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Title: Midmorning Point Sampling May Not Accurately Represent Nitrous Oxide Emissions Following Fertilizer Applications

Abstract

A common approach for measuring N 2O emissions is to collect midmorning or early evening gas samples from experiments utilizing the chamber-based flux methodology. However, due to high spatial and temporal variability, N 2O estimates based on midmorning or early evening sampling may not provide accurate estimates of total emissions. This study determined the impact of sampling collection timing on the precision and accuracy of N 2O emissions estimates. Nitrous oxide emissions, air and soil temperatures, and soil moisture were measured for 21 d following the application of 224 kg urea-N ha –1 on 20 Sept. 2017, 11 Oct. 2017, and 1 May 2018, at six time intervals (0130–0230, 0530–0630, 0930–1030, 1330–1430, 1730–1830, and 2130–2230 h) over a 24-h period. Based on multiple daily measurements, point samples collected between 0930 and 1030 h (midmorning) were inconsistent in their ability to predict N 2O emissions. However, samples collected between 2130 and 2230 h (early evening) were similar to average emissions. The number of randomly collected point samples to be within 20% of the mean 80% of the time over a 21-d period ranged from 13 samples for fertilizer applied on 20 Sept. 2017 to 48 samples for fertilizer applied on 11more » Oct. 2017. This research indicates that management and climatic variability affect N 2O emissions, and that accurate sampling protocols vary across management and climates. To reduce uncertainty, N 2O sampling protocol should be tested under conditions likely to occur and where possible, near-continuous measurement systems should be adopted.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. South Dakota State Univ., Brookings, SD (United States)
  2. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23). Regional Climate Modeling
OSTI Identifier:
1530420
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Soil Science Society of America Journal
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 83; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 0361-5995
Publisher:
Alliance of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Science Societies
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; Carbon footprint; Greenhouse gas emissions; Nutrient cycling

Citation Formats

Thies, Samuel, Bruggeman, Stephanie, Clay, Sharon A., Mishra, Umakant, Hatfield, Gary, Kumar, Sandeep, and Clay, David E. Midmorning Point Sampling May Not Accurately Represent Nitrous Oxide Emissions Following Fertilizer Applications. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.2136/sssaj2018.08.0313.
Thies, Samuel, Bruggeman, Stephanie, Clay, Sharon A., Mishra, Umakant, Hatfield, Gary, Kumar, Sandeep, & Clay, David E. Midmorning Point Sampling May Not Accurately Represent Nitrous Oxide Emissions Following Fertilizer Applications. United States. doi:10.2136/sssaj2018.08.0313.
Thies, Samuel, Bruggeman, Stephanie, Clay, Sharon A., Mishra, Umakant, Hatfield, Gary, Kumar, Sandeep, and Clay, David E. Mon . "Midmorning Point Sampling May Not Accurately Represent Nitrous Oxide Emissions Following Fertilizer Applications". United States. doi:10.2136/sssaj2018.08.0313. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1530420.
@article{osti_1530420,
title = {Midmorning Point Sampling May Not Accurately Represent Nitrous Oxide Emissions Following Fertilizer Applications},
author = {Thies, Samuel and Bruggeman, Stephanie and Clay, Sharon A. and Mishra, Umakant and Hatfield, Gary and Kumar, Sandeep and Clay, David E.},
abstractNote = {A common approach for measuring N2O emissions is to collect midmorning or early evening gas samples from experiments utilizing the chamber-based flux methodology. However, due to high spatial and temporal variability, N2O estimates based on midmorning or early evening sampling may not provide accurate estimates of total emissions. This study determined the impact of sampling collection timing on the precision and accuracy of N2O emissions estimates. Nitrous oxide emissions, air and soil temperatures, and soil moisture were measured for 21 d following the application of 224 kg urea-N ha–1 on 20 Sept. 2017, 11 Oct. 2017, and 1 May 2018, at six time intervals (0130–0230, 0530–0630, 0930–1030, 1330–1430, 1730–1830, and 2130–2230 h) over a 24-h period. Based on multiple daily measurements, point samples collected between 0930 and 1030 h (midmorning) were inconsistent in their ability to predict N2O emissions. However, samples collected between 2130 and 2230 h (early evening) were similar to average emissions. The number of randomly collected point samples to be within 20% of the mean 80% of the time over a 21-d period ranged from 13 samples for fertilizer applied on 20 Sept. 2017 to 48 samples for fertilizer applied on 11 Oct. 2017. This research indicates that management and climatic variability affect N2O emissions, and that accurate sampling protocols vary across management and climates. To reduce uncertainty, N2O sampling protocol should be tested under conditions likely to occur and where possible, near-continuous measurement systems should be adopted.},
doi = {10.2136/sssaj2018.08.0313},
journal = {Soil Science Society of America Journal},
number = 2,
volume = 83,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {4}
}

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