DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Simulating the density of organic species in the atmosphere of Titan with a coupled ion-neutral photochemical model

Abstract

We introduce a one-dimensional coupled ion-neutral photochemical kinetics and diffusion model to study the atmospheric composition of Titan in light of new theoretical kinetics calculations and scientific findings from the Cassini–Huygens mission. The model extends from the surface to the exobase. The atmospheric background, boundary conditions, vertical transport and aerosol opacity are all constrained by the Cassini–Huygens observations. The chemical network includes reactions between hydrocarbons, nitrogen and oxygen bearing species. It takes into account neutrals and both positive and negative ions with masses extending up to 116 and 74 u, respectively. We incorporate high-resolution isotopic photoabsorption and photodissociation cross sections for N2 as well as new photodissociation branching ratios for CH4 and C2H2. Ab initio transition state theory calculations are performed in order to estimate the rate coefficients and products for critical reactions. Critical reactions of production and loss for neutrals and ions are quantitatively assessed and thoroughly discussed. The vertical distributions of neutrals and ions predicted by the model generally reproduce observational data, suggesting that for the small species most chemical processes in Titan’s atmosphere and ionosphere are adequately described and understood; some differences are highlighted. Notable remaining issues include (i) the total positive ion density (essentially HCNH+) inmore » the upper ionosphere, (ii) the low mass negative ion densities (CN-, C3N-/C4H-) in the upper atmosphere, and (iii) the minor oxygen-bearing species (CO2, H2O) density in the stratosphere. Pathways towards complex molecules and the impact of aerosols (UV shielding, atomic and molecular hydrogen budget, nitriles heterogeneous chemistry and condensation) are evaluated in the model, along with lifetimes and solar cycle variations.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [4];  [5]
  1. Univ. of Grenoble (France)
  2. Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)
  3. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States)
  4. Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)
  5. Univ. Reims Champagne-Ardenne (France)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES). Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division; French space agency (CNES); NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program
OSTI Identifier:
1530387
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1775832
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Icarus
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 324; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0019-1035
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; Ab Initio Kinetics; Atmosphere; Ionosphere; Photochemistry; Titan

Citation Formats

Vuitton, V., Yelle, R. V., Klippenstein, S. J., Hörst, S. M., and Lavvas, P. Simulating the density of organic species in the atmosphere of Titan with a coupled ion-neutral photochemical model. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2018.06.013.
Vuitton, V., Yelle, R. V., Klippenstein, S. J., Hörst, S. M., & Lavvas, P. Simulating the density of organic species in the atmosphere of Titan with a coupled ion-neutral photochemical model. United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2018.06.013
Vuitton, V., Yelle, R. V., Klippenstein, S. J., Hörst, S. M., and Lavvas, P. Fri . "Simulating the density of organic species in the atmosphere of Titan with a coupled ion-neutral photochemical model". United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2018.06.013. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1530387.
@article{osti_1530387,
title = {Simulating the density of organic species in the atmosphere of Titan with a coupled ion-neutral photochemical model},
author = {Vuitton, V. and Yelle, R. V. and Klippenstein, S. J. and Hörst, S. M. and Lavvas, P.},
abstractNote = {We introduce a one-dimensional coupled ion-neutral photochemical kinetics and diffusion model to study the atmospheric composition of Titan in light of new theoretical kinetics calculations and scientific findings from the Cassini–Huygens mission. The model extends from the surface to the exobase. The atmospheric background, boundary conditions, vertical transport and aerosol opacity are all constrained by the Cassini–Huygens observations. The chemical network includes reactions between hydrocarbons, nitrogen and oxygen bearing species. It takes into account neutrals and both positive and negative ions with masses extending up to 116 and 74 u, respectively. We incorporate high-resolution isotopic photoabsorption and photodissociation cross sections for N2 as well as new photodissociation branching ratios for CH4 and C2H2. Ab initio transition state theory calculations are performed in order to estimate the rate coefficients and products for critical reactions. Critical reactions of production and loss for neutrals and ions are quantitatively assessed and thoroughly discussed. The vertical distributions of neutrals and ions predicted by the model generally reproduce observational data, suggesting that for the small species most chemical processes in Titan’s atmosphere and ionosphere are adequately described and understood; some differences are highlighted. Notable remaining issues include (i) the total positive ion density (essentially HCNH+) in the upper ionosphere, (ii) the low mass negative ion densities (CN-, C3N-/C4H-) in the upper atmosphere, and (iii) the minor oxygen-bearing species (CO2, H2O) density in the stratosphere. Pathways towards complex molecules and the impact of aerosols (UV shielding, atomic and molecular hydrogen budget, nitriles heterogeneous chemistry and condensation) are evaluated in the model, along with lifetimes and solar cycle variations.},
doi = {10.1016/j.icarus.2018.06.013},
journal = {Icarus},
number = C,
volume = 324,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {8}
}

Journal Article:

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 21 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Laser induced fluorescence and vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopic studies of H‐atom production in the dissociative recombination of some protonated ions
journal, April 1991

  • Adams, N. G.; Herd, C. R.; Geoghegan, M.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 94, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.460570

Laboratory chemistry relevant to understanding and modeling the ionosphere of Titan
journal, January 2010

  • Adams, Nigel G.; Mathews, L. Dalila; Osborne, Jr, David
  • Faraday Discussions, Vol. 147
  • DOI: 10.1039/c003233f

Measurements of the dissociative recombination coefficients for several polyatomic ion species at 300 K
journal, February 1988


Distribution of HCN in Titan’s upper atmosphere from Cassini/VIMS observations at 3μm
journal, August 2011


On the ionospheric structure of Titan
journal, December 2009


On magnetospheric electron impact ionisation and dynamics in Titan's ram-side and polar ionosphere – a Cassini case study
journal, January 2007


