skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Potential for Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems Applications for Identifying Groundwater-Surface Water Exchange in a Meandering River Reach: sUAS in Groundwater-Surface Water Study

Abstract

The exchange of groundwater and surface water (GW-SW), including dissolved constituents and energy, represents a critical yet challenging characterization problem for hydrogeologists and stream ecologists. Here we describe the use of a suite of high spatial resolution remote sensing techniques, collected using a small unmanned aircraft system (sUAS), to provide novel and complementary data to analyze GW-SW exchange. sUAS provided centimeter-scale resolution topography and water surface elevations, which are often drivers of exchange along the river corridor. Additionally, sUAS-based vegetation imagery, vegetation-top elevation, and normalized difference vegetation index mapping indicated GW-SW exchange patterns that are difficult to characterize from the land surface and may not be resolved from coarser satellite-based imagery. We combined these data with estimates of sediment hydraulic conductivity to provide a direct estimate of GW “shortcutting” through meander necks, which was corroborated by temperature data at the riverbed interface.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)
  2. Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)
  3. U.S. Geological Survey, Storrs, CT (United States)
  4. Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)
  5. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
U.S. Geological Survey, Boulder, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Contributing Org.:
the AirCTEMPS Team
OSTI Identifier:
1537303
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1412600
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0016412
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Geophysical Research Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 44; Journal Issue: 23; Journal ID: ISSN 0094-8276
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; Geology

Citation Formats

Pai, H., Malenda, H. F., Briggs, M. A., Singha, K., González-Pinzón, R., Gooseff, M. N., and Tyler, S. W. Potential for Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems Applications for Identifying Groundwater-Surface Water Exchange in a Meandering River Reach: sUAS in Groundwater-Surface Water Study. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1002/2017gl075836.
Pai, H., Malenda, H. F., Briggs, M. A., Singha, K., González-Pinzón, R., Gooseff, M. N., & Tyler, S. W. Potential for Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems Applications for Identifying Groundwater-Surface Water Exchange in a Meandering River Reach: sUAS in Groundwater-Surface Water Study. United States. doi:10.1002/2017gl075836.
Pai, H., Malenda, H. F., Briggs, M. A., Singha, K., González-Pinzón, R., Gooseff, M. N., and Tyler, S. W. Mon . "Potential for Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems Applications for Identifying Groundwater-Surface Water Exchange in a Meandering River Reach: sUAS in Groundwater-Surface Water Study". United States. doi:10.1002/2017gl075836. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1537303.
@article{osti_1537303,
title = {Potential for Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems Applications for Identifying Groundwater-Surface Water Exchange in a Meandering River Reach: sUAS in Groundwater-Surface Water Study},
author = {Pai, H. and Malenda, H. F. and Briggs, M. A. and Singha, K. and González-Pinzón, R. and Gooseff, M. N. and Tyler, S. W.},
abstractNote = {The exchange of groundwater and surface water (GW-SW), including dissolved constituents and energy, represents a critical yet challenging characterization problem for hydrogeologists and stream ecologists. Here we describe the use of a suite of high spatial resolution remote sensing techniques, collected using a small unmanned aircraft system (sUAS), to provide novel and complementary data to analyze GW-SW exchange. sUAS provided centimeter-scale resolution topography and water surface elevations, which are often drivers of exchange along the river corridor. Additionally, sUAS-based vegetation imagery, vegetation-top elevation, and normalized difference vegetation index mapping indicated GW-SW exchange patterns that are difficult to characterize from the land surface and may not be resolved from coarser satellite-based imagery. We combined these data with estimates of sediment hydraulic conductivity to provide a direct estimate of GW “shortcutting” through meander necks, which was corroborated by temperature data at the riverbed interface.},
doi = {10.1002/2017gl075836},
journal = {Geophysical Research Letters},
number = 23,
volume = 44,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {11}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 10 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Tracer-based characterization of hyporheic exchange and benthic biolayers in streams: HYPORHEIC EXCHANGE AND BENTHIC BIOLAYERS
journal, February 2017

  • Knapp, Julia L. A.; González-Pinzón, Ricardo; Drummond, Jennifer D.
  • Water Resources Research, Vol. 53, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/2016WR019393

Effect of enhanced manganese oxidation in the hyporheic zone on basin-scale geochemical mass balance
journal, April 1998

