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Title: Multiscale modeling of CO2-induced carbonate dissolution: From core to meter scale

Abstract

Reactive transport models can be utilized to predict the long-term storage capacity of CO 2 in carbonate formations if the parameters that couple physical and chemical interactions can be calibrated from centimeters (laboratory-scale) to kilometers (field-scale). Yet, calibration across length scales is challenging in highly reactive and heterogeneous carbonate reservoirs. Here, we translated simulations of CO 2-induced carbonate dissolution and transport processes of centimeter-sized cores to meter-sized rock blocks. The meter-sized rocks represent an intermediate scale between laboratory experiments and field demonstrations. We conducted brute-force, meter-sized simulations maintaining the same grid resolution used to successfully model rock heterogeneities and physical behaviors observed in laboratory experiments. To do this, we applied multi-point statistics to generate rock heterogeneity that honors characterization data, and adopted the reaction and transport parameters (e.g., reaction rate kinetics, porosity-permeability relationship) from models calibrated by core-flood experiments. We used the high-resolution simulation data sets to understand the interplay between carbonate reactivity, flow velocity, and rock heterogeneity on the development and consequences of dissolution fronts at a meter scale, and in particular how parameters that couple chemistry and transport change at variable length scales. The modeling results reveal scale dependence of porosity-permeability relationship and carbonate reactivity. We found thatmore » upscaling reactive transport processes from centimeters to meters requires: (1) Effective representation of initial rock heterogeneity and related preferential flow field. In more permeable rocks, several dissolution fingers or wormholes form and grow along the flow direction, competing for reactive solution and leading to fast breakthrough. In less permeable rocks, a single dissolution channel forms with a dramatic increase in lateral branching due to the resistance from low-permeability regions along the flow path. (2) Higher exponential values for porosity-permeability power-law correlations. The value of the power parameter n increases by about two times as we scale the dissolution process from centimeters to meters. (3) Lower carbonate reaction rates. Carbonate reaction rates obtained for meter-sized models are about ten times slower than those for the smaller core-flood experiments. We also used the high-resolution meter-sized simulations to upscale carbonate dissolution by coarsening the representative elementary volumes (or grids). The calibrated reactive transport parameters are consistent with those derived from scaling analysis. The upscaling analysis developed in this study improves our understanding of carbonate dissolution (especially wormhole development) and associated reactive transport across time and length scales, providing a useful basis for establishing a direct relationship between core-scale and field-scale models. Additional work is needed to see if relationships developed from single-phase reactive transport processes shown in this work are directly applicable to in-situ reservoir multiphase flow conditions arising from geological storage of CO 2.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA); USDOE Office of Fossil Energy (FE)
OSTI Identifier:
1530679
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-764801
Journal ID: ISSN 1750-5836; 954730
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-07NA27344
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 88; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 1750-5836
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; CO2sequestration and storage; Carbonate dissolution; Meter-scale reactive-transport model; Multi-scale simulation; Upscaling analysis

Citation Formats

Hao, Yue, Smith, Megan M., and Carroll, Susan A. Multiscale modeling of CO2-induced carbonate dissolution: From core to meter scale. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2019.06.007.
Hao, Yue, Smith, Megan M., & Carroll, Susan A. Multiscale modeling of CO2-induced carbonate dissolution: From core to meter scale. United States. doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2019.06.007.
Hao, Yue, Smith, Megan M., and Carroll, Susan A. Thu . "Multiscale modeling of CO2-induced carbonate dissolution: From core to meter scale". United States. doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2019.06.007. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1530679.
@article{osti_1530679,
title = {Multiscale modeling of CO2-induced carbonate dissolution: From core to meter scale},
author = {Hao, Yue and Smith, Megan M. and Carroll, Susan A.},
abstractNote = {Reactive transport models can be utilized to predict the long-term storage capacity of CO2 in carbonate formations if the parameters that couple physical and chemical interactions can be calibrated from centimeters (laboratory-scale) to kilometers (field-scale). Yet, calibration across length scales is challenging in highly reactive and heterogeneous carbonate reservoirs. Here, we translated simulations of CO2-induced carbonate dissolution and transport processes of centimeter-sized cores to meter-sized rock blocks. The meter-sized rocks represent an intermediate scale between laboratory experiments and field demonstrations. We conducted brute-force, meter-sized simulations maintaining the same grid resolution used to successfully model rock heterogeneities and physical behaviors observed in laboratory experiments. To do this, we applied multi-point statistics to generate rock heterogeneity that honors characterization data, and adopted the reaction and transport parameters (e.g., reaction rate kinetics, porosity-permeability relationship) from models calibrated by core-flood experiments. We used the high-resolution simulation data sets to understand the interplay between carbonate reactivity, flow velocity, and rock heterogeneity on the development and consequences of dissolution fronts at a meter scale, and in particular how parameters that couple chemistry and transport change at variable length scales. The modeling results reveal scale dependence of porosity-permeability relationship and carbonate reactivity. We found that upscaling reactive transport processes from centimeters to meters requires: (1) Effective representation of initial rock heterogeneity and related preferential flow field. In more permeable rocks, several dissolution fingers or wormholes form and grow along the flow direction, competing for reactive solution and leading to fast breakthrough. In less permeable rocks, a single dissolution channel forms with a dramatic increase in lateral branching due to the resistance from low-permeability regions along the flow path. (2) Higher exponential values for porosity-permeability power-law correlations. The value of the power parameter n increases by about two times as we scale the dissolution process from centimeters to meters. (3) Lower carbonate reaction rates. Carbonate reaction rates obtained for meter-sized models are about ten times slower than those for the smaller core-flood experiments. We also used the high-resolution meter-sized simulations to upscale carbonate dissolution by coarsening the representative elementary volumes (or grids). The calibrated reactive transport parameters are consistent with those derived from scaling analysis. The upscaling analysis developed in this study improves our understanding of carbonate dissolution (especially wormhole development) and associated reactive transport across time and length scales, providing a useful basis for establishing a direct relationship between core-scale and field-scale models. Additional work is needed to see if relationships developed from single-phase reactive transport processes shown in this work are directly applicable to in-situ reservoir multiphase flow conditions arising from geological storage of CO2.},
doi = {10.1016/j.ijggc.2019.06.007},
journal = {International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control},
number = C,
volume = 88,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {6}
}

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