The Photodissociation of HCN and HNC: Effects on the HNC/HCN Abundance Ratio in the Interstellar Medium
journal, March 2017

  • Aguado, Alfredo; Roncero, Octavio; Zanchet, Alexandre
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 838, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aa63ee

Titan airglow spectra from Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS): EUV analysis
journal, January 2007

  • Ajello, Joseph M.; Stevens, Michael H.; Stewart, Ian
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 34, Issue 24
  • DOI: 10.1029/2007GL031555

15 N + + CD 4 and O + + 13 CO 2 State-Selected Ion−Molecule Reactions Relevant to the Chemistry of Planetary Ionospheres
journal, November 2004

  • Alcaraz, Christian; Nicolas, Christophe; Thissen, Roland
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, Vol. 108, Issue 45
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp0477755

Titan - Aerosol photochemistry and variations related to the sunspot cycle
journal, December 1980

  • Allen, M.; Yung, Y. L.; Pinto, J. P.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 242
  • DOI: 10.1086/183416

Photolysis of allene and propyne in the 7–30eV region probed by the visible fluorescence of their fragments
journal, January 2007

  • Alnama, Koutayba; Boyé-Péronne, Séverine; Douin, Stéphane
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 126, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2430707

Evaluated Bimolecular Ion‐Molecule Gas Phase Kinetics of Positive Ions for Use in Modeling Planetary Atmospheres, Cometary Comae, and Interstellar Clouds
journal, November 1993

  • Anicich, Vincent G.
  • Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, Vol. 22, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.555940

Ion-molecule chemistry in Titan's ionosphere
journal, August 1997


Termolecular ion-molecule reactions in Titan’s atmosphere. IV. A search made at up to 1 micron in pure hydrocarbons
journal, August 2003

  • Anicich, Vincent G.; Wilson, Paul; McEwan, Murray J.
  • Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry, Vol. 14, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1016/S1044-0305(03)00218-6

A SIFT ion-molecule study of some reactions in Titan’s atmosphere. Reactions of N+, N2+, and HCN+ with CH4, C2H2, and C2H4
journal, August 2004

  • Anicich, Vincent G.; Wilson, Paul; McEwan, Murray J.
  • Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry, Vol. 15, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jasms.2004.04.005

An ICR study of ion-molecules reactions relevant to titan’s atmosphere: An investigation of binary hydrocarbon mixtures up to 1 Micron
journal, April 2006

  • Anicich, Vincent G.; Wilson, Paul F.; McEwan, Murray J.
  • Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry, Vol. 17, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jasms.2005.11.022

Structure and isomerization of C7H7+ ions formed in the charge-transfer-induced fragmentation of ethylbenzene, toluene, and norbornadiene
journal, October 1982

  • Ausloos, P.
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 104, Issue 20
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja00384a001

Concerning the formation and the kinetics of phenylium ions
journal, September 1989

  • Ausloos, Pierre; Lias, Sharon G.; Buckley, Thomas J.
  • International Journal of Mass Spectrometry and Ion Processes, Vol. 92
  • DOI: 10.1016/0168-1176(89)83019-8

On the discovery of CO nighttime emissions on Titan by Cassini/VIMS: Derived stratospheric abundances and geological implications
journal, December 2006

  • Baines, Kevin H.; Drossart, Pierre; Lopez-Valverde, Miguel A.
  • Planetary and Space Science, Vol. 54, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.pss.2006.06.020

Combined Crossed Beam and Theoretical Studies of the N( 2 D) + C 2 H 4 Reaction and Implications for Atmospheric Models of Titan
journal, October 2012

  • Balucani, Nadia; Skouteris, Dimitrios; Leonori, Francesca
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, Vol. 116, Issue 43
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp3072316

THERMAL AND CHEMICAL STRUCTURE VARIATIONS IN TITAN'S STRATOSPHERE DURING THE CASSINI MISSION
journal, November 2012


A Coupled Model of Titan's Atmosphere and Ionosphere
journal, October 2000


Rate coefficients for N+2(ν) dissociative recombination
journal, September 1991


Evaluated Kinetic Data for Combustion Modeling: Supplement II
journal, September 2005

  • Baulch, D. L.; Bowman, C. T.; Cobos, C. J.
  • Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, Vol. 34, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1748524

Evaluated Kinetic Data for Combustion Modeling. Supplement I
journal, November 1994

  • Baulch, D. L.; Cobos, C. J.; Cox, R. A.
  • Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, Vol. 23, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.555953

Density‐functional thermochemistry. III. The role of exact exchange
journal, April 1993

  • Becke, Axel D.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 98, Issue 7, p. 5648-5652
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.464913

Simulating the one-dimensional structure of Titan's upper atmosphere: 3. Mechanisms determining methane escape
journal, January 2011

  • Bell, Jared M.; Bougher, Stephen W.; Waite, J. Hunter
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 116, Issue E11
  • DOI: 10.1029/2010JE003639

Titan solar occultation observed by Cassini/VIMS: Gas absorption and constraints on aerosol composition
journal, May 2009


Plasma-chemical reactions: low pressure acetylene plasmas
journal, January 2010


Mid-UV spectroscopy of propynenitrile at low temperature: Consequences on expected results from observations of Titan's atmosphere
journal, January 1994

  • Bénilan, Yves; Bruston, Paul; Raulin, Francois
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 99, Issue E8
  • DOI: 10.1029/94JE01087

The long wavelength range temperature variations of the mid-UV acetylene absorption coefficient
journal, April 2000


Hydrocarbon growth via ion-molecule reactions: computational studies of the isomers of C 4 H 2 + , C 6 H 2 + and C 6 H 4 + and their formation paths from acetylene and its fragments
journal, January 2015