  • Harvey, Judson W.; Fuller, Christopher C.
  • Water Resources Research, Vol. 34, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1029/97WR03606

Quantifying submerged fluvial topography using hyperspatial resolution UAS imagery and structure from motion photogrammetry: SUBMERGED FLUVIAL TOPOGRAPHY FROM UAS IMAGERY AND SfM
journal, August 2014

  • Woodget, A. S.; Carbonneau, P. E.; Visser, F.
  • Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 40, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1002/esp.3613

Application of high-resolution, remotely sensed data for transient storage modeling parameter estimation: REMOTELY SENSED DATA FOR TRANSIENT STORAGE MODELING
journal, August 2012

  • Bingham, Q. G.; Neilson, B. T.; Neale, C. M. U.
  • Water Resources Research, Vol. 48, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011WR011594

Using geochemical indicators to distinguish high biogeochemical activity in floodplain soils and sediments
journal, September 2016


Snow Depth Retrieval with UAS Using Photogrammetric Techniques
journal, July 2015


Residence time control on hot moments of net nitrate production and uptake in the hyporheic zone: RESIDENCE TIME CONTROL ON TEMPORAL HYPORHEIC NITRATE CYCLING
journal, June 2013

  • Briggs, Martin A.; Lautz, Laura K.; Hare, Danielle K.
  • Hydrological Processes, Vol. 28, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1002/hyp.9921

Multispectral Remote Sensing from Unmanned Aircraft: Image Processing Workflows and Applications for Rangeland Environments
journal, November 2011

  • Laliberte, Andrea S.; Goforth, Mark A.; Steele, Caitriana M.
  • Remote Sensing, Vol. 3, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.3390/rs3112529

Advances in understanding river-groundwater interactions: River-Groundwater Interactions
journal, September 2017

  • Brunner, Philip; Therrien, René; Renard, Philippe
  • Reviews of Geophysics, Vol. 55, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/2017RG000556

Groundwater-dependent distribution of vegetation in Hailiutu River catchment, a semi-arid region in China: GROUNDWATER-DEPENDENT VEGETATION
journal, February 2012

  • Lv, Jingjing; Wang, Xu-Sheng; Zhou, Yangxiao
  • Ecohydrology, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1002/eco.1254

Spatial and temporal intensification of lateral hyporheic flux in narrowing intra-meander zones: INTENSIFICATION OF HYPORHEIC FLUX IN MEANDERS
journal, March 2012

  • Han, Bangshuai; Endreny, Theodore A.
  • Hydrological Processes, Vol. 27, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1002/hyp.9250

Multi-scale streambed topographic and discharge effects on hyporheic exchange at the stream network scale in confined streams
journal, November 2014


A comparison of fibre-optic distributed temperature sensing to traditional methods of evaluating groundwater inflow to streams
journal, July 2011

  • Briggs, Martin A.; Lautz, Laura K.; McKenzie, Jeffrey M.
  • Hydrological Processes, Vol. 26, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1002/hyp.8200

Spatial distribution of thermal refuges analysed in relation to riverscape hydromorphology using airborne thermal infrared imagery
journal, April 2015

  • Dugdale, Stephen J.; Bergeron, Normand E.; St-Hilaire, André
  • Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 160
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.rse.2014.12.021

Mitigating systematic error in topographic models derived from UAV and ground-based image networks: MITIGATING SYSTEMATIC ERROR IN TOPOGRAPHIC MODELS
journal, June 2014

  • James, Mike R.; Robson, Stuart
  • Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 39, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1002/esp.3609

A comparison of thermal infrared to fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing for evaluation of groundwater discharge to surface water
journal, November 2015


Fiber optics opens window on stream dynamics
journal, January 2006

  • Selker, John; van de Giesen, Nick; Westhoff, Martijn
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 33, Issue 24
  • DOI: 10.1029/2006GL027979

Different responses of MODIS-derived NDVI to root-zone soil moisture in semi-arid and humid regions
journal, June 2007


Analysis of the temperature dynamics of a proglacial river using time-lapse thermal imaging and energy balance modeling
journal, November 2014


Groundwater Depth and Vegetation in the Ejina Area, China
journal, March 2011

  • Jin, Xiao M.; Schaepman, Michael E.; Clevers, Jan G. P. W.
  • Arid Land Research and Management, Vol. 25, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1080/15324982.2011.554953

Using lightweight unmanned aerial vehicles to monitor tropical forest recovery
journal, June 2015


