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Title: In-situ functionalization of tetrahedral amorphous carbon by filtered cathodic arc deposition

Abstract

Modification of surface chemistry of carbon based nanomaterials is often necessary in order to meet application specific demands. Literature provides a variety of different post-fabrication treatments, such as acid, oxidizing plasma and heat treatments. These methods offer modification of some surface properties, but their specific effects to materials surface chemistry is only vaguely reported. Thus, in order to meet the application specific demands via carbon nanomaterials surface functionalization, it is necessary to understand the effects of treatments used in detail. Here we report an in-situ method to functionalize tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) thin films by introducing high purity oxygen into the vacuum chamber during the film fabrication at the end of the deposition process, effectively changing the surface chemistry. Furthermore, we report and compare the effects of post-treatment with nitric acid and oxygen plasma to untreated and in-situ functionalized tetrahedral amorphous carbon thin films. Using x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), we show that introducing oxygen during deposition decreases the sp 2 content of the surface, accompanied by an increase in carboxyl-like functionalities. Subsequent oxygen plasma further decrease the sp 2 and ketone/aldehyde content and increase the amount of carboxyl groups. Here, the same trends are observed with reference ta-C under oxygenmore » plasma treatment. For both materials, a concentrated nitric acid treatment has only a subtle effect, which follows the same trend as the oxygen plasma treatment. Using this knowledge, we can selectively produce materials with higher functional group surface loading than has been reported earlier, paving the way for application specific material fabrication.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [4];  [2];  [2]
  1. Aalto Univ., Aalto (Finland); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  2. Aalto Univ., Aalto (Finland)
  3. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)
  4. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1542106
Grant/Contract Number:  
[AC02-76SF00515]
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
AIP Advances
Additional Journal Information:
[ Journal Volume: 9; Journal Issue: 8]; Journal ID: ISSN 2158-3226
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING

Citation Formats

Sainio, Sami, Wester, Niklas, Titus, Charles J., Nordlund, Dennis, Lee, Sang-jun, Koskinen, Jari, and Laurila, Tomi. In-situ functionalization of tetrahedral amorphous carbon by filtered cathodic arc deposition. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1063/1.5113484.
Sainio, Sami, Wester, Niklas, Titus, Charles J., Nordlund, Dennis, Lee, Sang-jun, Koskinen, Jari, & Laurila, Tomi. In-situ functionalization of tetrahedral amorphous carbon by filtered cathodic arc deposition. United States. doi:10.1063/1.5113484.
Sainio, Sami, Wester, Niklas, Titus, Charles J., Nordlund, Dennis, Lee, Sang-jun, Koskinen, Jari, and Laurila, Tomi. Fri . "In-situ functionalization of tetrahedral amorphous carbon by filtered cathodic arc deposition". United States. doi:10.1063/1.5113484. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1542106.
@article{osti_1542106,
title = {In-situ functionalization of tetrahedral amorphous carbon by filtered cathodic arc deposition},
author = {Sainio, Sami and Wester, Niklas and Titus, Charles J. and Nordlund, Dennis and Lee, Sang-jun and Koskinen, Jari and Laurila, Tomi},
abstractNote = {Modification of surface chemistry of carbon based nanomaterials is often necessary in order to meet application specific demands. Literature provides a variety of different post-fabrication treatments, such as acid, oxidizing plasma and heat treatments. These methods offer modification of some surface properties, but their specific effects to materials surface chemistry is only vaguely reported. Thus, in order to meet the application specific demands via carbon nanomaterials surface functionalization, it is necessary to understand the effects of treatments used in detail. Here we report an in-situ method to functionalize tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) thin films by introducing high purity oxygen into the vacuum chamber during the film fabrication at the end of the deposition process, effectively changing the surface chemistry. Furthermore, we report and compare the effects of post-treatment with nitric acid and oxygen plasma to untreated and in-situ functionalized tetrahedral amorphous carbon thin films. Using x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), we show that introducing oxygen during deposition decreases the sp2 content of the surface, accompanied by an increase in carboxyl-like functionalities. Subsequent oxygen plasma further decrease the sp2 and ketone/aldehyde content and increase the amount of carboxyl groups. Here, the same trends are observed with reference ta-C under oxygen plasma treatment. For both materials, a concentrated nitric acid treatment has only a subtle effect, which follows the same trend as the oxygen plasma treatment. Using this knowledge, we can selectively produce materials with higher functional group surface loading than has been reported earlier, paving the way for application specific material fabrication.},
doi = {10.1063/1.5113484},
journal = {AIP Advances},
number = [8],
volume = [9],
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {7}
}

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