  • Bera, Partha P.; Peverati, Roberto; Head-Gordon, Martin
  • Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 17, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1039/C4CP04480K

Low temperature (39–298 K) kinetics study of the reactions of the C4H radical with various hydrocarbons observed in Titan's atmosphere
journal, April 2008


Absolute Photodetachment Cross-Section Measurements for Hydrocarbon Chain Anions
journal, November 2011


Low temperature reaction kinetics of CN−+HC3N and implications for the growth of anions in Titan’s atmosphere
journal, January 2014


The microwave spectrum of HNC: identification of U90.7
journal, June 1976

  • Blackman, G. L.; Brown, R. D.; Godfrey, P. D.
  • Nature, Vol. 261, Issue 5559
  • DOI: 10.1038/261395a0

Photodissociation of acrylonitrile at 193 nm: A photofragment translational spectroscopy study using synchrotron radiation for product photoionization
journal, April 1998

  • Blank, David A.; Suits, Arthur G.; Lee, Yuan T.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 108, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.475989

High-accuracy extrapolated ab initio thermochemistry. II. Minor improvements to the protocol and a vital simplification
journal, August 2006

  • Bomble, Yannick J.; Vázquez, Juana; Kállay, Mihály
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 125, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2206789

Pressure effects and quantum yields in the photolysis of ethylene and propene at 185 nm
journal, January 1971

  • Borrell, Peter; Cervenka, A.; Turner, J. W.
  • Journal of the Chemical Society B: Physical Organic
  • DOI: 10.1039/j29710002293

Predictions of the electrical conductivity and charging of the aerosols in Titan's atmosphere
journal, December 1987


Influence of high abundances of aerosols on the electrical conductivity of the Titan atmosphere
journal, January 2008


Bimolecular Rate Constant and Product Branching Ratio Measurements for the Reaction of C 2 H with Ethene and Propene at 79 K
journal, April 2012

  • Bouwman, Jordy; Goulay, Fabien; Leone, Stephen R.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, Vol. 116, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp301015b

Visible emission from the vibrationally hot C2H radical following vacuum-ultraviolet photolysis of acetylene: Experiment and theory
journal, May 2002

  • Boyé, S.; Campos, A.; Douin, S.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 116, Issue 20
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1471239

Some Ion–Molecule Reactions of H 3 + and the Proton Affinity of H 2
journal, June 1970

  • Burt, J. A.; Dunn, J. L.; McEwan, M. J.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 52, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1672909

Galactic cosmic rays and N2 dissociation on Titan
journal, July 1983


Cosmic ray ionization of the Jovian atmosphere
journal, September 1979


Formation of organic molecules on Titan
journal, September 1981

  • Capone, Louis A.; Prasad, Sheo S.; Huntress, Wesley T.
  • Nature, Vol. 293, Issue 5827
  • DOI: 10.1038/293045a0

The lower ionosphere of Titan
journal, July 1976


Sensitivity of a Titan ionospheric model to the ion-molecule reaction parameters
journal, November 2008


Infrared spectra of gaseous mononitriles: Application to the atmosphere of Titan
journal, May 1985


REACTIONS FORMING C$_{n=2,10}^{(0,+)}$, C n = 2, 4 H (0, +) , AND C 3 H$_2^{(0,+)}$ IN THE GAS PHASE: SEMIEMPIRICAL BRANCHING RATIOS
journal, June 2013


Low Temperature Rate Coefficients for the Reaction CN + HC 3 N
journal, May 2013

  • Cheikh Sid Ely, Sidaty; Morales, Sébastien B.; Guillemin, Jean-Claude
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, Vol. 117, Issue 46
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp406842q

Dissociative electron attachment to HCN and HNC
journal, September 2009


Photodissociation of Cyanoacetylene: Application to the Atmospheric Chemistry of Titan
journal, May 1995


Discovery of heavy negative ions in Titan's ionosphere
journal, January 2007

  • Coates, A. J.; Crary, F. J.; Lewis, G. R.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 34, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1029/2007GL030978

Heavy negative ions in Titan's ionosphere: Altitude and latitude dependence
journal, December 2009

  • Coates, A. J.; Wellbrock, A.; Lewis, G. R.
  • Planetary and Space Science, Vol. 57, Issue 14-15
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.pss.2009.05.009

Negative ions at Titan and Enceladus: recent results
journal, January 2010

  • Coates, Andrew J.; Wellbrock, Anne; Lewis, Gethyn R.
  • Faraday Discussions, Vol. 147
  • DOI: 10.1039/c004700g

Photolyse du propène et du méthyl-2-butène-2 vers 174 et à 163 nm
journal, April 1979

  • Collin, Guy J.; Deslauriers, Hélène; Deschênes, Jovette
  • Canadian Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 57, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1139/v79-143

Reconstruction of the trajectory of the Huygens probe using the Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument (HASI)
journal, April 2008


Ethyl Cyanide on Titan: Spectroscopic Detection and Mapping Using alma
journal, February 2015


ALMA MEASUREMENTS OF THE HNC AND HC 3 N DISTRIBUTIONS IN TITAN'S ATMOSPHERE
journal, October 2014


Water vapor in Titan’s stratosphere from Cassini CIRS far-infrared spectra
journal, August 2012


First results of Herschel -SPIRE observations of Titan
journal, December 2011


The composition of Titan's stratosphere from Cassini/CIRS mid-infrared spectra
journal, July 2007


Evolution of the Stratospheric Temperature and Chemical Composition over one Titanian year
journal, December 2013


Titan's Atmosphere from Voyager Infrared Observations
journal, May 1995


Titan trace gaseous composition from CIRS at the end of the Cassini–Huygens prime mission
journal, May 2010


