuous nanostructured thin films with 3D interconnected morphology, revealed by multimodal characterization, offering potential applications in catalysis, biomedical sensing and energy storage.},
doi = {10.1039/C9MH00669A},
journal = {Materials Horizons},
number = 10,
volume = 6,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {6}
}

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Free Publicly Available Full Text
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Cited by: 3 works
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Works referenced in this record:

Structural evolution of nanoporous gold during thermal coarsening
journal, July 2012


Data set for diffusion coefficients of alloying elements in dilute Mg alloys from first-principles
journal, December 2015


Dealloying by metallic melt
journal, April 2011


Transition metals in silicon
journal, January 1983

  • Weber, Eicke R.
  • Applied Physics A Solids and Surfaces, Vol. 30, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00617708

Fly-scan ptychography
journal, March 2015

  • Huang, Xiaojing; Lauer, Kenneth; Clark, Jesse N.
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 5, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep09074

Three-dimensional open-cell macroporous iron, chromium and ferritic stainless steel
journal, May 2013


Three-Dimensional Morphological and Chemical Evolution of Nanoporous Stainless Steel by Liquid Metal Dealloying
journal, April 2017

  • Zhao, Chonghang; Wada, Takeshi; De Andrade, Vincent
  • ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, Vol. 9, Issue 39
  • DOI: 10.1021/acsami.7b04659

Kinetics of formation and coarsening of nanoporous α-titanium dealloyed with Mg melt
journal, September 2013

  • Tsuda, Masashi; Wada, Takeshi; Kato, Hidemi
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 114, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4821066

NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis
journal, June 2012

  • Schneider, Caroline A.; Rasband, Wayne S.; Eliceiri, Kevin W.
  • Nature Methods, Vol. 9, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmeth.2089

Comparison of the agglomeration behavior of Au and Cu films sputter deposited on silicon dioxide
journal, March 2003

  • Kwon, Jang-Yeon; Yoon, Tae-Sik; Kim, Ki-Bum
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 93, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1556178

Effect of Ag–Au composition and acid concentration on dealloying front velocity and cracking during nanoporous gold formation
journal, September 2013


Stability of thin platinum films implemented in high-temperature microdevices
journal, May 2009

  • Tiggelaar, R. M.; Sanders, R. G. P.; Groenland, A. W.
  • Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Vol. 152, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.sna.2009.03.017

Prominent Electron Penetration through Ultrathin Graphene Layer from FeNi Alloy for Efficient Reduction of CO 2 to CO
journal, July 2017


Intermetallic compound formation in thin‐film and in bulk samples of the Ni‐Si binary system
journal, February 1983

  • Tu, K. N.; Ottaviani, G.; Gösele, U.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 54, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.332034

Volume Change during the Formation of Nanoporous Gold by Dealloying
journal, July 2006


Evolution of a bicontinuous nanostructure via a solid-state interfacial dealloying reaction
journal, June 2016


The dominant diffusing species and initial phase formation in Al‐Cu, Mg‐Cu, and Mg‐Ni systems
journal, November 1992

  • Hong, Q. Z.; d’Heurle, F. M.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 72, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.352258

Diffusion coefficients of alloying elements in dilute Mg alloys: A comprehensive first-principles study
journal, January 2016


Diffusion of Aluminum, Magnesium, Silicon, and Zirconium in Nickel
journal, September 1959

  • Allison, Herbert W.; Samelson, Harold
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 30, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1735346

Investigation of high-temperature degradation of platinum thin films with an in situ resistance measurement apparatus
journal, March 1998

  • Firebaugh, S. L.; Jensen, K. F.; Schmidt, M. A.
  • Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, Vol. 7, Issue 1, p. 128-135
  • DOI: 10.1109/84.661395

Solid-State Dewetting of Thin Films
journal, August 2012


ATHENA , ARTEMIS , HEPHAESTUS : data analysis for X-ray absorption spectroscopy using IFEFFIT
journal, June 2005


3D morphological evolution of porous titanium by x-ray micro- and nano-tomography
journal, June 2013

  • Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen; Wada, Takeshi; Butakov, Nikita
  • Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 28, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1557/jmr.2013.151

Alloy Design Criteria for Solid Metal Dealloying of Thin Films
journal, September 2017


Reconstructing a Nanoporous Metal in Three Dimensions: An Electron Tomography Study of Dealloyed Gold Leaf
journal, July 2007

  • Rösner, H.; Parida, S.; Kramer, D.
  • Advanced Engineering Materials, Vol. 9, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1002/adem.200700063

Quantitative size-factors for metallic solid solutions
journal, February 1966


Structural changes during the reaction of Ni thin films with (100) silicon substrates
journal, April 2012


Pattern formation during electrochemical and liquid metal dealloying
journal, January 2018