Hyporheic flow and transport processes: Mechanisms, models, and biogeochemical implications: HYPORHEIC FLOW AND TRANSPORT PROCESSES
journal, October 2014

  • Boano, F.; Harvey, J. W.; Marion, A.
  • Reviews of Geophysics, Vol. 52, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/2012RG000417

Thermal heterogeneity, stream channel morphology, and salmonid abundance in northeastern Oregon streams
journal, October 2003

  • Ebersole, Joseph L.; Liss, William J.; Frissell, Christopher A.
  • Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Vol. 60, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1139/f03-107

Reactive Solute Transport in an Acidic Stream:  Experimental pH Increase and Simulation of Controls on pH, Aluminum, and Iron
journal, January 1996

  • Broshears, Robert E.; Runkel, Robert L.; Kimball, Briant A.
  • Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 30, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1021/es960055u

Remote sensing of the environment with small unmanned aircraft systems (UASs), part 1: a review of progress and challenges
journal, September 2014

  • Whitehead, Ken; Hugenholtz, Chris H.
  • Journal of Unmanned Vehicle Systems, Vol. 02, Issue 03
  • DOI: 10.1139/juvs-2014-0006

Hyperscale terrain modelling of braided rivers: fusing mobile terrestrial laser scanning and optical bathymetric mapping: Hyperscale terrain modelling of braided rivers
journal, June 2013

  • Williams, R. D.; Brasington, J.; Vericat, D.
  • Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 39, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/esp.3437

Denitrification in the Mississippi River network controlled by flow through river bedforms
journal, October 2015

  • Gomez-Velez, Jesus D.; Harvey, Judson W.; Cardenas, M. Bayani
  • Nature Geoscience, Vol. 8, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1038/ngeo2567

River corridor science: Hydrologic exchange and ecological consequences from bedforms to basins: RIVER CORRIDORS FROM BEDFORMS TO BASINS
journal, September 2015

  • Harvey, Jud; Gooseff, Michael
  • Water Resources Research, Vol. 51, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015WR017617

Groundwater-dependent ecosystems: recent insights from satellite and field-based studies
journal, January 2015

  • Eamus, D.; Zolfaghar, S.; Villalobos-Vega, R.
  • Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 19, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.5194/hess-19-4229-2015

Measuring methods for groundwater – surface water interactions: a review
journal, January 2006

  • Kalbus, E.; Reinstorf, F.; Schirmer, M.
  • Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 10, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.5194/hess-10-873-2006

Intra-meander hyporheic flow in alluvial rivers: HYPORHEIC EXCHANGE IN MEANDERING RIVERS
journal, December 2008

  • Revelli, Roberto; Boano, Fulvio; Camporeale, Carlo
  • Water Resources Research, Vol. 44, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1029/2008WR007081

Influence of river meandering dynamics on riparian vegetation pattern formation
journal, January 2006

  • Perucca, E.; Camporeale, C.; Ridolfi, L.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 111, Issue G1
  • DOI: 10.1029/2005JG000073

Quantifying spatial differences in metabolism in headwater streams
journal, September 2014

  • González-Pinzón, Ricardo; Haggerty, Roy; Argerich, Alba
  • Freshwater Science, Vol. 33, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1086/677555

Reactive Uptake of Trace Metals in the Hyporheic Zone of a Mining-Contaminated Stream, Pinal Creek, Arizona
journal, April 2000

  • Fuller, Christopher C.; Harvey, Judson W.
  • Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 34, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1021/es990714d

Quantifying Stream−Aquifer Interactions through the Analysis of Remotely Sensed Thermographic Profiles and In Situ Temperature Histories
journal, May 2006

  • Loheide, Steven P.; Gorelick, Steven M.
  • Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 40, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1021/es0522074

Sinuosity-driven hyporheic exchange in meandering rivers: HYPORHEIC EXCHANGE IN MEANDERING RIVERS
journal, September 2006

  • Boano, Fulvio; Camporeale, Carlo; Revelli, Roberto
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 33, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1029/2006GL027630

Using high-resolution distributed temperature sensing to quantify spatial and temporal variability in vertical hyporheic flux: HIGH-RESOLUTION HYPORHEIC FLUX PATTERNS
journal, February 2012

  • Briggs, Martin A.; Lautz, Laura K.; McKenzie, Jeffrey M.
  • Water Resources Research, Vol. 48, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011WR011227