Titan’s temporal evolution in stratospheric trace gases near the poles
journal, May 2016


Titan’s atmosphere from ISO mid-infrared spectroscopy
journal, February 2003


Heavy ions, temperatures and winds in Titan's ionosphere: Combined Cassini CAPS and INMS observations
journal, December 2009


Energetic ion precipitation at Titan
journal, January 2008

  • Cravens, T. E.; Robertson, I. P.; Ledvina, S. A.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 35, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1029/2007GL032451

Model-data comparisons for Titan's nightside ionosphere
journal, January 2009


Diagnostics of Titan's stratospheric dynamics using Cassini/CIRS data and the 2-dimensional IPSL circulation model
journal, October 2008


Diurnal variations of Titan's ionosphere: DIURNAL VARIATIONS OF TITAN'S IONOSPHERE
journal, June 2009

  • Cui, J.; Galand, M.; Yelle, R. V.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 114, Issue A6
  • DOI: 10.1029/2009JA014228

The CH 4 structure in Titan's upper atmosphere revisited: CH 4 STRUCTURE ON TITAN
journal, November 2012

  • Cui, J.; Yelle, R. V.; Strobel, D. F.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, Vol. 117, Issue E11
  • DOI: 10.1029/2012JE004222

Analysis of Titan's neutral upper atmosphere from Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer measurements
journal, April 2009


The SUMER Data in the SOHO Archive
journal, November 2013


Dipole properties of molecular nitrogen
journal, October 1967


Oxygen compounds in Titan's stratosphere as observed by Cassini CIRS
journal, February 2007


Coupled ion and neutral rotating model of Titan's upper atmosphere
journal, September 2008


Infrared spectra of triacetylene in the 4000-220 cm−1 region: Absolute band intensity and implications for the atmosphere of Titan
journal, June 1994

  • Delpech, C.; Guillemin, J. C.; Paillous, P.
  • Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular Spectroscopy, Vol. 50, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1016/0584-8539(94)80031-6

Chemistry of HCNH+: mechanisms, structures, and relevance to Titan’s atmosphere
journal, May 2013

  • Demarais, Nicholas J.; Yang, Zhibo; Snow, Theodore P.
  • Structural Chemistry, Vol. 24, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11224-013-0275-4

The unimolecular dissociation of vinylcyanide: A theoretical investigation of a complex multichannel reaction
journal, February 1999

  • Derecskei-Kovacs, Agnes; North, Simon W.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 110, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.477929

Carbon Chain Anions and the Growth of Complex Organic Molecules in Titan’s Ionosphere
journal, July 2017


Measured ion-molecule reaction rates for modelling Titan's atmosphere
journal, October 1984


Coupling of oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrocarbon species in the photochemistry of Titan’s atmosphere
journal, January 2014


1D-coupled photochemical model of neutrals, cations and anions in the atmosphere of Titan
journal, April 2016


Selected Ion Flow Tube Study of Ion–Molecule Reactions of N + ( 3 P) and Kr + with C 3 Hydrocarbons Propane, Propene, and Propyne
journal, June 2011

  • Dryahina, Kseniya; Cunha de Miranda, Barbara K.; Španěl, Patrik
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, Vol. 115, Issue 25
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp200787d

Gaussian basis sets for use in correlated molecular calculations. I. The atoms boron through neon and hydrogen
journal, January 1989

  • Dunning, Thom H.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 90, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.456153

CRITICAL REVIEW OF N, N + , N + 2 , N ++ , And N ++ 2 MAIN PRODUCTION PROCESSES AND REACTIONS OF RELEVANCE TO TITAN'S ATMOSPHERE
journal, January 2013

  • Dutuit, Odile; Carrasco, Nathalie; Thissen, Roland
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 204, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/204/2/20

High resolution photo-absorption studies of acrylonitrile, C 2 H 3 CN, and acetonitrile, CH 3 CN
journal, September 2003

  • Eden, S.; Lim�o-Vieira, P.; Kendall, P.
  • The European Physical Journal D - Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, Vol. 26, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1140/epjd/e2003-00223-5

The ion chemistry of methylenimine and propionitrile and their relevance to Titan
journal, April 2008

  • Edwards, Samuel J.; Freeman, Colin G.; McEwan, Murray J.
  • International Journal of Mass Spectrometry, Vol. 272, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.ijms.2008.01.006

Some ion chemistry of HC5N
journal, January 2009

  • Edwards, Samuel J.; Freeman, Colin G.; McEwan, Murray J.
  • International Journal of Mass Spectrometry, Vol. 279, Issue 2-3
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.ijms.2008.10.003

Reactions of H, N, and O Atoms with Carbon Chain Anions of Interstellar Interest: An Experimental Study
journal, October 2007

  • Eichelberger, Brian; Snow, Theodore P.; Barckholtz, Cynthia
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 667, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/520953

Ablation and chemistry of meteoric materials in the atmosphere of Titan
journal, January 1996


The 1,1-elimination of hydrogen cyanide and formation of triplet vinylidene from the photolysis of acrylonitrile
journal, May 1992

  • Fahr, Askar; Laufer, Allan H.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 96, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1021/j100190a022

Temperature dependent ultraviolet absorption cross sections of propylene, methylacetylene and vinylacetylene
journal, March 1996


A Semiempirical Capture Model for Fast Neutral Reactions at Low Temperature
journal, October 2009

  • Faure, Alexandre; Vuitton, Véronique; Thissen, Roland
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, Vol. 113, Issue 49
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp905609x

Thermal energy reactions of negative ions with H atoms in the gas phase
journal, June 1973

  • Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Howard, Carleton J.; Ferguson, E. E.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 58, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1679215

