skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Process-Based Model Evaluation Using Surface Energy Budget Observations in Central Greenland

Abstract

Energy exchange at the Greenland ice sheet surface governs surface temperature variability, a factor critical for representing surface melt. Physical processes link driving forces to subsequent surface energy budget responses, including radiative, turbulent, and ground heat fluxes, and ultimately control surface temperature evolution. A reanalysis product (ERA-Interim, ERA-I), operational model (Climate Forecast System version 2, CFSv2), and climate model (Community Earth System Model, CESM) are evaluated using a comprehensive set of surface energy budget observations and process-based relationships obtained at Summit, Greenland. Simulated downwelling longwave radiation is underestimated, which is linked to a deficiency of liquid-bearing clouds. Lower than observed surface albedo, especially in ERA-I, compensates for summer deficiencies in downwelling longwave radiation. In winter, such deficiencies are compensated by an overestimation of the sensible heat flux. Process-based relationships convey that all three models underestimate the response of surface temperature to changes in radiative forcing, primarily due to an overactive ground heat flux response in ERA-I, turbulent heat fluxes in CFSv2, and sensible heat flux in CESM. Cross comparison of three distinct models indicates that the ground heat flux response for ERA-I, CFSv2, and CESM is too high, too low, and comparatively accurate, respectively, signifying the benefit of using anmore » advanced representation of snow properties. Relatively small biases in CESM surface albedo suggest that advances in the representation of cloud microphysics result in more realistic radiative forcing. These results provide insight into model strengths and deficiencies, indicating the importance of representing physical processes when portraying cloud impacts on surface temperature variability.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [3]
  1. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.
  2. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
  3. Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1539727
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1437342
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0013306
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 123; Journal Issue: 10; Journal ID: ISSN 2169-897X
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; Meteorology & Atmospheric Sciences

Citation Formats

Miller, Nathaniel B., Shupe, Matthew D., Lenaerts, Jan T. M., Kay, Jennifer E., de Boer, Gijs, and Bennartz, Ralf. Process-Based Model Evaluation Using Surface Energy Budget Observations in Central Greenland. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1029/2017jd027377.
Miller, Nathaniel B., Shupe, Matthew D., Lenaerts, Jan T. M., Kay, Jennifer E., de Boer, Gijs, & Bennartz, Ralf. Process-Based Model Evaluation Using Surface Energy Budget Observations in Central Greenland. United States. doi:10.1029/2017jd027377.
Miller, Nathaniel B., Shupe, Matthew D., Lenaerts, Jan T. M., Kay, Jennifer E., de Boer, Gijs, and Bennartz, Ralf. Wed . "Process-Based Model Evaluation Using Surface Energy Budget Observations in Central Greenland". United States. doi:10.1029/2017jd027377. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1539727.
@article{osti_1539727,
title = {Process-Based Model Evaluation Using Surface Energy Budget Observations in Central Greenland},
author = {Miller, Nathaniel B. and Shupe, Matthew D. and Lenaerts, Jan T. M. and Kay, Jennifer E. and de Boer, Gijs and Bennartz, Ralf},
abstractNote = {Energy exchange at the Greenland ice sheet surface governs surface temperature variability, a factor critical for representing surface melt. Physical processes link driving forces to subsequent surface energy budget responses, including radiative, turbulent, and ground heat fluxes, and ultimately control surface temperature evolution. A reanalysis product (ERA-Interim, ERA-I), operational model (Climate Forecast System version 2, CFSv2), and climate model (Community Earth System Model, CESM) are evaluated using a comprehensive set of surface energy budget observations and process-based relationships obtained at Summit, Greenland. Simulated downwelling longwave radiation is underestimated, which is linked to a deficiency of liquid-bearing clouds. Lower than observed surface albedo, especially in ERA-I, compensates for summer deficiencies in downwelling longwave radiation. In winter, such deficiencies are compensated by an overestimation of the sensible heat flux. Process-based relationships convey that all three models underestimate the response of surface temperature to changes in radiative forcing, primarily due to an overactive ground heat flux response in ERA-I, turbulent heat fluxes in CFSv2, and sensible heat flux in CESM. Cross comparison of three distinct models indicates that the ground heat flux response for ERA-I, CFSv2, and CESM is too high, too low, and comparatively accurate, respectively, signifying the benefit of using an advanced representation of snow properties. Relatively small biases in CESM surface albedo suggest that advances in the representation of cloud microphysics result in more realistic radiative forcing. These results provide insight into model strengths and deficiencies, indicating the importance of representing physical processes when portraying cloud impacts on surface temperature variability.},
doi = {10.1029/2017jd027377},
journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres},
number = 10,
volume = 123,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {5}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 2 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layers and Diurnal Cycles: Challenges for Weather and Climate Models
journal, November 2013

  • Holtslag, A. A. M.; Svensson, G.; Baas, P.
  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 94, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00187.1

