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Title: Supernovae 2016bdu and 2005gl, and their link with SN 2009ip-like transients: another piece of the puzzle

Abstract

Supernova (SN) 2016bdu is an unusual transient resembling SN 2009ip. SN 2009ip-like events are characterized by a long-lasting phase of erratic variability that ends with two luminous outbursts a few weeks apart. The second outburst is significantly more luminous (about 3 mag) than the first. In the case of SN 2016bdu, the first outburst (Event A) reached an absolute magnitude Mr ≈ -15.3 mag, while the second one (Event B) occurred over one month later and reached M r ≈ -18 mag. By inspecting archival data, a faint source at the position of SN 2016bdu is several times in the past few years. We interpret these detections as signatures of a phase of erratic variability, similar to that experienced by SN 2009ip between 2008 and mid-2012, and resembling the currently observed variability of the luminous blue variable SN 2000ch in NGC 3432. Spectroscopic monitoring of SN 2016bdu during the second peak initially shows features typical of an SN IIn. One month after the Event B maximum, the spectra develop broad Balmer lines with P Cygni profiles and broad metal features. At these late phases, the spectra resemble those of a typical Type II SN. All members of this SN 2009ip-likemore » group are remarkably similar to the Type IIn SN 2005gl. For this object, the claim of a terminal SN explosion is supported by the disappearance of the progenitor star. While the similarity with SN 2005gl supports a genuine SN explosion scenario for SN 2009ip-like events, the unequivocal detection of nucleosynthesized elements in their nebular spectra is still missing.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [4];  [1];  [5];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [6];  [7]; ORCiD logo [8];  [9];  [10];  [11];  [11];  [10];  [2];  [12];  [11] more »;  [6];  [11];  [13];  [14];  [15];  [11];  [2];  [16];  [7];  [10];  [17];  [18];  [11];  [19];  [11];  [7];  [20];  [21];  [22];  [23];  [14];  [24];  [25];  [26];  [11];  [27];  [19];  [28];  [11];  [11];  [11];  [11];  [11];  [10];  [5] « less
  1. Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF), Padova (Italy). Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova
  2. The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)
  3. Univ. College Dublin (Ireland); Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)
  4. Peking Univ., Beijing (China)
  5. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  6. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)
  7. Univ. of Turku, Piikkiö, (Finland). Tuorla Observatory
  8. Univ. of Turku, Piikkiö, (Finland). Tuorla Observatory; Nordic Optical Telescope, Santa Cruz de La Palma (Spain)
  9. Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA (United States)
  10. Queen's Univ., Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)
  11. Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)
  12. Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)
  13. Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark). The Niels Bohr Inst.; Aarhus Univ. (Denmark)
  14. Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel)
  15. Gran Telescopio Canarias (GRANTECAN), La Palma, (Spain); Inst. de Astrofísica de Canarias, Tenerife, (Spain)
  16. Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (CSIC - IEEC), Barcelona (Spain)
  17. Antelope Hills Observatory, Bennett, CO (United States)
  18. 66 Cours de Lassus, F-66000 Perpignan, (France)
  19. Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)
  20. Univ. of Cádiz, Algeciras, (Spain)
  21. Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)
  22. Groupe SNAude France, Vallauris, (France)
  23. Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF), Padova (Italy). Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova; Univ. di Padova (Italy)
  24. Osservatorio Astronomico di Castelmartini, Pistoia (Italy)
  25. Space Telescope Science Inst., Baltimore, MD (United States)
  26. Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan); Nayoro Observatory, Hokkaido (Japan); VSOLJ, Hokkaido (Japan)
  27. Aarhus Univ. (Denmark)
  28. Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF), Padova (Italy). Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova; Univ. di Padova (Italy); Queen's Univ., Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Krell Institute, Ames, IA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1540615
Grant/Contract Number:  
FG02-97ER25308
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 474; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Publisher:
Royal Astronomical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; Astronomy & Astrophysics