Rate constants of thermal energy binary ion-molecule reactions of aeronomic interest
journal, January 1973


Gas Phase Reactions of CH 3 + with a Series of Homo- and Heterocyclic Molecules
journal, December 2008

  • Fondren, L. Dalila; Adams, Nigel G.; Stavish, Leah
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, Vol. 113, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp8091336

Hydrocarbon ions in the ionosphere of Titan
journal, September 1997

  • Fox, J. L.; Yelle, R. V.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 24, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1029/97GL02051

The ion detection efficiency of microchannel plates (MCPs)
journal, April 2002


Charge‐transfer reaction of 14,15 N + ( 3 P J )+N 2 ( 1 Σ + g ) from thermal to 100 eV. Crossed‐beam and scattering‐cell guided‐ion beam experiments
journal, September 1994

  • Freysinger, W.; Khan, F. A.; Armentrout, P. B.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 101, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.467553

Are Neutral‐Neutral Reactions Effective for the Carbon‐Chain Growth of Cyanopolyynes and Polyacetylenes in Interstellar Space?
journal, September 1998

  • Fukuzawa, Kaori; Osamura, Yoshihiro; Schaefer III, Henry F.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 505, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/306168

In situ measurements of the physical characteristics of Titan's environment
journal, November 2005

  • Fulchignoni, M.; Ferri, F.; Angrilli, F.
  • Nature, Vol. 438, Issue 7069
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature04314

The Ionosphere of Titan: Ideal Diurnal and Nocturnal Cases
journal, July 1999


Ionization sources in Titan's deep ionosphere: TITAN'S DEEP IONOSPHERE
journal, July 2010

  • Galand, Marina; Yelle, Roger; Cui, Jun
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 115, Issue A7
  • DOI: 10.1029/2009JA015100

Electrons in the ionosphere of Titan
journal, January 1992

  • Gan, L.; Keller, C. N.; Cravens, T. E.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 97, Issue A8
  • DOI: 10.1029/92JA00300

Temperature Dependent Kinetics (195−798 K) and H Atom Yields (298−498 K) from Reactions of 1 CH 2 with Acetylene, Ethene, and Propene
journal, September 2010

  • Gannon, K. L.; Blitz, M. A.; Liang, C. H.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, Vol. 114, Issue 35
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp102276j

H Atom Yields from the Reactions of CN Radicals with C 2 H 2 , C 2 H 4 , C 3 H 6 , trans -2-C 4 H 8 , and iso -C 4 H 8
journal, July 2007

  • Gannon, Kelly L.; Glowacki, David R.; Blitz, Mark A.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, Vol. 111, Issue 29
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp0689520

Photolysis of methane revisited at 121.6 nm and at 118.2 nm: quantum yields of the primary products, measured by mass spectrometry
journal, January 2011

  • Gans, Bérenger; Boyé-Péronne, Séverine; Broquier, Michel
  • Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 13, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1039/c0cp02627a

Transition State Theory for Multichannel Addition Reactions:  Multifaceted Dividing Surfaces
journal, November 2003

  • Georgievskii, Yuri; Klippenstein, Stephen J.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, Vol. 107, Issue 46
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp034564b

Long-range transition state theory
journal, May 2005

  • Georgievskii, Yuri; Klippenstein, Stephen J.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 122, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1899603

Reformulation and Solution of the Master Equation for Multiple-Well Chemical Reactions
journal, May 2013

  • Georgievskii, Yuri; Miller, James A.; Burke, Michael P.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, Vol. 117, Issue 46
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp4060704

First Observation of Four-Body Breakup in Electron Recombination: C 2 D 5 +
journal, October 2004


Dissociative Recombination of Nitrile Ions: DCCCN + and DCCCND +
journal, October 2004

  • Geppert, W. D.; Ehlerding, A.; Hellberg, F.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 613, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/422335

Dissociative recombination of protonated methanol
journal, January 2006

  • Geppert, W. D.; Hamberg, M.; Thomas, R. D.
  • Faraday Discuss., Vol. 133
  • DOI: 10.1039/B516010C

Buffer gas cooling of polyatomic ions in rf multi-electrode traps
journal, January 2009


Reactions between Cold CH x + and Slow H and H 2
journal, May 2011

  • Gerlich, Dieter; Borodi, Gheorge; Luca, Alfonz
  • Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie, Vol. 225, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1524/zpch.2011.0118

ION TRAP STUDIES OF H + H → H 2 + e BETWEEN 10 AND 135 K
journal, March 2012


Primary Branching Ratios for the Low-Temperature Reaction of State-Prepared N 2 + with CH 4 , C 2 H 2 , and C 2 H 4
journal, June 2011

  • Gichuhi, Wilson K.; Suits, Arthur G.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, Vol. 115, Issue 25
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp112427r

Reactions of excited C3H5 radicals: Implications for the photolysis of propylene at 8.4 eV
journal, May 1988

  • Gierczak, Tomasz; Gawlowski, Janusz; Niedzielski, Jan
  • Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, Vol. 43, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1016/1010-6030(88)80001-7

Theory of Thermal Unimolecular Reactions in the Fall-off Range. II. Weak Collision Rate Constants
journal, February 1983

  • Gilbert, R. G.; Luther, K.; Troe, J.
  • Berichte der Bunsengesellschaft für physikalische Chemie, Vol. 87, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/bbpc.19830870218

Hydrocarbon Photochemistry in the Upper Atmosphere of Jupiter
journal, January 1996


Photochemistry of diacetylene
journal, January 1987

  • Glicker, S.; Okabe, H.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 91, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1021/j100286a036

Electron-ion recombination rate coefficient measurements in a flowing afterglow plasma
journal, February 1997