Comparing MODIS daily snow albedo to spectral albedo field measurements in Central Greenland
journal, January 2014


Surface climatology of the Greenland Ice Sheet: Greenland Climate Network 1995-1999
journal, December 2001

  • Steffen, Konrad; Box, Jason
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 106, Issue D24
  • DOI: 10.1029/2001JD900161

Cloud Radiative Forcing at Summit, Greenland
journal, August 2015

  • Miller, Nathaniel B.; Shupe, Matthew D.; Cox, Christopher J.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 28, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0076.1

Measurements near the Atmospheric Surface Flux Group tower at SHEBA: Near-surface conditions and surface energy budget
journal, January 2002


The Community Earth System Model: A Framework for Collaborative Research
journal, September 2013

  • Hurrell, James W.; Holland, M. M.; Gent, P. R.
  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 94, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00121.1

The Energy Balance Closure Problem: an Overview
journal, September 2008


Millions projected to be at risk from sea-level rise in the continental United States
journal, March 2016

  • Hauer, Mathew E.; Evans, Jason M.; Mishra, Deepak R.
  • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 6, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1038/nclimate2961

The pattern of anthropogenic signal emergence in Greenland Ice Sheet surface mass balance
journal, August 2014

  • Fyke, Jeremy G.; Vizcaíno, Miren; Lipscomb, William H.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 41, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014GL060735

A Dozen Years of Temperature Observations at the Summit: Central Greenland Automatic Weather Stations 1987–99
journal, April 2001


Arctic Observation and Reanalysis Integrated System: A New Data Product for Validation and Climate Study
journal, June 2016

  • Christensen, Matthew W.; Behrangi, Ali; L’ecuyer, Tristan S.
  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 97, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00273.1

Climatological Characteristics of Arctic and Antarctic Surface-Based Inversions
journal, October 2011

  • Zhang, Yehui; Seidel, Dian J.; Golaz, Jean-Christophe
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 24, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1175/2011JCLI4004.1

Surface energy budget at Summit, Greenland
dataset, January 2016

  • Colorado, University Of Colorado;University Of
  • Arctic Data Center
  • DOI: 10.18739/A2Z37J

Increased Runoff from Melt from the Greenland Ice Sheet: A Response to Global Warming
journal, January 2008

  • Hanna, Edward; Huybrechts, Philippe; Steffen, Konrad
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 21, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1175/2007JCLI1964.1

High and Dry: New Observations of Tropospheric and Cloud Properties above the Greenland Ice Sheet
journal, February 2013

  • Shupe, Matthew D.; Turner, David D.; Walden, Von P.
  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 94, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00249.1

A review of snow and ice albedo and the development of a new physically based broadband albedo parameterization
journal, January 2010

  • Gardner, Alex S.; Sharp, Martin J.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 115, Issue F1
  • DOI: 10.1029/2009JF001444

Recent Advances in Arctic Cloud and Climate Research
journal, October 2016

  • Kay, Jennifer E.; L’Ecuyer, Tristan; Chepfer, Helene
  • Current Climate Change Reports, Vol. 2, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1007/s40641-016-0051-9

Surface energy budget responses to radiative forcing at Summit, Greenland
journal, January 2017

  • Miller, Nathaniel B.; Shupe, Matthew D.; Cox, Christopher J.
  • The Cryosphere, Vol. 11, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.5194/tc-11-497-2017

A high-resolution record of Greenland mass balance: High-Resolution Greenland Mass Balance
journal, July 2016

  • McMillan, Malcolm; Leeson, Amber; Shepherd, Andrew
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 43, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1002/2016GL069666

Advanced Two-Moment Bulk Microphysics for Global Models. Part I: Off-Line Tests and Comparison with Other Schemes
journal, February 2015


Assessing and Improving the Quality of Unattended Radiation Observations in Antarctica
journal, September 2004


The vertical structure of the lower Arctic troposphere analysed from observations and the ERA-40 reanalysis
journal, January 2009

  • Tjernström, Michael; Graversen, Rune Grand
  • Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 135, Issue 639
  • DOI: 10.1002/qj.380

On the recent contribution of the Greenland ice sheet to sea level change
journal, January 2016

  • van den Broeke, Michiel R.; Enderlin, Ellyn M.; Howat, Ian M.
  • The Cryosphere, Vol. 10, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.5194/tc-10-1933-2016

Exceptional twentieth-century slowdown in Atlantic Ocean overturning circulation
journal, March 2015

  • Rahmstorf, Stefan; Box, Jason E.; Feulner, Georg
  • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 5, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1038/nclimate2554

Variability in the surface temperature and melt extent of the Greenland ice sheet from MODIS: TEMPERATURE AND MELT OF GREENLAND ICE
journal, May 2013

  • Hall, Dorothy K.; Comiso, Josefino C.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 40, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1002/grl.50240

The NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis
journal, August 2010

