DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: A numerical investigation on methane combustion and emissions from a natural gas-diesel dual fuel engine using CFD model

Abstract

Natural gas (NG)-diesel dual fuel engines have been criticized for their high emissions of unburned methane. The past research on methane emissions from dual fuel engines has focused on the measurement of methane concentration in exhaust gases. The development of approaches capable of minimizing methane emissions requests the detailed spatial distribution of methane in-cylinder during the combustion and post combustion processes. However, it is difficult to experimentally measure the spatial distribution of methane in-cylinder. Here this research presents a numerical study on the combustion process of a NG-diesel dual fuel engine using the computational fluids dynamics (CFD) model CONVERGE coupled with a reduced primary reference fuel (PRF) mechanism. The model was validated against the heat release process and the emissions of nitrogen oxide, methane and carbon monoxide measured in a single cylinder dual fuel engine. The validated CFD model was applied to investigate the combustion of methane and n-heptane and the spatial distribution of methane in the dual fuel engine. This is most likely the first attempt to visualize the spatial distribution of methane in dual fuel engines using CFD. The objective of this study is to numerically simulate the methane combustion process, especially the methane present outside the pilotmore » spray, quantify the methane combustion in each combustion stage, and visualize the spatial methane distribution in cylinder. The results showed that the momentum produced by the pilot fuel injection and combustion pushed the combustion products of pilot fuel and methane within the pilot spray plume toward the unburned methane-air mixture. Such a movement enhanced the mixing of the hot combustion products and the relatively cold unburned methane-air mixture during the main combustion process and dominated the combustion of methane presented outside the pilot fuel spray plume. Based on the simulation results at a low load condition (4.05 bar), the main combustion process consumed 43–53% of the methane fumigated into the intake mixture. The post-combustion oxidation process consumed 17–29% of the intake methane, which was 36.2–51.8% methane that survived the main combustion process. In comparison, 27–35% methane emitted the engine without participating the combustion process. The unburned methane at exhaust valve opening was mainly observed at the center of the cylinder. In comparison, the contribution of the crevice and boundary layer around the cylinder liner to methane emissions was relatively small. The slip of methane through the dual fuel engines was due to the fact that the premixed mixture was too lean to support the propagation of the turbulent flame initiated by the pilot fuel and the lack of pilot fuel vapor reaching the center of the combustion chamber because of the geometric limitations of the fuel injection system and the reduced mass of pilot fuel injected into the cylinder. The approaches aiming to enhance the combustion of methane and minimize methane emissions from dual fuel engines should focus on those capable of increasing the volume of pilot fuel vapor formed after injected into the cylinder.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [3]
  1. West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States)
  2. National Research Council Canada, Ottawa (Canada)
  3. Tianjin University (China)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Fossil Energy (FE); Natural Resources Canada; National Research Council Canada
OSTI Identifier:
1537982
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1549619
Grant/Contract Number:  
FE0013689
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Applied Energy
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 205; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0306-2619
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING; CFD model; dual fuel engine; methane emissions; post-combustion oxidation