Experimental Evidence for Radiative Attachment in Astrochemistry from Electron Attachment to NCCCCN
journal, September 2008

  • Graupner, K.; Field, T. A.; Saunders, G. C.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 685, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/592327

Ionization processes in the atmosphere of Titan: I. Ionization in the whole atmosphere
journal, September 2009


Ionization processes in the atmosphere of Titan: III. Ionization by high- Z nuclei cosmic rays
journal, April 2011


Energy disposal in CN(X 2Σ+) produced in the 157 nm photodissociation of acrylonitrile
journal, November 2001

  • Guo, Jingzhong; Carrington, Tucker; Filseth, S. V.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 115, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1412256

The UV photochemistry of cyanoacetylene
journal, March 1988

  • Halpern, Joshua A.; Miller, George E.; Okabe, Hideo
  • Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, Vol. 42, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1016/1010-6030(88)80049-2

Photochemistry of cyano- and dicyanoacetylene at 193 nm
journal, March 1990

  • Halpern, Joshua B.; Petway, L.; Lu, R.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 94, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1021/j100368a027

Predictive Theory for Hydrogen Atom−Hydrocarbon Radical Association Kinetics
journal, June 2005

  • Harding, Lawrence B.; Georgievskii, Yuri; Klippenstein, Stephen J.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, Vol. 109, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp0508608

On the Combination Reactions of Hydrogen Atoms with Resonance-Stabilized Hydrocarbon Radicals
journal, May 2007

  • Harding, Lawrence B.; Klippenstein, Stephen J.; Georgievskii, Yuri
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, Vol. 111, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp0682309

Initial interpretation of Titan plasma interaction as observed by the Cassini plasma spectrometer: Comparisons with Voyager 1
journal, October 2006

  • Hartle, R. E.; Sittler, E. C.; Neubauer, F. M.
  • Planetary and Space Science, Vol. 54, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.pss.2006.05.029

High-resolution Fourier-transform extreme ultraviolet photoabsorption spectroscopy of 14 N 15 N
journal, December 2011

  • Heays, A. N.; Dickenson, G. D.; Salumbides, E. J.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 135, Issue 24
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3672165

Photochemical kinetics uncertainties in modeling Titan’s atmosphere: A review
journal, December 2006


Neutral production of hydrogen isocyanide (HNC) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in Titan’s upper atmosphere
journal, April 2012


Photochemistry of C 3 H p hydrocarbons in Titan’s stratosphere revisited
journal, April 2013


How Measurements of Rate Coefficients at Low Temperature Increase the Predictivity of Photochemical Models of Titan’s Atmosphere
journal, October 2009

  • Hébrard, E.; Dobrijevic, M.; Pernot, P.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, Vol. 113, Issue 42
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp905524e

Radiative association and the formation of interstellar propylene
journal, July 2010


Association reactions. Theoretical shortcomings
journal, January 1989

  • Herbst, Eric; Smith, David; Adams, Nigel G.
  • Journal of the Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions 2, Vol. 85, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1039/f29898501655

Calculations on the rates, mechanisms, and interstellar importance of the reactions between C and NH2 and between N and CH2
journal, February 2000


Evaluated Chemical Kinetics Data for Reactions of N(2D), N(2P), and N2(A 3Σu+) in the Gas Phase
journal, September 1999

  • Herron, John T.
  • Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, Vol. 28, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.556043

Approximate scaling formula for ion–ion mutual neutralization rates
journal, June 1979

  • Hickman, A. P.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 70, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.437364

Dissociative recombination of e + HCNH + : Diabatic potential curves and dynamics calculations
journal, July 2005


The evolution of infalling sulfur species in Titan’s atmosphere
journal, November 2014


Absolute photodetachment cross section measurements of the O− and OH− anion
journal, February 2009

  • Hlavenka, P.; Otto, R.; Trippel, S.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 130, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3080809

H 2 CN + and H 2 CNH + : New insight into the structure and dynamics from mass-selected threshold photoelectron spectra
journal, June 2013

  • Holzmeier, Fabian; Lang, Melanie; Hader, Kilian
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 138, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4808050

Ab Initio and RRKM Study of the HCN/HNC Elimination Channels from Vinyl Cyanide
journal, February 2011

  • Homayoon, Zahra; Vázquez, Saulo A.; Rodríguez-Fernández, Roberto
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, Vol. 115, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp109843a

Origin of oxygen species in Titan's atmosphere
journal, January 2008

  • Hörst, S. M.; Vuitton, V.; Yelle, R. V.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 113, Issue E10
  • DOI: 10.1029/2008JE003135

Formation of Amino Acids and Nucleotide Bases in a Titan Atmosphere Simulation Experiment
journal, September 2012


Titan's atmosphere and climate: TITAN'S ATMOSPHERE
journal, March 2017

  • Hörst, S. M.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, Vol. 122, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/2016JE005240

Ions négatifs formés dans le cyanogène et l’acide cyanhydrique
journal, January 1966


Titan's upper ionosphere
journal, October 1990


Vibrational and Electronic Energy Levels of Polyatomic Transient Molecules. Supplement B
journal, March 2003

  • Jacox, Marilyn E.
  • Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, Vol. 32, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1497629

Dissociative electron attachment to methylacetylene and dimethylacetylene: Symmetry versus proximity
journal, November 2012


Collision processes of C2,3Hy and C2,3Hy+ hydrocarbons with electrons and protons
journal, February 2004

  • Janev, R. K.; Reiter, D.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 11, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1630794

Theoretical Unimolecular Kinetics for CH 4 + M ⇄ CH 3 + H + M in Eight Baths, M = He, Ne, Ar, Kr, H 2 , N 2 , CO, and CH 4
journal, June 2011