  • Saha, Suranjana; Moorthi, Shrinivas; Pan, Hua-Lu
  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 91, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1175/2010BAMS3001.1

Optical properties of snow
journal, January 1982


Comparison of Near-Surface Air Temperatures and MODIS Ice-Surface Temperatures at Summit, Greenland (2008–13)
journal, September 2014

  • Shuman, Christopher A.; Hall, Dorothy K.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.
  • Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, Vol. 53, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1175/JAMC-D-14-0023.1

July 2012 Greenland melt extent enhanced by low-level liquid clouds
journal, April 2013

  • Bennartz, R.; Shupe, M. D.; Turner, D. D.
  • Nature, Vol. 496, Issue 7443
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature12002

Evaluation of Turbulent Surface Flux Parameterizations for the Stable Surface Layer over Halley, Antarctica*
journal, January 2001


Surface Energy Fluxes of Arctic Winter Sea Ice in Barrow Strait
journal, November 1996


The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system
journal, April 2011

  • Dee, D. P.; Uppala, S. M.; Simmons, A. J.
  • Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 137, Issue 656
  • DOI: 10.1002/qj.828

The extreme melt across the Greenland ice sheet in 2012
journal, October 2012

  • Nghiem, S. V.; Hall, D. K.; Mote, T. L.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 39, Issue 20
  • DOI: 10.1029/2012GL053611

Cloud–Atmospheric Boundary Layer–Surface Interactions on the Greenland Ice Sheet during the July 2012 Extreme Melt Event
journal, May 2017

  • Solomon, Amy; Shupe, Matthew D.; Miller, Nathaniel B.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 30, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0071.1

The NCEP Climate Forecast System Version 2
journal, March 2014


Retrieving Liquid Wat0er Path and Precipitable Water Vapor From the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Microwave Radiometers
journal, November 2007

  • Turner, David D.; Clough, Shepard A.; Liljegren, James C.
  • IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 45, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1109/TGRS.2007.903703

Observational Evidence Linking Arctic Supercooled Liquid Cloud Biases in CESM to Snowfall Processes
journal, June 2017

  • McIlhattan, Elin A.; L’Ecuyer, Tristan S.; Miller, Nathaniel B.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 30, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0666.1

Improving the Representation of Polar Snow and Firn in the Community Earth System Model: IMPROVING POLAR SNOW AND FIRN IN CESM
journal, November 2017

  • van Kampenhout, Leonardus; Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; Lipscomb, William H.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 9, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1002/2017MS000988

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Variability in the surface temperature and melt extent of the Greenland ice sheet from MODIS: TEMPERATURE AND MELT OF GREENLAND ICE
    journal, May 2013

    • Hall, Dorothy K.; Comiso, Josefino C.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.
    • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 40, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1002/grl.50240

    The vertical structure of the lower Arctic troposphere analysed from observations and the ERA-40 reanalysis
    journal, January 2009

    • Tjernström, Michael; Graversen, Rune Grand
    • Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 135, Issue 639
    • DOI: 10.1002/qj.380

    The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system
    journal, April 2011

    • Dee, D. P.; Uppala, S. M.; Simmons, A. J.
    • Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 137, Issue 656
    • DOI: 10.1002/qj.828

    Recent Advances in Arctic Cloud and Climate Research
    journal, October 2016

    • Kay, Jennifer E.; L’Ecuyer, Tristan; Chepfer, Helene
    • Current Climate Change Reports, Vol. 2, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1007/s40641-016-0051-9

    Comparing MODIS daily snow albedo to spectral albedo field measurements in Central Greenland
    journal, January 2014


    July 2012 Greenland melt extent enhanced by low-level liquid clouds
    journal, April 2013

    • Bennartz, R.; Shupe, M. D.; Turner, D. D.
    • Nature, Vol. 496, Issue 7443
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature12002

    Exceptional twentieth-century slowdown in Atlantic Ocean overturning circulation
    journal, March 2015

    • Rahmstorf, Stefan; Box, Jason E.; Feulner, Georg
    • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 5, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1038/nclimate2554

    Millions projected to be at risk from sea-level rise in the continental United States
    journal, March 2016

    • Hauer, Mathew E.; Evans, Jason M.; Mishra, Deepak R.
    • Nature Climate Change, Vol. 6, Issue 7
    • DOI: 10.1038/nclimate2961

    The Energy Balance Closure Problem: an Overview
    journal, September 2008


    On the recent contribution of the Greenland ice sheet to sea level change
    journal, January 2016

    • van den Broeke, Michiel R.; Enderlin, Ellyn M.; Howat, Ian M.
    • The Cryosphere, Vol. 10, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.5194/tc-10-1933-2016

    Surface energy budget responses to radiative forcing at Summit, Greenland
    journal, January 2017

    • Miller, Nathaniel B.; Shupe, Matthew D.; Cox, Christopher J.
    • The Cryosphere, Vol. 11, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.5194/tc-11-497-2017