  • McCue, Ian; Karma, Alain; Erlebacher, Jonah
  • MRS Bulletin, Vol. 43, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1557/mrs.2017.301

Oxygen reduction in nanoporous metal–ionic liquid composite electrocatalysts
journal, October 2010

  • Snyder, J.; Fujita, T.; Chen, M. W.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 9, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat2878

Mechanism of Coarsening and Bubble Formation in High-Genus Nanoporous Metals
journal, June 2011


Coarsening by network restructuring in model nanoporous gold
journal, December 2011


Vegard’s law
journal, March 1991


Characterization of Nanoporous Materials with Atom Probe Tomography
journal, May 2015

  • Pfeiffer, Björn; Erichsen, Torben; Epler, Eike
  • Microscopy and Microanalysis, Vol. 21, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1017/S1431927615000501

Imaging of 3D morphological evolution of nanoporous silicon anode in lithium ion battery by X-ray nano-tomography
journal, October 2018


Three-dimensional bicontinuous porous graphite generated in low temperature metallic liquid
journal, January 2016


Bulk-Nanoporous-Silicon Negative Electrode with Extremely High Cyclability for Lithium-Ion Batteries Prepared Using a Top-Down Process
journal, July 2014

  • Wada, Takeshi; Ichitsubo, Tetsu; Yubuta, Kunio
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 14, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl501500g

Decoupling the role of stress and corrosion in the intergranular cracking of noble-metal alloys
journal, September 2018


TomoPy: a framework for the analysis of synchrotron tomographic data
journal, August 2014

  • Gürsoy, Dogˇa; De Carlo, Francesco; Xiao, Xianghui
  • Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, Vol. 21, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1107/S1600577514013939

Evolution of nanoporosity in dealloying
journal, March 2001

  • Erlebacher, Jonah; Aziz, Michael J.; Karma, Alain
  • Nature, Vol. 410, Issue 6827, p. 450-453
  • DOI: 10.1038/35068529

Topology-generating interfacial pattern formation during liquid metal dealloying
journal, November 2015

  • Geslin, Pierre-Antoine; McCue, Ian; Gaskey, Bernard
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms9887

Experimental investigation and thermodynamic calculation of the Fe–Mg–Mn and Fe–Mg–Ni systems
journal, January 2011

  • Wang, Peisheng; Zhao, Jingrui; Du, Yong
  • International Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 102, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3139/146.110442

In situ imaging of dealloying during nanoporous gold formation by transmission X-ray microscopy
journal, February 2013


Influence of buffer layers on Ni thin film structure and graphene growth by CVD
journal, October 2015


Kinetics and morphological evolution of liquid metal dealloying
journal, August 2016


High-throughput ab-initio dilute solute diffusion database
journal, July 2016


Morphological and topological analysis of coarsened nanoporous gold by x-ray nanotomography
journal, January 2010

  • Chen, Yu-chen Karen; Chu, Yong S.; Yi, JaeMock
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 96, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3285175

Nanoporous Gold Catalysts for Selective Gas-Phase Oxidative Coupling of Methanol at Low Temperature
journal, January 2010


Length scales in alloy dissolution and measurement of absolute interfacial free energy
journal, November 2006

  • Rugolo, J.; Erlebacher, J.; Sieradzki, K.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 5, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat1780

Interfacial reaction and the dominant diffusing species in Mg–Ni system
journal, March 2009


High-Performance Multi-Mode Ptychography Reconstruction on Distributed GPUs
conference, August 2018


Surface and bulk diffusion of adsorbed nickel on ultrathin thermally grown silicon dioxide
journal, April 1992


Design and performance of an X-ray scanning microscope at the Hard X-ray Nanoprobe beamline of NSLS-II
journal, October 2017


Nickel: A very fast diffuser in silicon
journal, May 2013

  • Lindroos, J.; Fenning, D. P.; Backlund, D. J.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 113, Issue 20
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4807799

Fabrication, formation mechanism and properties of three-dimensional nanoporous titanium dealloyed in metallic powders
journal, February 2017

  • Zhang, Faming; Li, Ping; Yu, Jin
  • Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 32, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1557/jmr.2017.19

A pyramid approach to subpixel registration based on intensity
journal, January 1998

  • Thevenaz, P.; Ruttimann, U. E.; Unser, M.
  • IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 7, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1109/83.650848

Are Nanoporous Materials Radiation Resistant?
journal, June 2011

  • Bringa, E. M.; Monk, J. D.; Caro, A.
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 12, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl201383u

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Evolution of a bicontinuous nanostructure via a solid-state interfacial dealloying reaction
    journal, June 2016


    In situ imaging of dealloying during nanoporous gold formation by transmission X-ray microscopy
    journal, February 2013