  • Jasper, Ahren W.; Miller, James A.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, Vol. 115, Issue 24
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp200048n

“Third-Body” collision efficiencies for combustion modeling: Hydrocarbons in atomic and diatomic baths
journal, January 2015

  • Jasper, Ahren W.; Oana, C. Melania; Miller, James A.
  • Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Vol. 35, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.proci.2014.05.105

Dissociative Recombination of H 3 O + , HD 2 O + , and D 3 O +
journal, November 2000

  • Jensen, M. J.; Bilodeau, R. C.; Safvan, C. P.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 543, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/317137

Review of quantitative spectroscopy of polyynes
journal, April 2008

  • Jolly, A.; Benilan, Y.
  • Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, Vol. 109, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2007.12.010

Crossed Molecular Beam Study on the Formation of Phenylacetylene and Its Relevance to Titan’s Atmosphere
journal, April 2010

  • Jones, Brant; Zhang, Fangtong; Maksyutenko, Pavlo
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, Vol. 114, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp912054p

Higher excitations in coupled-cluster theory
journal, August 2001

  • Kállay, Mihály; Surján, Péter R.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 115, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1383290

Photodissociation of some simple nitriles in the extreme vacuum ultraviolet region
journal, May 1999


W4 theory for computational thermochemistry: In pursuit of confident sub-kJ/mol predictions
journal, October 2006

  • Karton, Amir; Rabinovich, Elena; Martin, Jan M. L.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 125, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2348881

Model of Titans ionosphere with detailed hydrocarbon ion chemistry
journal, October 1998


A model of the ionosphere of Titan
journal, January 1992

  • Keller, C. N.; Cravens, T. E.; Gan, L.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 97, Issue A8
  • DOI: 10.1029/92JA00231

Variational optimizations in the Rice–Ramsperger–Kassel–Marcus theory calculations for unimolecular dissociations with no reverse barrier
journal, January 1992

  • Klippenstein, Stephen J.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 96, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.462472

From theoretical reaction dynamics to chemical modeling of combustion
journal, January 2017


Predictive theory for the combination kinetics of two alkyl radicals
journal, January 2006

  • Klippenstein, Stephen J.; Georgievskii, Yuri; Harding, Lawrence B.
  • Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 8, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1039/b515914h

Ab Initio Computations and Active Thermochemical Tables Hand in Hand: Heats of Formation of Core Combustion Species
journal, August 2017

  • Klippenstein, Stephen J.; Harding, Lawrence B.; Ruscic, Branko
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, Vol. 121, Issue 35
  • DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpca.7b05945

Theory and modeling of ion–molecule radiative association kinetics
journal, March 1996

  • Klippenstein, Stephen J.; Yang, Yu‐Chuan; Ryzhov, Victor
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 104, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.471201

The mesosphere and lower thermosphere of Titan revealed by Cassini/UVIS stellar occultations
journal, December 2011


H-Atom Yields from the Photolysis of Acetylene and from the Reaction of C 2 H with H 2 , C 2 H 2 , and C 2 H 4
journal, April 2010

  • Kovács, Tamás; Blitz, Mark A.; Seakins, Paul W.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, Vol. 114, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp908285t

Relative efficiencies of O( 1 S) production from photodissociation of Co 2 between 1080 and 1160 Å
journal, July 1975

  • Koyano, I.; Wauchop, T. S.; Welge, K. H.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 63, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.431061

A photochemical model of Titan's atmosphere and ionosphere
journal, May 2009


The photochemical model of Titan’s atmosphere and ionosphere: A version without hydrodynamic escape
journal, October 2010


Titan's photochemical model: Further update, oxygen species, and comparison with Triton and Pluto
journal, December 2012


Dissociative Electron Attachment Cross Sections for H 2 and D 2
journal, June 2011


Nitrogen isotopic fractionation during abiotic synthesis of organic solid particles
journal, May 2014


PHOTODETACHMENT AS A DESTRUCTION MECHANISM FOR CN AND C 3 N ANIONS IN CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVELOPES
journal, September 2013


Theoretical study of the C6H3 potential energy surface and rate constants and product branching ratios of the C2H(Σ+2)+C4H2(Σg+1) and C4H(Σ+2)+C2H2(Σg+1) reactions
journal, June 2008

  • Landera, Alexander; Krishtal, Sergey P.; Kislov, Vadim V.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 128, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2929821

A time-dependent photochemical model for Titan’s atmosphere and the origin of H 2 O
journal, June 2014


Vertical distribution of Titan's atmospheric neutral constituents
journal, October 1996

  • Lara, L. M.; Lellouch, E.; López-Moreno, J. J.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, Vol. 101, Issue E10
  • DOI: 10.1029/96JE02036

Liquids and solids on the surface of Titan: results of a new photochemical model
journal, January 1994


Absolute primary H atom quantum yield measurements in the 193.3 and 121.6 nm photodissociation of acetylene
journal, May 2002


Coupling photochemistry with haze formation in Titan's atmosphere, Part I: Model description
journal, January 2008


Coupling photochemistry with haze formation in Titan's atmosphere, Part II: Results and validation with Cassini/Huygens data
journal, January 2008


Energy deposition and primary chemical products in Titan’s upper atmosphere
journal, May 2011


Condensation in Titan’s atmosphere at the Huygens landing site
journal, October 2011


SURFACE CHEMISTRY AND PARTICLE SHAPE: PROCESSES FOR THE EVOLUTION OF AEROSOLS IN TITAN's ATMOSPHERE
journal, January 2011


Titan’s emission processes during eclipse
journal, October 2014


N2 state population in Titan’s atmosphere
journal, November 2015


Benzene and aerosol production in Titan and Jupiter's atmospheres: a sensitivity study
journal, April 2005