Modeling the topography of shallow braided rivers using Structure-from-Motion photogrammetry
journal, May 2014


Analyzing high resolution topography for advancing the understanding of mass and energy transfer through landscapes: A review
journal, September 2015


Patterns in stream longitudinal profiles and implications for hyporheic exchange flow at the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Oregon, USA
journal, January 2005

  • Anderson, Justin K.; Wondzell, Steven M.; Gooseff, Michael N.
  • Hydrological Processes, Vol. 19, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1002/hyp.5791

HyperUAS-Imaging Spectroscopy from a Multirotor Unmanned Aircraft System: HyperUAS-Imaging Spectroscopy from a Multirotor Unmanned
journal, March 2014

  • Lucieer, Arko; Malenovský, Zbyněk; Veness, Tony
  • Journal of Field Robotics, Vol. 31, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/rob.21508

Influence of BRDF on NDVI and biomass estimations of Alaska Arctic tundra
journal, November 2016


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Hyperscale terrain modelling of braided rivers: fusing mobile terrestrial laser scanning and optical bathymetric mapping: Hyperscale terrain modelling of braided rivers
    journal, June 2013

    • Williams, R. D.; Brasington, J.; Vericat, D.
    • Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 39, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1002/esp.3437

    Multispectral Remote Sensing from Unmanned Aircraft: Image Processing Workflows and Applications for Rangeland Environments
    journal, November 2011

    • Laliberte, Andrea S.; Goforth, Mark A.; Steele, Caitriana M.
    • Remote Sensing, Vol. 3, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.3390/rs3112529

    Residence time control on hot moments of net nitrate production and uptake in the hyporheic zone: RESIDENCE TIME CONTROL ON TEMPORAL HYPORHEIC NITRATE CYCLING
    journal, June 2013

    • Briggs, Martin A.; Lautz, Laura K.; Hare, Danielle K.
    • Hydrological Processes, Vol. 28, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.1002/hyp.9921

    A comparison of fibre-optic distributed temperature sensing to traditional methods of evaluating groundwater inflow to streams
    journal, July 2011

    • Briggs, Martin A.; Lautz, Laura K.; McKenzie, Jeffrey M.
    • Hydrological Processes, Vol. 26, Issue 9
    • DOI: 10.1002/hyp.8200

    Different responses of MODIS-derived NDVI to root-zone soil moisture in semi-arid and humid regions
    journal, June 2007


    Spatial and temporal intensification of lateral hyporheic flux in narrowing intra-meander zones: INTENSIFICATION OF HYPORHEIC FLUX IN MEANDERS
    journal, March 2012

    • Han, Bangshuai; Endreny, Theodore A.
    • Hydrological Processes, Vol. 27, Issue 7
    • DOI: 10.1002/hyp.9250

    Modeling the topography of shallow braided rivers using Structure-from-Motion photogrammetry
    journal, May 2014


    Efficient hydrogeological characterization of remote stream corridors using drones
    journal, December 2018

    • Briggs, Martin A.; Dawson, Cian B.; Holmquist-Johnson, Christopher L.
    • Hydrological Processes, Vol. 33, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1002/hyp.13332

    Using lightweight unmanned aerial vehicles to monitor tropical forest recovery
    journal, June 2015


    HyperUAS-Imaging Spectroscopy from a Multirotor Unmanned Aircraft System: HyperUAS-Imaging Spectroscopy from a Multirotor Unmanned
    journal, March 2014

    • Lucieer, Arko; Malenovský, Zbyněk; Veness, Tony
    • Journal of Field Robotics, Vol. 31, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1002/rob.21508

    Groundwater Depth and Vegetation in the Ejina Area, China
    journal, March 2011

    • Jin, Xiao M.; Schaepman, Michael E.; Clevers, Jan G. P. W.
    • Arid Land Research and Management, Vol. 25, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1080/15324982.2011.554953

    Quantifying Stream−Aquifer Interactions through the Analysis of Remotely Sensed Thermographic Profiles and In Situ Temperature Histories
    journal, May 2006

    • Loheide, Steven P.; Gorelick, Steven M.
    • Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 40, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1021/es0522074

    Reactive Solute Transport in an Acidic Stream:  Experimental pH Increase and Simulation of Controls on pH, Aluminum, and Iron
    journal, January 1996

