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Title: Two Leading ENSO Modes and El Niño Types in the Zebiak–Cane Model

Abstract

Modern instrumental records reveal that El Niño events differ in their spatial patterns and temporal evolutions. Attempts have been made to categorize them roughly into two main types: eastern Pacific (EP; or cold tongue) and central Pacific (CP; or warm pool) El Niño events. In this study, a modified version of the Zebiak–Cane (MZC) coupled model is used to examine the dynamics of these two types of El Niño events. Linear eigenanalysis of the model is conducted to show that there are two leading El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) modes with their SST patterns resembling those of two types of El Niño. Thus, they are referred to as the EP and CP ENSO modes. These two modes are sensitive to changes in the mean states. The heat budget analyses demonstrate that the EP (CP) mode is dominated by thermocline (zonal advective) feedback. Therefore, the weak (strong) mean wind stress and deep (shallow) mean thermocline prefer the EP (CP) ENSO mode because of the relative dominance of thermocline (zonal advective) feedback under such a mean state. Consistent with the linear stability analysis, the occurrence ratio of CP/EP El Niño events in the nonlinear simulations generally increases toward the regime where the linearmore » CP ENSO mode has relatively higher growth rate. These analyses suggest that the coexistence of two leading ENSO modes is responsible for two types of El Niño simulated in the MZC model. This model result may provide a plausible scenario for the observed ENSO diversity.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]
  1. Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao (China)
  2. Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1541844
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0005110
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Climate
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 31; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 0894-8755
Publisher:
American Meteorological Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
Meteorology & Atmospheric Sciences

Citation Formats

Xie, Ruihuang, and Jin, Fei-Fei. Two Leading ENSO Modes and El Niño Types in the Zebiak–Cane Model. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1175/jcli-d-17-0469.1.
Xie, Ruihuang, & Jin, Fei-Fei. Two Leading ENSO Modes and El Niño Types in the Zebiak–Cane Model. United States. doi:10.1175/jcli-d-17-0469.1.
Xie, Ruihuang, and Jin, Fei-Fei. Mon . "Two Leading ENSO Modes and El Niño Types in the Zebiak–Cane Model". United States. doi:10.1175/jcli-d-17-0469.1. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1541844.
@article{osti_1541844,
title = {Two Leading ENSO Modes and El Niño Types in the Zebiak–Cane Model},
author = {Xie, Ruihuang and Jin, Fei-Fei},
abstractNote = {Modern instrumental records reveal that El Niño events differ in their spatial patterns and temporal evolutions. Attempts have been made to categorize them roughly into two main types: eastern Pacific (EP; or cold tongue) and central Pacific (CP; or warm pool) El Niño events. In this study, a modified version of the Zebiak–Cane (MZC) coupled model is used to examine the dynamics of these two types of El Niño events. Linear eigenanalysis of the model is conducted to show that there are two leading El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) modes with their SST patterns resembling those of two types of El Niño. Thus, they are referred to as the EP and CP ENSO modes. These two modes are sensitive to changes in the mean states. The heat budget analyses demonstrate that the EP (CP) mode is dominated by thermocline (zonal advective) feedback. Therefore, the weak (strong) mean wind stress and deep (shallow) mean thermocline prefer the EP (CP) ENSO mode because of the relative dominance of thermocline (zonal advective) feedback under such a mean state. Consistent with the linear stability analysis, the occurrence ratio of CP/EP El Niño events in the nonlinear simulations generally increases toward the regime where the linear CP ENSO mode has relatively higher growth rate. These analyses suggest that the coexistence of two leading ENSO modes is responsible for two types of El Niño simulated in the MZC model. This model result may provide a plausible scenario for the observed ENSO diversity.},
doi = {10.1175/jcli-d-17-0469.1},
journal = {Journal of Climate},
number = 5,
volume = 31,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {2}
}

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