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Title: Carbon speciation in organic fossils using 2D to 3D x-ray Raman multispectral imaging

Abstract

The in situ two-dimensional (2D) and 3D imaging of the chemical speciation of organic fossils is an unsolved problem in paleontology and cultural heritage. Here, we use x-ray Raman scattering (XRS)–based imaging at the carbon K-edge to form 2D and 3D images of the carbon chemistry in two exceptionally preserved specimens, a fossil plant dating back from the Carboniferous and an ancient insect entrapped in 53-million-year-old amber. The 2D XRS imaging of the plant fossil reveals a homogeneous chemical composition with micrometric “pockets” of preservation, likely inherited from its geological history. The 3D XRS imaging of the insect cuticle displays an exceptionally well preserved remaining chemical signature typical of polysaccharides such as chitin around a largely hollowed-out inclusion. Our results open up new perspectives for in situ chemical speciation imaging of fossilized organic materials, with the potential to enhance our understanding of organic specimens and their paleobiology.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [6]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Univ. Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Synchrotron SOLEIL, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
  2. Univ. Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Univ. of Lausanne (Switzerland)
  3. European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), Grenoble (France)
  4. Sorbonne Univ., Paris (France)
  5. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Photon Ultrafast Laser Science and Engineering Inst. (PULSE)
  6. Synchrotron SOLEIL, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Sorbonne Univ., Paris (France)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1530613
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Science Advances
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 5; Journal Issue: 8; Journal ID: ISSN 2375-2548
Publisher:
AAAS
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Georgiou, Rafaella, Gueriau, Pierre, Sahle, Christoph J., Bernard, Sylvain, Mirone, Alessandro, Garrouste, Romain, Bergmann, Uwe, Rueff, Jean-Pascal, and Bertrand, Loïc. Carbon speciation in organic fossils using 2D to 3D x-ray Raman multispectral imaging. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aaw5019.
Georgiou, Rafaella, Gueriau, Pierre, Sahle, Christoph J., Bernard, Sylvain, Mirone, Alessandro, Garrouste, Romain, Bergmann, Uwe, Rueff, Jean-Pascal, & Bertrand, Loïc. Carbon speciation in organic fossils using 2D to 3D x-ray Raman multispectral imaging. United States. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aaw5019.
Georgiou, Rafaella, Gueriau, Pierre, Sahle, Christoph J., Bernard, Sylvain, Mirone, Alessandro, Garrouste, Romain, Bergmann, Uwe, Rueff, Jean-Pascal, and Bertrand, Loïc. Thu . "Carbon speciation in organic fossils using 2D to 3D x-ray Raman multispectral imaging". United States. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aaw5019. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1530613.
@article{osti_1530613,
title = {Carbon speciation in organic fossils using 2D to 3D x-ray Raman multispectral imaging},
author = {Georgiou, Rafaella and Gueriau, Pierre and Sahle, Christoph J. and Bernard, Sylvain and Mirone, Alessandro and Garrouste, Romain and Bergmann, Uwe and Rueff, Jean-Pascal and Bertrand, Loïc},
abstractNote = {The in situ two-dimensional (2D) and 3D imaging of the chemical speciation of organic fossils is an unsolved problem in paleontology and cultural heritage. Here, we use x-ray Raman scattering (XRS)–based imaging at the carbon K-edge to form 2D and 3D images of the carbon chemistry in two exceptionally preserved specimens, a fossil plant dating back from the Carboniferous and an ancient insect entrapped in 53-million-year-old amber. The 2D XRS imaging of the plant fossil reveals a homogeneous chemical composition with micrometric “pockets” of preservation, likely inherited from its geological history. The 3D XRS imaging of the insect cuticle displays an exceptionally well preserved remaining chemical signature typical of polysaccharides such as chitin around a largely hollowed-out inclusion. Our results open up new perspectives for in situ chemical speciation imaging of fossilized organic materials, with the potential to enhance our understanding of organic specimens and their paleobiology.},
doi = {10.1126/sciadv.aaw5019},
journal = {Science Advances},
number = 8,
volume = 5,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {8}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: Carbon x-ray Raman scattering mapping and spectroscopy of a fragment of Lepidodendron trunk from the Upper Carboniferous (ca. 305 Mya) of Noyelleslez-Lens, France. (A) Optical photograph of the studied object. (B) Schematic view of the experimental XRS setup. (C) Close up on the studied area. The dashed linemore » represents the boundaries identified in D. (D) Carbon map from the dotted box area in A (scan area: 40×20 mm2, 20,000 pixels, scan step: 200×200 µm2, beam size: 15×15 µm2). The box corresponds to the area analyzed in Fig. 2. (E) Normalized background-corrected carbon K-edge XRS spectra from the locations indicated by stars in D (sum of 4 spectra; 500 ms per energy step; beam size: 15×15 µm2), and pure graphite (G) for energy calibration and reference; spectra were vertically shifted for increased readability. Scale bars represent 1 cm.« less

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