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Title: Non-Hermitian Phase Transition from a Polariton Bose-Einstein Condensate to a Photon Laser

Abstract

We propose here a novel mechanism for a nonequilibrium phase transition in a $U(1)$-broken phase of an electron-hole-photon system, from a Bose-Einstein condensate of polaritons to a photon laser, induced by the non-Hermitian nature of the condensate. We show that a (uniform) steady state of the condensate can always be classified into two types, namely, arising either from lower or upper-branch polaritons. We prove (for a general model) and demonstrate (for a particular model of polaritons) that an exceptional point where the two types coalesce marks the end point of a first-order-like phase boundary between the two types, similar to a critical point in a liquid-gas phase transition. Since the phase transition found in this paper is not in general triggered by population inversion, our result implies that the second threshold observed in experiments is not necessarily a strong-to-weak-coupling transition, contrary to the widely believed understanding. Although our calculation mainly aims to clarify polariton physics, our discussion is applicable to general driven-dissipative condensates composed of two complex fields.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [2]
  1. Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). James Franck Inst. Dept. of Physics; Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Physics
  2. Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). James Franck Inst. Dept. of Physics; Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Materials Science Division
  3. Keio Univ., Yokohama (Japan). Dept. of Physics
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan); Keio Univ., Yokohama (Japan)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS); Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) (Japan)
OSTI Identifier:
1542179
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1511515
Grant/Contract Number:  
[AC02-06CH11357; 17J01238; JP18K11345; JP18H05406; JP16K05503]
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review Letters
Additional Journal Information:
[ Journal Volume: 122; Journal Issue: 18]; Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9007
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY

Citation Formats

Hanai, Ryo, Edelman, Alexander, Ohashi, Yoji, and Littlewood, Peter B. Non-Hermitian Phase Transition from a Polariton Bose-Einstein Condensate to a Photon Laser. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.185301.
Hanai, Ryo, Edelman, Alexander, Ohashi, Yoji, & Littlewood, Peter B. Non-Hermitian Phase Transition from a Polariton Bose-Einstein Condensate to a Photon Laser. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.185301.
Hanai, Ryo, Edelman, Alexander, Ohashi, Yoji, and Littlewood, Peter B. Wed . "Non-Hermitian Phase Transition from a Polariton Bose-Einstein Condensate to a Photon Laser". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.185301.
@article{osti_1542179,
title = {Non-Hermitian Phase Transition from a Polariton Bose-Einstein Condensate to a Photon Laser},
author = {Hanai, Ryo and Edelman, Alexander and Ohashi, Yoji and Littlewood, Peter B.},
abstractNote = {We propose here a novel mechanism for a nonequilibrium phase transition in a $U(1)$-broken phase of an electron-hole-photon system, from a Bose-Einstein condensate of polaritons to a photon laser, induced by the non-Hermitian nature of the condensate. We show that a (uniform) steady state of the condensate can always be classified into two types, namely, arising either from lower or upper-branch polaritons. We prove (for a general model) and demonstrate (for a particular model of polaritons) that an exceptional point where the two types coalesce marks the end point of a first-order-like phase boundary between the two types, similar to a critical point in a liquid-gas phase transition. Since the phase transition found in this paper is not in general triggered by population inversion, our result implies that the second threshold observed in experiments is not necessarily a strong-to-weak-coupling transition, contrary to the widely believed understanding. Although our calculation mainly aims to clarify polariton physics, our discussion is applicable to general driven-dissipative condensates composed of two complex fields.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.185301},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
number = [18],
volume = [122],
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {5}
}

Journal Article:
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