Citation Formats

Pastorello, A., Kochanek, C. S., Fraser, M., Dong, Subo, Elias-Rosa, N., Filippenko, A. V., Benetti, S., Cappellaro, E., Tomasella, L., Drake, A. J., Harmanen, J., Reynolds, T., Shappee, B. J., Smartt, S. J., Chambers, K. C., Huber, M. E., Smith, K., Stanek, K. Z., Christensen, E. J., Denneau, L., Djorgovski, S. G., Flewelling, H., Gall, C., Gal-Yam, A., Geier, S., Heinze, A., Holoien, T. W. -S., Isern, J., Kangas, T., Kankare, E., Koff, R. A., Llapasset, J. -M., Lowe, T. B., Lundqvist, P., Magnier, E. A., Mattila, S., Morales-Garoffolo, A., Mutel, R., Nicolas, J., Ochner, P., Ofek, E. O., Prosperi, E., Rest, A., Sano, Y., Stalder, B., Stritzinger, M. D., Taddia, F., Terreran, G., Tonry, J. L., Wainscoat, R. J., Waters, C., Weiland, H., Willman, M., Young, D. R., and Zheng, W. Supernovae 2016bdu and 2005gl, and their link with SN 2009ip-like transients: another piece of the puzzle. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1093/mnras/stx2668.
Pastorello, A., Kochanek, C. S., Fraser, M., Dong, Subo, Elias-Rosa, N., Filippenko, A. V., Benetti, S., Cappellaro, E., Tomasella, L., Drake, A. J., Harmanen, J., Reynolds, T., Shappee, B. J., Smartt, S. J., Chambers, K. C., Huber, M. E., Smith, K., Stanek, K. Z., Christensen, E. J., Denneau, L., Djorgovski, S. G., Flewelling, H., Gall, C., Gal-Yam, A., Geier, S., Heinze, A., Holoien, T. W. -S., Isern, J., Kangas, T., Kankare, E., Koff, R. A., Llapasset, J. -M., Lowe, T. B., Lundqvist, P., Magnier, E. A., Mattila, S., Morales-Garoffolo, A., Mutel, R., Nicolas, J., Ochner, P., Ofek, E. O., Prosperi, E., Rest, A., Sano, Y., Stalder, B., Stritzinger, M. D., Taddia, F., Terreran, G., Tonry, J. L., Wainscoat, R. J., Waters, C., Weiland, H., Willman, M., Young, D. R., & Zheng, W. Supernovae 2016bdu and 2005gl, and their link with SN 2009ip-like transients: another piece of the puzzle. United States. doi:10.1093/mnras/stx2668.
Pastorello, A., Kochanek, C. S., Fraser, M., Dong, Subo, Elias-Rosa, N., Filippenko, A. V., Benetti, S., Cappellaro, E., Tomasella, L., Drake, A. J., Harmanen, J., Reynolds, T., Shappee, B. J., Smartt, S. J., Chambers, K. C., Huber, M. E., Smith, K., Stanek, K. Z., Christensen, E. J., Denneau, L., Djorgovski, S. G., Flewelling, H., Gall, C., Gal-Yam, A., Geier, S., Heinze, A., Holoien, T. W. -S., Isern, J., Kangas, T., Kankare, E., Koff, R. A., Llapasset, J. -M., Lowe, T. B., Lundqvist, P., Magnier, E. A., Mattila, S., Morales-Garoffolo, A., Mutel, R., Nicolas, J., Ochner, P., Ofek, E. O., Prosperi, E., Rest, A., Sano, Y., Stalder, B., Stritzinger, M. D., Taddia, F., Terreran, G., Tonry, J. L., Wainscoat, R. J., Waters, C., Weiland, H., Willman, M., Young, D. R., and Zheng, W. Fri . "Supernovae 2016bdu and 2005gl, and their link with SN 2009ip-like transients: another piece of the puzzle". United States. doi:10.1093/mnras/stx2668. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1540615.
@article{osti_1540615,
title = {Supernovae 2016bdu and 2005gl, and their link with SN 2009ip-like transients: another piece of the puzzle},
author = {Pastorello, A. and Kochanek, C. S. and Fraser, M. and Dong, Subo and Elias-Rosa, N. and Filippenko, A. V. and Benetti, S. and Cappellaro, E. and Tomasella, L. and Drake, A. J. and Harmanen, J. and Reynolds, T. and Shappee, B. J. and Smartt, S. J. and Chambers, K. C. and Huber, M. E. and Smith, K. and Stanek, K. Z. and Christensen, E. J. and Denneau, L. and Djorgovski, S. G. and Flewelling, H. and Gall, C. and Gal-Yam, A. and Geier, S. and Heinze, A. and Holoien, T. W. -S. and Isern, J. and Kangas, T. and Kankare, E. and Koff, R. A. and Llapasset, J. -M. and Lowe, T. B. and Lundqvist, P. and Magnier, E. A. and Mattila, S. and Morales-Garoffolo, A. and Mutel, R. and Nicolas, J. and Ochner, P. and Ofek, E. O. and Prosperi, E. and Rest, A. and Sano, Y. and Stalder, B. and Stritzinger, M. D. and Taddia, F. and Terreran, G. and Tonry, J. L. and Wainscoat, R. J. and Waters, C. and Weiland, H. and Willman, M. and Young, D. R. and Zheng, W.},
abstractNote = {Supernova (SN) 2016bdu is an unusual transient resembling SN 2009ip. SN 2009ip-like events are characterized by a long-lasting phase of erratic variability that ends with two luminous outbursts a few weeks apart. The second outburst is significantly more luminous (about 3 mag) than the first. In the case of SN 2016bdu, the first outburst (Event A) reached an absolute magnitude Mr ≈ -15.3 mag, while the second one (Event B) occurred over one month later and reached Mr ≈ -18 mag. By inspecting archival data, a faint source at the position of SN 2016bdu is several times in the past few years. We interpret these detections as signatures of a phase of erratic variability, similar to that experienced by SN 2009ip between 2008 and mid-2012, and resembling the currently observed variability of the luminous blue variable SN 2000ch in NGC 3432. Spectroscopic monitoring of SN 2016bdu during the second peak initially shows features typical of an SN IIn. One month after the Event B maximum, the spectra develop broad Balmer lines with P Cygni profiles and broad metal features. At these late phases, the spectra resemble those of a typical Type II SN. All members of this SN 2009ip-like group are remarkably similar to the Type IIn SN 2005gl. For this object, the claim of a terminal SN explosion is supported by the disappearance of the progenitor star. While the similarity with SN 2005gl supports a genuine SN explosion scenario for SN 2009ip-like events, the unequivocal detection of nucleosynthesized elements in their nebular spectra is still missing.},
doi = {10.1093/mnras/stx2668},
journal = {Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
number = 1,
volume = 474,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {10}
}

