skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Experiments and models of MHD jets and their relevance to astrophysics and solar physics

Abstract

Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD)-driven jets involve poloidal and toroidal magnetic fields, finite pressure gradients, and unbalanced forces. The mechanism driving these jets is first discussed qualitatively by decomposing the magnetic force into a curvature and a gradient component. The mechanism is then considered quantitatively by consideration of all terms in the three components of the MHD equation of motion and in addition, the implications of Ampere's law, Faraday's law, the ideal Ohm's law, and the equation of continuity. Our analysis shows that jets are self-collimating with the tip of the jet moving more slowly than the main column of the jet so there is a continuous stagnation near the tip in the jet frame. Experiments supporting these conclusions are discussed and it is shown how this mechanism relates to jets in astrophysical and solar corona contexts.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]
  1. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Applied Physics and Materials Science
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy (ARPA-E); USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1540139
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1425536; OSTI ID: 1574720
Grant/Contract Number:  
AR0000565; FG02-04ER54755
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physics of Plasmas
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 25; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 1070-664X
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; Physics

Citation Formats

Bellan, Paul M. Experiments and models of MHD jets and their relevance to astrophysics and solar physics. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1063/1.5009571.
Bellan, Paul M. Experiments and models of MHD jets and their relevance to astrophysics and solar physics. United States. doi:10.1063/1.5009571.
Bellan, Paul M. Mon . "Experiments and models of MHD jets and their relevance to astrophysics and solar physics". United States. doi:10.1063/1.5009571. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1540139.
@article{osti_1540139,
title = {Experiments and models of MHD jets and their relevance to astrophysics and solar physics},
author = {Bellan, Paul M.},
abstractNote = {Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD)-driven jets involve poloidal and toroidal magnetic fields, finite pressure gradients, and unbalanced forces. The mechanism driving these jets is first discussed qualitatively by decomposing the magnetic force into a curvature and a gradient component. The mechanism is then considered quantitatively by consideration of all terms in the three components of the MHD equation of motion and in addition, the implications of Ampere's law, Faraday's law, the ideal Ohm's law, and the equation of continuity. Our analysis shows that jets are self-collimating with the tip of the jet moving more slowly than the main column of the jet so there is a continuous stagnation near the tip in the jet frame. Experiments supporting these conclusions are discussed and it is shown how this mechanism relates to jets in astrophysical and solar corona contexts.},
doi = {10.1063/1.5009571},
journal = {Physics of Plasmas},
number = 5,
volume = 25,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {3}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 4 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Scaled laboratory experiments explain the kink behaviour of the Crab Nebula jet
journal, October 2016

  • Li, C. K.; Tzeferacos, P.; Lamb, D.
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 7, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms13081

MHD Collimation Mechanism in Arched Flux Ropes Characterized Using Volumetric, Time‐Dependent B ‐Vector Measurements
journal, October 2017

  • Haw, Magnus A.; Bellan, Paul M.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 44, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1002/2017GL074505

Grad–Shafranov Reconstruction of Magnetic Clouds: Overview and Improvements
journal, October 2011


Structures produced by the collision of extragalactic jets with dense clouds
journal, October 1999


Magnetic jets from swirling discs
journal, July 2006


Fundamentals of Space Environment Science
journal, January 2005

  • Jatenco-Pereira, Vera; Chian, Abraham C. -L.; Valdes-Galicia, José F.
  • Advances in Space Research, Vol. 35, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2005.01.108

Relaxation and magnetic reconnection in plasmas
journal, July 1986


On why discs generate magnetic towers and collimate jets
journal, June 2003


Scaling of Efficiency with Applied Magnetic Field in Magnetoplasmadynamic Thrusters
journal, May 2012

  • Lev, Dan R.; Choueiri, Edgar Y.
  • Journal of Propulsion and Power, Vol. 28, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.2514/1.B34194

Generation of episodic magnetically driven plasma jets in a radial foil Z-pinch
journal, November 2010

  • Suzuki-Vidal, Francisco; Lebedev, Sergey V.; Bland, Simon N.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 17, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3504221

The design and operation of the SPHEX spheromak
journal, May 1997

  • Rusbridge, M. G.; Gee, S. J.; Browning, P. K.
  • Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, Vol. 39, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1088/0741-3335/39/5/003

Flow velocity measurement in high-current arcs using Doppler-shifted plasma scattering
journal, August 1977


Model for how an accretion disk drives astrophysical jets and sheds angular momentum
journal, October 2017


What does it take to launch self-confined jets from astrophysical accretion discs?
journal, March 2013


Hydromagnetic flows from accretion discs and the production of radio jets
journal, August 1982

  • Blandford, R. D.; Payne, D. G.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 199, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/199.4.883

Dynamic and Stagnating Plasma Flow Leading to Magnetic-Flux-Tube Collimation
journal, July 2005


Magnetic reconnection from a multiscale instability cascade
journal, February 2012


Nonequilibrium Alfvénic Plasma Jets Associated with Spheromak Formation
journal, September 2009


