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Title: An operando X-ray diffraction study of chloroaluminate anion-graphite intercalation in aluminum batteries

Abstract

We researched rechargeable aluminum (Al) batteries composed of an Al negative electrode, a graphite positive electrode, and an ionic liquid (IL) electrolyte at temperatures down to –40 °C. The reversible battery discharge capacity at low temperatures could be superior to that at room temperature. In situ/operando electrochemical and synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments combined with theoretical modeling revealed stable AlCl 4 /graphite intercalation up to stage 3 at low temperatures, whereas intercalation was reversible up to stage 4 at room temperature (RT). The higher-degree anion/graphite intercalation at low temperatures affords rechargeable Al battery with higher discharge voltage (up to 2.5 V, a record for Al battery) and energy density. A remarkable cycle life of >20,000 cycles at a rate of 6C (10 minutes charge time) was achievable for Al battery operating at low temperatures, relating to a >50-year battery life if charged/discharged once daily.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [2]; ORCiD logo [6];  [3];  [2]
  1. Stanford Univ., CA (United States); National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan)
  2. Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
  3. Freie Univ., Berlin (Germany)
  4. National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan)
  5. Shandong Univ., Qingdao (China)
  6. National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan); National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu (Taiwan)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC); Ministry of Education of Taiwan
OSTI Identifier:
1540292
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0016165
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 115; Journal Issue: 22; Journal ID: ISSN 0027-8424
Publisher:
National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; aluminum batteries; ionic liquids; operando X-ray diffraction; low temperature; energy storage

Citation Formats

Pan, Chun-Jern, Yuan, Chunze, Zhu, Guanzhou, Zhang, Qian, Huang, Chen-Jui, Lin, Meng-Chang, Angell, Michael, Hwang, Bing-Joe, Kaghazchi, Payam, and Dai, Hongjie. An operando X-ray diffraction study of chloroaluminate anion-graphite intercalation in aluminum batteries. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1073/pnas.1803576115.
Pan, Chun-Jern, Yuan, Chunze, Zhu, Guanzhou, Zhang, Qian, Huang, Chen-Jui, Lin, Meng-Chang, Angell, Michael, Hwang, Bing-Joe, Kaghazchi, Payam, & Dai, Hongjie. An operando X-ray diffraction study of chloroaluminate anion-graphite intercalation in aluminum batteries. United States. doi:10.1073/pnas.1803576115.
Pan, Chun-Jern, Yuan, Chunze, Zhu, Guanzhou, Zhang, Qian, Huang, Chen-Jui, Lin, Meng-Chang, Angell, Michael, Hwang, Bing-Joe, Kaghazchi, Payam, and Dai, Hongjie. Mon . "An operando X-ray diffraction study of chloroaluminate anion-graphite intercalation in aluminum batteries". United States. doi:10.1073/pnas.1803576115. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1540292.
@article{osti_1540292,
title = {An operando X-ray diffraction study of chloroaluminate anion-graphite intercalation in aluminum batteries},
author = {Pan, Chun-Jern and Yuan, Chunze and Zhu, Guanzhou and Zhang, Qian and Huang, Chen-Jui and Lin, Meng-Chang and Angell, Michael and Hwang, Bing-Joe and Kaghazchi, Payam and Dai, Hongjie},
abstractNote = {We researched rechargeable aluminum (Al) batteries composed of an Al negative electrode, a graphite positive electrode, and an ionic liquid (IL) electrolyte at temperatures down to –40 °C. The reversible battery discharge capacity at low temperatures could be superior to that at room temperature. In situ/operando electrochemical and synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments combined with theoretical modeling revealed stable AlCl4–/graphite intercalation up to stage 3 at low temperatures, whereas intercalation was reversible up to stage 4 at room temperature (RT). The higher-degree anion/graphite intercalation at low temperatures affords rechargeable Al battery with higher discharge voltage (up to 2.5 V, a record for Al battery) and energy density. A remarkable cycle life of >20,000 cycles at a rate of 6C (10 minutes charge time) was achievable for Al battery operating at low temperatures, relating to a >50-year battery life if charged/discharged once daily.},
doi = {10.1073/pnas.1803576115},
journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
number = 22,
volume = 115,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {5}
}

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