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Title: Pheomelanin pigment remnants mapped in fossils of an extinct mammal

Abstract

Recent progress has been made in paleontology with respect to resolving pigmentation in fossil material. Morphological identification of fossilized melanosomes has been one approach, while a second methodology using chemical imaging and spectroscopy has also provided critical information particularly concerning eumelanin (black pigment) residue. In this work we develop the chemical imaging methodology to show that organosulfur-Zn complexes are indicators of pheomelanin (red pigment) in extant and fossil soft tissue and that the mapping of these residual biochemical compounds can be used to restore melanin pigment distribution in a 3 million year old extinct mammal species ( Apodemus atavus). Synchotron Rapid Scanning X-ray Fluorescence imaging showed that the distributions of Zn and organic S are correlated within this fossil fur just as in pheomelanin-rich modern integument. Moreover, Zn coordination chemistry within this fossil fur is closely comparable to that determined from pheomelanin-rich fur and hair standards. The non-destructive methods presented here provide a protocol for detecting residual pheomelanin in precious specimens.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [4];  [5];  [2];  [6]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [7];  [4]; ORCiD logo [8];  [8]; ORCiD logo [9];  [4]
  1. Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); College of Charleston, Charleston, SC (United States)
  2. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  3. Children’s Museum of Indianpolis, IN (United States)
  4. Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom)
  5. Univ. of Southampton (United Kingdom)
  6. Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Children’s Museum of Indianpolis, IN (United States)
  7. Diamond Light Source, Didcot (United Kingdom)
  8. Fujita Health Univ. School of Health Sciences, Toyoake, Aichi (Japan)
  9. Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); ARAID—Fundación Conjunto Paleontológico de Teruel-Dinópolis,Teruel (Spain)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
Science and Technology Facilities Council; UK Natural Environment Research Council; USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1532396
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 10; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Manning, Phillip L., Edwards, Nicholas P., Bergmann, Uwe, Anné, Jennifer, Sellers, William I., van Veelen, Arjen, Sokaras, Dimosthenis, Egerton, Victoria M., Alonso-Mori, Roberto, Ignatyev, Konstantin, van Dongen, Bart E., Wakamatsu, Kazumasa, Ito, Shosuke, Knoll, Fabien, and Wogelius, Roy A. Pheomelanin pigment remnants mapped in fossils of an extinct mammal. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1038/s41467-019-10087-2.
Manning, Phillip L., Edwards, Nicholas P., Bergmann, Uwe, Anné, Jennifer, Sellers, William I., van Veelen, Arjen, Sokaras, Dimosthenis, Egerton, Victoria M., Alonso-Mori, Roberto, Ignatyev, Konstantin, van Dongen, Bart E., Wakamatsu, Kazumasa, Ito, Shosuke, Knoll, Fabien, & Wogelius, Roy A. Pheomelanin pigment remnants mapped in fossils of an extinct mammal. United States. doi:10.1038/s41467-019-10087-2.
Manning, Phillip L., Edwards, Nicholas P., Bergmann, Uwe, Anné, Jennifer, Sellers, William I., van Veelen, Arjen, Sokaras, Dimosthenis, Egerton, Victoria M., Alonso-Mori, Roberto, Ignatyev, Konstantin, van Dongen, Bart E., Wakamatsu, Kazumasa, Ito, Shosuke, Knoll, Fabien, and Wogelius, Roy A. Tue . "Pheomelanin pigment remnants mapped in fossils of an extinct mammal". United States. doi:10.1038/s41467-019-10087-2. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1532396.
@article{osti_1532396,
title = {Pheomelanin pigment remnants mapped in fossils of an extinct mammal},
author = {Manning, Phillip L. and Edwards, Nicholas P. and Bergmann, Uwe and Anné, Jennifer and Sellers, William I. and van Veelen, Arjen and Sokaras, Dimosthenis and Egerton, Victoria M. and Alonso-Mori, Roberto and Ignatyev, Konstantin and van Dongen, Bart E. and Wakamatsu, Kazumasa and Ito, Shosuke and Knoll, Fabien and Wogelius, Roy A.},
abstractNote = {Recent progress has been made in paleontology with respect to resolving pigmentation in fossil material. Morphological identification of fossilized melanosomes has been one approach, while a second methodology using chemical imaging and spectroscopy has also provided critical information particularly concerning eumelanin (black pigment) residue. In this work we develop the chemical imaging methodology to show that organosulfur-Zn complexes are indicators of pheomelanin (red pigment) in extant and fossil soft tissue and that the mapping of these residual biochemical compounds can be used to restore melanin pigment distribution in a 3 million year old extinct mammal species (Apodemus atavus). Synchotron Rapid Scanning X-ray Fluorescence imaging showed that the distributions of Zn and organic S are correlated within this fossil fur just as in pheomelanin-rich modern integument. Moreover, Zn coordination chemistry within this fossil fur is closely comparable to that determined from pheomelanin-rich fur and hair standards. The non-destructive methods presented here provide a protocol for detecting residual pheomelanin in precious specimens.},
doi = {10.1038/s41467-019-10087-2},
journal = {Nature Communications},
number = 1,
volume = 10,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {5}
}

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