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Update on H i data collection from Green Bank, Parkes and Arecibo telescopes for the Cosmic Flows project
journal, December 2014

  • Courtois, Hélène M.; Tully, R. Brent
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 447, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu2405

SETTING UBVRI PHOTOMETRIC ZERO-POINTS USING SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY ugriz MAGNITUDES
journal, December 2007


Optical and infrared spectroscopy of the type IIn SN 1998S: days 3-127
journal, August 2001


INTERACTING SUPERNOVAE AND SUPERNOVA IMPOSTORS: SN 2009ip, IS THIS THE END?
journal, March 2013


Massive stars exploding in a He-rich circumstellar medium - I. Type Ibn (SN 2006jc-like) events
journal, September 2008


THE 2012 RISE OF THE REMARKABLE TYPE IIn SN 2009ip
journal, January 2013


RADIO AND X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF SN 2006jd: ANOTHER STRONGLY INTERACTING TYPE IIn SUPERNOVA
journal, August 2012


Pulsational pair instability as an explanation for the most luminous supernovae
journal, November 2007

  • Woosley, S. E.; Blinnikov, S.; Heger, Alexander
  • Nature, Vol. 450, Issue 7168
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature06333

The type II supernova 1979c in M100 and the distance to the Virgo cluster
journal, March 1981

  • Branch, D.; Falk, S. W.; Uomoto, A. K.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 244
  • DOI: 10.1086/158755

Hydrogen-Poor Circumstellar Shells from Pulsational Pair-Instability Supernovae with Rapidly Rotating Progenitors
journal, November 2012


The spectacular evolution of Supernova 1996al over 15 yr: a low-energy explosion of a stripped massive star in a highly structured environment
journal, January 2016

  • Benetti, S.; Chugai, N. N.; Utrobin, V. P.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 456, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv2811