Citation Formats

Li, Yu, Li, Hailin, Guo, Hongsheng, Li, Yongzhi, and Yao, Mingfa. A numerical investigation on methane combustion and emissions from a natural gas-diesel dual fuel engine using CFD model. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.07.071.
Li, Yu, Li, Hailin, Guo, Hongsheng, Li, Yongzhi, & Yao, Mingfa. A numerical investigation on methane combustion and emissions from a natural gas-diesel dual fuel engine using CFD model. United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.07.071
Li, Yu, Li, Hailin, Guo, Hongsheng, Li, Yongzhi, and Yao, Mingfa. Wed . "A numerical investigation on methane combustion and emissions from a natural gas-diesel dual fuel engine using CFD model". United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.07.071. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1537982.
@article{osti_1537982,
title = {A numerical investigation on methane combustion and emissions from a natural gas-diesel dual fuel engine using CFD model},
author = {Li, Yu and Li, Hailin and Guo, Hongsheng and Li, Yongzhi and Yao, Mingfa},
abstractNote = {Natural gas (NG)-diesel dual fuel engines have been criticized for their high emissions of unburned methane. The past research on methane emissions from dual fuel engines has focused on the measurement of methane concentration in exhaust gases. The development of approaches capable of minimizing methane emissions requests the detailed spatial distribution of methane in-cylinder during the combustion and post combustion processes. However, it is difficult to experimentally measure the spatial distribution of methane in-cylinder. Here this research presents a numerical study on the combustion process of a NG-diesel dual fuel engine using the computational fluids dynamics (CFD) model CONVERGE coupled with a reduced primary reference fuel (PRF) mechanism. The model was validated against the heat release process and the emissions of nitrogen oxide, methane and carbon monoxide measured in a single cylinder dual fuel engine. The validated CFD model was applied to investigate the combustion of methane and n-heptane and the spatial distribution of methane in the dual fuel engine. This is most likely the first attempt to visualize the spatial distribution of methane in dual fuel engines using CFD. The objective of this study is to numerically simulate the methane combustion process, especially the methane present outside the pilot spray, quantify the methane combustion in each combustion stage, and visualize the spatial methane distribution in cylinder. The results showed that the momentum produced by the pilot fuel injection and combustion pushed the combustion products of pilot fuel and methane within the pilot spray plume toward the unburned methane-air mixture. Such a movement enhanced the mixing of the hot combustion products and the relatively cold unburned methane-air mixture during the main combustion process and dominated the combustion of methane presented outside the pilot fuel spray plume. Based on the simulation results at a low load condition (4.05 bar), the main combustion process consumed 43–53% of the methane fumigated into the intake mixture. The post-combustion oxidation process consumed 17–29% of the intake methane, which was 36.2–51.8% methane that survived the main combustion process. In comparison, 27–35% methane emitted the engine without participating the combustion process. The unburned methane at exhaust valve opening was mainly observed at the center of the cylinder. In comparison, the contribution of the crevice and boundary layer around the cylinder liner to methane emissions was relatively small. The slip of methane through the dual fuel engines was due to the fact that the premixed mixture was too lean to support the propagation of the turbulent flame initiated by the pilot fuel and the lack of pilot fuel vapor reaching the center of the combustion chamber because of the geometric limitations of the fuel injection system and the reduced mass of pilot fuel injected into the cylinder. The approaches aiming to enhance the combustion of methane and minimize methane emissions from dual fuel engines should focus on those capable of increasing the volume of pilot fuel vapor formed after injected into the cylinder.},
doi = {10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.07.071},
journal = {Applied Energy},
number = C,
volume = 205,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {8}
}

Journal Article:

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 71 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Combustion and Knock Characteristics of Natural Gas Diesel Dual Fuel Engine
conference, July 2007

  • Wannatong, Krisada; Akarapanyavit, Nirod; Siengsanorh, Somchai
  • SAE Technical Paper Series
  • DOI: 10.4271/2007-01-2047

Effects of diesel injection strategy on natural gas/diesel reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion
journal, October 2015


Combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of a dual fuel compression ignition engine operated with pilot Diesel fuel and natural gas
journal, November 2004


Pump-to-Wheels Methane Emissions from the Heavy-Duty Transportation Sector
journal, December 2016

  • Clark, Nigel N.; McKain, David L.; Johnson, Derek R.
  • Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 51, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.5b06059

An Optical Investigation of Multiple Diesel Injections in CNG/Diesel Dual-Fuel Combustion in a Light Duty Optical Diesel Engine
conference, March 2017


Heavy-Duty RCCI Operation Using Natural Gas and Diesel
journal, January 2012

  • Nieman, Derek E.; Dempsey, Adam B.; Reitz, Rolf D.
  • SAE International Journal of Engines, Vol. 5, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.4271/2012-01-0379