    Diffusion coefficients of alloying elements in dilute Mg alloys: A comprehensive first-principles study
    journal, January 2016


    TomoPy: a framework for the analysis of synchrotron tomographic data
    journal, August 2014

    • Gürsoy, Dogˇa; De Carlo, Francesco; Xiao, Xianghui
    • Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, Vol. 21, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1107/s1600577514013939

    Prominent Electron Penetration through Ultrathin Graphene Layer from FeNi Alloy for Efficient Reduction of CO 2 to CO
    journal, July 2017


    Fabrication, formation mechanism and properties of three-dimensional nanoporous titanium dealloyed in metallic powders
    journal, February 2017

    • Zhang, Faming; Li, Ping; Yu, Jin
    • Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 32, Issue 8
    • DOI: 10.1557/jmr.2017.19

    Investigation of high-temperature degradation of platinum thin films with an in situ resistance measurement apparatus
    journal, March 1998

    • Firebaugh, S. L.; Jensen, K. F.; Schmidt, M. A.
    • Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, Vol. 7, Issue 1, p. 128-135
    • DOI: 10.1109/84.661395

    Evolution of nanoporosity in dealloying
    journal, March 2001

    • Erlebacher, Jonah; Aziz, Michael J.; Karma, Alain
    • Nature, Vol. 410, Issue 6827, p. 450-453
    • DOI: 10.1038/35068529

    High-throughput ab-initio dilute solute diffusion database
    journal, July 2016


    Experimental investigation and thermodynamic calculation of the Fe–Mg–Mn and Fe–Mg–Ni systems
    journal, January 2011

    • Wang, Peisheng; Zhao, Jingrui; Du, Yong
    • International Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 102, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3139/146.110442

    Reconstructing a Nanoporous Metal in Three Dimensions: An Electron Tomography Study of Dealloyed Gold Leaf
    journal, July 2007

    • Rösner, H.; Parida, S.; Kramer, D.
    • Advanced Engineering Materials, Vol. 9, Issue 7
    • DOI: 10.1002/adem.200700063

    The dominant diffusing species and initial phase formation in Al‐Cu, Mg‐Cu, and Mg‐Ni systems
    journal, November 1992

    • Hong, Q. Z.; d’Heurle, F. M.
    • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 72, Issue 9
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.352258

    Influence of buffer layers on Ni thin film structure and graphene growth by CVD
    journal, October 2015


    Structural changes during the reaction of Ni thin films with (100) silicon substrates
    journal, April 2012


    Bulk-Nanoporous-Silicon Negative Electrode with Extremely High Cyclability for Lithium-Ion Batteries Prepared Using a Top-Down Process
    journal, July 2014

    • Wada, Takeshi; Ichitsubo, Tetsu; Yubuta, Kunio
    • Nano Letters, Vol. 14, Issue 8
    • DOI: 10.1021/nl501500g

    ATHENA , ARTEMIS , HEPHAESTUS : data analysis for X-ray absorption spectroscopy using IFEFFIT
    journal, June 2005


    Nanoporous Gold Catalysts for Selective Gas-Phase Oxidative Coupling of Methanol at Low Temperature
    journal, January 2010


    Characterization of Nanoporous Materials with Atom Probe Tomography
    journal, May 2015

    • Pfeiffer, Björn; Erichsen, Torben; Epler, Eike
    • Microscopy and Microanalysis, Vol. 21, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1017/s1431927615000501

    A pyramid approach to subpixel registration based on intensity
    journal, January 1998

    • Thevenaz, P.; Ruttimann, U. E.; Unser, M.
    • IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 7, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1109/83.650848

    High-Performance Multi-Mode Ptychography Reconstruction on Distributed GPUs
    conference, August 2018


    Topology-generating interfacial pattern formation during liquid metal dealloying
    journal, November 2015

    • Geslin, Pierre-Antoine; McCue, Ian; Gaskey, Bernard
    • Nature Communications, Vol. 6, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms9887

    Three-dimensional bicontinuous porous graphite generated in low temperature metallic liquid
    journal, January 2016


    Dealloying by metallic melt
    journal, April 2011


    Decoupling the role of stress and corrosion in the intergranular cracking of noble-metal alloys
    journal, September 2018


    Quantitative size-factors for metallic solid solutions
    journal, February 1966


    Imaging of 3D morphological evolution of nanoporous silicon anode in lithium ion battery by X-ray nano-tomography
    journal, October 2018


    3D morphological evolution of porous titanium by x-ray micro- and nano-tomography
    journal, June 2013

    • Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen; Wada, Takeshi; Butakov, Nikita
    • Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 28, Issue 17
    • DOI: 10.1557/jmr.2013.151

    Coarsening by network restructuring in model nanoporous gold
    journal, December 2011


    Kinetics and morphological evolution of liquid metal dealloying
    journal, August 2016