Critical regimes and magnetohydrodynamic instabilities in a magneto-plasma-dynamic thruster
journal, October 2004

  • Zuin, M.; Cavazzana, R.; Martines, E.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 11, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1786593

Magnetically driven relativistic jets and winds: Exact solutions
journal, September 1994

  • Contopoulos, J.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 432
  • DOI: 10.1086/174590

Nonlinear force-free magnetic fields
journal, January 1982


Magnetohydrodynamic scaling: From astrophysics to the laboratory
journal, May 2001

  • Ryutov, D. D.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 8, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1344562

Magnetically driven jets and winds
journal, September 1991

  • Lovelace, R. V. E.; Berk, H. L.; Contopoulos, J.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 379
  • DOI: 10.1086/170544

Numerical Simulations of Astrophysical Jets from Keplerian Disks. I. Stationary Models
journal, June 1997

  • Ouyed, Rachid; Pudritz, Ralph E.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 482, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/304170

Three-Dimensional mhd Simulation of the Caltech Plasma jet Experiment: First Results
journal, July 2014


Plasma tubes becoming collimated as a result of magnetohydrodynamic pumping
journal, June 2010

  • Yun, Gunsu S.; Bellan, Paul M.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 17, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3437075

Why current-carrying magnetic flux tubes gobble up plasma and become thin as a result
journal, May 2003


Relaxation of Toroidal Plasma and Generation of Reverse Magnetic Fields
journal, November 1974


Review of spheromak research
journal, June 1994


Integrated accretion disc angular momentum removal and astrophysical jet acceleration mechanism
journal, March 2016

  • Bellan, P. M.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 458, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw562

Modeling Extragalactic jets
journal, September 1998


A High‐Resolution X‐Ray Image of the Jet in M87
journal, January 2002

  • Marshall, H. L.; Miller, B. P.; Davis, D. S.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 564, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/324396

Magnetic Fields in Astrophysical Jets: From Launch to Termination
journal, June 2012

  • Pudritz, Ralph E.; Hardcastle, Martin J.; Gabuzda, Denise C.
  • Space Science Reviews, Vol. 169, Issue 1-4
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11214-012-9895-z

Radio Jet Interactions with Massive Clouds
journal, May 2000

  • Wang, Z.; Wiita, Paul J.; Hooda, Jagbir S.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 534, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/308743

Magnetically Driven Flows in Arched Plasma Structures
journal, August 2012


Magnetically Self-Focussing Streams
journal, June 1934


On Hydromagnetic Equilibrium
journal, September 1958

  • Woltjer, L.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 44, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.44.9.833

Magnetic reconnection and energy release in the solar corona by Taylor relaxation
journal, February 1991

  • Vekstein, G. E.; Priest, E. R.; Steele, C. D. C.
  • Solar Physics, Vol. 131, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00151640

Coronal Magnetic Field Models
journal, July 2015

  • Wiegelmann, Thomas; Petrie, Gordon J. D.; Riley, Pete
  • Space Science Reviews, Vol. 210, Issue 1-4
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11214-015-0178-3

A Magnetohydrodynamic Model of the m87 jet. i. Superluminal knot Ejections from Hst-1 as Trails of quad Relativistic mhd Shocks
journal, September 2010


CONFRONTING THREE-DIMENSIONAL TIME-DEPENDENT JET SIMULATIONS WITH HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS
journal, September 2010


Performance of a Hydromagnetic Plasma Gun
journal, January 1960


On the jets, kinks, and spheromaks formed by a planar magnetized coaxial gun
journal, March 2005

  • Hsu, S. C.; Bellan, P. M.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 12, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1850921

Observations of magnetic flux compression in jet impact experiments
journal, September 2011


Magnetic tower outflows from a radial wire array Z-pinch
journal, July 2005


Physical constraints on the coefficients of Fourier expansions in cylindrical coordinates
journal, November 1990

  • Lewis, H. Ralph; Bellan, Paul M.
  • Journal of Mathematical Physics, Vol. 31, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.529009

Magnetohydrodynamic Models of Axisymmetric Protostellar Jets
journal, September 2000

  • Stone, James M.; Hardee, Philip E.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 540, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/309289

Magnetic fields and the structure of the solar corona: I: Methods of calculating coronal fields
journal, September 1969

  • Altschuler, Martin D.; Newkirk, Gordon
  • Solar Physics, Vol. 9, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00145734

A Theorem on Force-Free Magnetic Fields
journal, June 1958

  • Woltjer, L.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 44, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.44.6.489

Sweeping-magnetic-twist mechanism for the acceleration of jets in the solar atmosphere
journal, February 1986

  • Shibata, Kazunari; Uchida, Yutaka
  • Solar Physics, Vol. 103, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00147831

Plasmastr�mungen in Lichtb�gen infolge eigenmagnetischer Kompression
journal, February 1955


Acceleration of coronal mass ejections
journal, January 2003


A Note on Equatorial Acceleration in a Magnetic Star
journal, June 1961