An explanation for the curious mass loss history of massive stars: From OB stars, through Luminous Blue Variables to Wolf-Rayet stars
journal, October 2002


The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS)
journal, February 2006

  • Skrutskie, M. F.; Cutri, R. M.; Stiening, R.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 131, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/498708

Common Envelope Evolution Leading to Supernovae with Dense Interaction
journal, May 2012


CALTECH CORE-COLLAPSE PROJECT (CCCP) OBSERVATIONS OF TYPE IIn SUPERNOVAE: TYPICAL PROPERTIES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THEIR PROGENITOR STARS
journal, December 2011


First Results from the Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey
journal, April 2009


Line‐driven Stellar Winds: The Dynamical Role of Diffuse Radiation Gradients and Limitations to the Sobolev Approach
journal, January 1999

  • Owocki, S. P.; Puls, J.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 510, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/306561

WISeREP—An Interactive Supernova Data Repository
journal, July 2012

  • Yaron, Ofer; Gal-Yam, Avishay
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 124, Issue 917
  • DOI: 10.1086/666656

Supernovae from red supergiants with extensive mass loss: Supernovae from RSGs with extensive mass loss
journal, May 2011

  • Moriya, Takashi; Tominaga, Nozomu; Blinnikov, Sergei I.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 415, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.18689.x

Hubble Space Telescope and Ground‐based Observations of SN 1993J and SN 1998S: CNO Processing in the Progenitors
journal, April 2005

  • Fransson, Claes; Challis, Peter M.; Chevalier, Roger A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 622, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/426495

Was the nineteenth century giant eruption of Eta Carinae a merger event in a triple system?
journal, January 2016

  • Portegies Zwart, S. F.; van den Heuvel, E. P. J.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 456, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv2787

Models of interacting supernovae and their spectral diversity
journal, February 2016

  • Dessart, Luc; Hillier, D. John; Audit, Edouard
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 458, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw336

Radiatively Driven Winds and the Shaping of Bipolar Luminous Blue Variable Nebulae
journal, December 2002

  • Dwarkadas, Vikram V.; Owocki, Stanley P.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 581, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/344257

Type Ibn Supernovae Show Photometric Homogeneity and Spectral Diversity at Maximum Light
journal, February 2017


CLUES TO THE NATURE OF SN 2009ip FROM PHOTOMETRIC AND SPECTROSCOPIC EVOLUTION TO LATE TIMES
journal, May 2014


Massive star mergers and the recent transient in NGC 4490: a more massive cousin of V838 Mon and V1309 Sco
journal, February 2016

  • Smith, Nathan; Andrews, Jennifer E.; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 458, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw219

THE UNUSUAL TEMPORAL AND SPECTRAL EVOLUTION OF SN2011ht. II. PECULIAR TYPE IIn OR IMPOSTOR?
journal, November 2012

  • Humphreys, Roberta M.; Davidson, Kris; Jones, Terry J.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 760, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/760/1/93

Clues to the nature of SN 2009ip – II. The continuing photometric and spectroscopic evolution to 1000 days
journal, April 2017

  • Graham, M. L.; Bigley, A.; Mauerhan, J. C.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 469, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx948

Faint supernovae and supernova impostors: case studies of SN 2002kg/NGC 2403-V37 and SN 2003gm
journal, May 2006


SN 2009E: a faint clone of SN 1987A
journal, January 2012


Multiple major outbursts from a restless luminous blue variable in NGC 3432: Recurrent outbursts in an unusual LBV in NGC 3432
journal, September 2010


Emission from circumstellar interaction in normal Type II supernovae
journal, January 1994

  • Chevalier, Roger A.; Fransson, Claes
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 420
  • DOI: 10.1086/173557

The Rotation Rates of Massive Stars: the role of Binary Interaction Through Tides, mass Transfer, and Mergers
journal, February 2013


SN 2009ip and SN 2010mc: core-collapse Type IIn supernovae arising from blue supergiants
journal, December 2013

  • Smith, Nathan; Mauerhan, Jon C.; Prieto, Jose L.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 438, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt2269

Will a Black Hole Soon Emerge from SN 1997D?
journal, August 1998

  • Zampieri, Luca; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Colpi, Monica
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 502, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/311511