    Pattern formation during electrochemical and liquid metal dealloying
    journal, January 2018

    • McCue, Ian; Karma, Alain; Erlebacher, Jonah
    • MRS Bulletin, Vol. 43, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1557/mrs.2017.301

    Interfacial reaction and the dominant diffusing species in Mg–Ni system
    journal, March 2009


    Morphological and topological analysis of coarsened nanoporous gold by x-ray nanotomography
    journal, January 2010

    • Chen, Yu-chen Karen; Chu, Yong S.; Yi, JaeMock
    • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 96, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.3285175

    Are Nanoporous Materials Radiation Resistant?
    journal, June 2011

    • Bringa, E. M.; Monk, J. D.; Caro, A.
    • Nano Letters, Vol. 12, Issue 7
    • DOI: 10.1021/nl201383u

    NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis
    journal, June 2012

    • Schneider, Caroline A.; Rasband, Wayne S.; Eliceiri, Kevin W.
    • Nature Methods, Vol. 9, Issue 7
    • DOI: 10.1038/nmeth.2089

    Stability of thin platinum films implemented in high-temperature microdevices
    journal, May 2009

    • Tiggelaar, R. M.; Sanders, R. G. P.; Groenland, A. W.
    • Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Vol. 152, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.sna.2009.03.017

    Surface and bulk diffusion of adsorbed nickel on ultrathin thermally grown silicon dioxide
    journal, April 1992


    Mechanism of Coarsening and Bubble Formation in High-Genus Nanoporous Metals
    journal, June 2011


    Intermetallic compound formation in thin‐film and in bulk samples of the Ni‐Si binary system
    journal, February 1983

    • Tu, K. N.; Ottaviani, G.; Gösele, U.
    • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 54, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.332034

    Fly-scan ptychography
    journal, March 2015

    • Huang, Xiaojing; Lauer, Kenneth; Clark, Jesse N.
    • Scientific Reports, Vol. 5, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/srep09074

    Effect of Ag–Au composition and acid concentration on dealloying front velocity and cracking during nanoporous gold formation
    journal, September 2013


    Solid-State Dewetting of Thin Films
    journal, August 2012


    Structural evolution of nanoporous gold during thermal coarsening
    journal, July 2012


    Nickel: A very fast diffuser in silicon
    journal, May 2013

    • Lindroos, J.; Fenning, D. P.; Backlund, D. J.
    • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 113, Issue 20
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.4807799

    Volume Change during the Formation of Nanoporous Gold by Dealloying
    journal, July 2006


    Transition metals in silicon
    journal, January 1983

    • Weber, Eicke R.
    • Applied Physics A Solids and Surfaces, Vol. 30, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1007/bf00617708

    Diffusion of Aluminum, Magnesium, Silicon, and Zirconium in Nickel
    journal, September 1959

    • Allison, Herbert W.; Samelson, Harold
    • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 30, Issue 9
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.1735346

    Three-Dimensional Morphological and Chemical Evolution of Nanoporous Stainless Steel by Liquid Metal Dealloying
    journal, April 2017

    • Zhao, Chonghang; Wada, Takeshi; De Andrade, Vincent
    • ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, Vol. 9, Issue 39
    • DOI: 10.1021/acsami.7b04659

    Oxygen reduction in nanoporous metal–ionic liquid composite electrocatalysts
    journal, October 2010

    • Snyder, J.; Fujita, T.; Chen, M. W.
    • Nature Materials, Vol. 9, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.1038/nmat2878

    Three-dimensional open-cell macroporous iron, chromium and ferritic stainless steel
    journal, May 2013


    Length scales in alloy dissolution and measurement of absolute interfacial free energy
    journal, November 2006

    • Rugolo, J.; Erlebacher, J.; Sieradzki, K.
    • Nature Materials, Vol. 5, Issue 12
    • DOI: 10.1038/nmat1780

    Data set for diffusion coefficients of alloying elements in dilute Mg alloys from first-principles
    journal, December 2015


    Alloy Design Criteria for Solid Metal Dealloying of Thin Films
    journal, September 2017


    Vegard’s law
    journal, March 1991


    Design and performance of an X-ray scanning microscope at the Hard X-ray Nanoprobe beamline of NSLS-II
    journal, October 2017


    Comparison of the agglomeration behavior of Au and Cu films sputter deposited on silicon dioxide
    journal, March 2003

    • Kwon, Jang-Yeon; Yoon, Tae-Sik; Kim, Ki-Bum
    • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 93, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.1556178

    Kinetics of formation and coarsening of nanoporous α-titanium dealloyed with Mg melt
    journal, September 2013

    • Tsuda, Masashi; Wada, Takeshi; Kato, Hidemi
    • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 114, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.4821066