    • Broshears, Robert E.; Runkel, Robert L.; Kimball, Briant A.
    • Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 30, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1021/es960055u

    Influence of BRDF on NDVI and biomass estimations of Alaska Arctic tundra
    journal, November 2016


    Quantifying spatial differences in metabolism in headwater streams
    journal, September 2014

    • González-Pinzón, Ricardo; Haggerty, Roy; Argerich, Alba
    • Freshwater Science, Vol. 33, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1086/677555

    Analyzing high resolution topography for advancing the understanding of mass and energy transfer through landscapes: A review
    journal, September 2015


    Quantifying submerged fluvial topography using hyperspatial resolution UAS imagery and structure from motion photogrammetry: SUBMERGED FLUVIAL TOPOGRAPHY FROM UAS IMAGERY AND SfM
    journal, August 2014

    • Woodget, A. S.; Carbonneau, P. E.; Visser, F.
    • Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 40, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1002/esp.3613

    Measuring methods for groundwater – surface water interactions: a review
    journal, January 2006

    • Kalbus, E.; Reinstorf, F.; Schirmer, M.
    • Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 10, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.5194/hess-10-873-2006

    Reactive Uptake of Trace Metals in the Hyporheic Zone of a Mining-Contaminated Stream, Pinal Creek, Arizona
    journal, April 2000

    • Fuller, Christopher C.; Harvey, Judson W.
    • Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 34, Issue 7
    • DOI: 10.1021/es990714d

    Using geochemical indicators to distinguish high biogeochemical activity in floodplain soils and sediments
    journal, September 2016


    Groundwater-dependent ecosystems: recent insights from satellite and field-based studies
    journal, January 2015

    • Eamus, D.; Zolfaghar, S.; Villalobos-Vega, R.
    • Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 19, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.5194/hess-19-4229-2015

    Patterns in stream longitudinal profiles and implications for hyporheic exchange flow at the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Oregon, USA
    journal, January 2005

    • Anderson, Justin K.; Wondzell, Steven M.; Gooseff, Michael N.
    • Hydrological Processes, Vol. 19, Issue 15
    • DOI: 10.1002/hyp.5791

    Spatial distribution of thermal refuges analysed in relation to riverscape hydromorphology using airborne thermal infrared imagery
    journal, April 2015

    • Dugdale, Stephen J.; Bergeron, Normand E.; St-Hilaire, André
    • Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 160
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.rse.2014.12.021

    Multi-scale streambed topographic and discharge effects on hyporheic exchange at the stream network scale in confined streams
    journal, November 2014


    Analysis of the temperature dynamics of a proglacial river using time-lapse thermal imaging and energy balance modeling
    journal, November 2014


    Thermal heterogeneity, stream channel morphology, and salmonid abundance in northeastern Oregon streams
    journal, October 2003

    • Ebersole, Joseph L.; Liss, William J.; Frissell, Christopher A.
    • Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Vol. 60, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1139/f03-107

    Snow Depth Retrieval with UAS Using Photogrammetric Techniques
    journal, July 2015


    Remote sensing of the environment with small unmanned aircraft systems (UASs), part 1: a review of progress and challenges
    journal, September 2014

    • Whitehead, Ken; Hugenholtz, Chris H.
    • Journal of Unmanned Vehicle Systems, Vol. 02, Issue 03
    • DOI: 10.1139/juvs-2014-0006

    Mitigating systematic error in topographic models derived from UAV and ground-based image networks: MITIGATING SYSTEMATIC ERROR IN TOPOGRAPHIC MODELS
    journal, June 2014

    • James, Mike R.; Robson, Stuart
    • Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 39, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1002/esp.3609

    A comparison of thermal infrared to fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing for evaluation of groundwater discharge to surface water
    journal, November 2015


    Denitrification in the Mississippi River network controlled by flow through river bedforms
    journal, October 2015

    • Gomez-Velez, Jesus D.; Harvey, Judson W.; Cardenas, M. Bayani
    • Nature Geoscience, Vol. 8, Issue 12
    • DOI: 10.1038/ngeo2567

    Groundwater-dependent distribution of vegetation in Hailiutu River catchment, a semi-arid region in China: GROUNDWATER-DEPENDENT VEGETATION
    journal, February 2012

    • Lv, Jingjing; Wang, Xu-Sheng; Zhou, Yangxiao
    • Ecohydrology, Vol. 6, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1002/eco.1254