A reduced chemical kinetic model for IC engine combustion simulations with primary reference fuels
journal, December 2008


Combustion in Gas Fueled Compression: Ignition Engines of the Dual Fuel Type
journal, July 2003

  • Karim, G. A.
  • Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, Vol. 125, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1115/1.1581894

A New Droplet Collision Algorithm
journal, October 2000

  • Schmidt, David P.; Rutland, C. J.
  • Journal of Computational Physics, Vol. 164, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1006/jcph.2000.6568

Ford's SULEV Dedicated Natural Gas Trucks
conference, May 1997

  • Vermiglio, Ezio; Jenkins, Tim; Kieliszewski, Mark
  • SAE Technical Paper Series
  • DOI: 10.4271/971662

An Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Combustion Characteristics of a Dual Fuel Engine with a Swirl Chamber
conference, April 2007


Turbulence Modeling of Internal Combustion Engines Using RNG κ-ε Models
journal, January 1995


Effect of injection timing on the performance of a dual fuel engine
journal, January 2002


An Experimental Investigation on the Combustion and Emissions Performance of a Natural Gas–Diesel Dual Fuel Engine at Low and Medium Loads
conference, January 2016

  • Guo, Hongsheng; Neill, W. Stuart; Liko, Brian
  • ASME 2015 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference, Volume 1: Large Bore Engines; Fuels; Advanced Combustion
  • DOI: 10.1115/ICEF2015-1041

The Operational Mixture Limits in Engines Fueled With Alternative Gaseous Fuels
journal, April 2006

  • Bade Shrestha, S. O.; Karim, Ghazi A.
  • Journal of Energy Resources Technology, Vol. 128, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1115/1.2266267

Optical Investigation of Dual-fuel CNG/Diesel Combustion Strategies to Reduce CO 2 Emissions
journal, April 2014

  • Dronniou, Nicolas; Kashdan, Julian; Lecointe, Bertrand
  • SAE International Journal of Engines, Vol. 7, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.4271/2014-01-1313

An experimental investigation of incomplete combustion of gaseous fuels of a heavy-duty diesel engine supplemented with hydrogen and natural gas
journal, May 2012


Effect of engine parameters and type of gaseous fuel on the performance of dual-fuel gas diesel engines—A critical review
journal, August 2009

  • Sahoo, B. B.; Sahoo, N.; Saha, U. K.
  • Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 13, Issue 6-7
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2008.08.003

Modeling Spray Atomization with the Kelvin-Helmholtz/Rayleigh-Taylor Hybrid Model
journal, January 1999


Exhaust Emissions from Dual Fuel Engines at Light Load
conference, October 1993

  • Karim, G. A.; Liu, Z.; Jones, W.
  • SAE Technical Paper Series
  • DOI: 10.4271/932822

Comparison of GHG emissions from diesel, biodiesel and natural gas refuse trucks of the City of Madrid
journal, May 2009


Combustion and emission characteristics of a natural gas-fueled diesel engine with EGR
journal, December 2012


Spark ignition natural gas engines—A review
journal, February 2007


Performance and gaseous emissions characteristics of a natural gas/diesel dual fuel turbocharged and aftercooled engine
journal, June 2009

  • Egúsquiza, J. C.; Braga, S. L.; Braga, C. V. M.
  • Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, Vol. 31, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1590/S1678-58782009000200007

A Spray/Wall Interaction Submodel for the KIVA-3 Wall Film Model
conference, March 2000

  • O'Rourke, P. J.; Amsden, A. A.
  • SAE 2000 World Congress, SAE Technical Paper Series
  • DOI: 10.4271/2000-01-0271

Effect of pilot fuel quantity on the performance of a dual fuel engine
journal, April 2000


An Investigation of NO2Emissions from a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Fumigated with H2and Natural Gas
journal, December 2012


Greenhouse gas emissions from heavy-duty vehicles
journal, June 2008


Experimental and numerical study on different dual-fuel combustion modes fuelled with gasoline and diesel
journal, January 2014