Transition from Gaseous Compounds to Aerosols in Titan's Atmosphere
journal, October 2002

  • Lebonnois, Sébastien; Bakes, E. L. O.; McKay, Christopher P.
  • Icarus, Vol. 159, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1006/icar.2002.6943

Seasonal Variations of Titan's Atmospheric Composition
journal, August 2001


The dissociative recombination of hydrocarbon ions. I. Light alkanes
journal, April 1997

  • Lehfaoui, L.; Rebrion-Rowe, C.; Laubé, S.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 106, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.473566

The distribution of methane in Titan’s stratosphere from Cassini/CIRS observations
journal, March 2014


VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF C 3 -HYDROCARBONS IN THE STRATOSPHERE OF TITAN
journal, April 2015


A non-monotonic eddy diffusivity profile of Titan's atmosphere revealed by Cassini observations
journal, December 2014


Source of Nitrogen Isotope Anomaly in HCN in the Atmosphere of Titan
journal, July 2007

  • Liang, Mao-Chang; Heays, Alan N.; Lewis, Brenton R.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 664, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/520881

Prediction of a N 2 ++ layer in the upper atmosphere of Titan
journal, January 2005


CAN INTERSTELLAR PROPENE (CH 3 CHCH 2 ) BE FORMED VIA GAS-PHASE REACTIONS?
journal, February 2013


The neutral photochemistry of nitriles, amines and imines in the atmosphere of Titan
journal, February 2015


Structure of Titan's low altitude ionized layer from the Relaxation Probe onboard HUYGENS
journal, January 2008

  • López-Moreno, J. J.; Molina-Cuberos, G. J.; Hamelin, M.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 35, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1029/2008GL035338

Titan's inventory of organic surface materials
journal, January 2008

  • Lorenz, Ralph D.; Mitchell, Karl L.; Kirk, Randolph L.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 35, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1029/2007GL032118

Titan and habitable planets around M-dwarfs
journal, January 2010


Effects of Nitrogen Photoabsorption Cross Section Resolution on Minor Species Vertical Profiles in Titan’S Upper Atmosphere
journal, March 2015


The role of Nitrogen in Titan’S Upper Atmospheric Hydrocarbon Chemistry over the Solar Cycle
journal, June 2016


Solar cycle variations in ion composition in the dayside ionosphere of Titan
journal, August 2016

  • Madanian, H.; Cravens, T. E.; Richard, M. S.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 121, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015JA022274

INMS-derived composition of Titan's upper atmosphere: Analysis methods and model comparison
journal, December 2009

  • Magee, Brian A.; Waite, J. Hunter; Mandt, Kathleen E.
  • Planetary and Space Science, Vol. 57, Issue 14-15
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.pss.2009.06.016

Titan’s atmosphere as observed by Cassini/VIMS solar occultations: CH4, CO and evidence for C2H6 absorption
journal, March 2015


Isotopic evolution of the major constituents of Titan's atmosphere based on Cassini data
journal, December 2009

  • Mandt, Kathleen E.; Waite, J. Hunter; Lewis, William
  • Planetary and Space Science, Vol. 57, Issue 14-15
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.pss.2009.06.005

THE 12 C/ 13 C RATIO ON TITAN FROM CASSINI INMS MEASUREMENTS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE EVOLUTION OF METHANE
journal, April 2012


Reactions of N + ( 3 P ) ions with normal, para, and deuterated hydrogens at low temperatures
journal, August 1988

  • Marquette, J. B.; Rebrion, C.; Rowe, B. R.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 89, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.455101

Temperature dependence of the reaction of nitrogen atoms with methyl radicals
journal, July 1989

  • Marston, George; Nesbitt, Fred L.; Nava, David F.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 93, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1021/j100352a024

Branching ratios in the N+CH 3 reaction: Formation of the methylene amidogen (H 2 CN) radical
journal, September 1989

  • Marston, G.; Nesbitt, F. L.; Stief, L. J.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 91, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.456878

GAS-PHASE REACTIONS OF HYDRIDE ANION, H
journal, August 2010


Experimental study of the gas phase chemistry of C3H3+ with several cyclic molecules
journal, January 2011

  • Mathews, L. Dalila; Adams, Nigel G.
  • International Journal of Mass Spectrometry, Vol. 299, Issue 2-3
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.ijms.2010.10.008

Isotope effect in dissociative electron attachment to acetylene
journal, July 2009


Absolute cross sections for dissociative electron attachment to acetylene and diacetylene
journal, April 2008


Absolute cross sections for dissociative electron attachment to HCN and DCN
journal, July 2010


A Low-Pressure Study of C2N2 Ion Chemistry
journal, August 1995

  • McEwan, Murray J.; Anicich, Vincent G.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 99, Issue 32
  • DOI: 10.1021/j100032a023

Titan's ion chemistry: A laboratory perspective
journal, January 2007

  • McEwan, Murray J.; Anicich, Vincent G.
  • Mass Spectrometry Reviews, Vol. 26, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/mas.20117

Ion-molecule reactions relevant to Titan's ionosphere
journal, February 1998

  • McEwan, Murray J.; Scott, Graham B. I.; Anicich, Vincent G.
  • International Journal of Mass Spectrometry and Ion Processes, Vol. 172, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1016/S0168-1176(97)00236-X

Flowing afterglow studies of the electron recombination of protonated cyanides (RCN)H+ and their proton-bound dimer ions (RCN)2H+ where R is H, CH3, and CH3CH2
journal, May 2009

  • McLain, J. L.; Molek, C. D.; Jr., D. Osborne
  • International Journal of Mass Spectrometry, Vol. 282, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.ijms.2009.02.004

Flowing Afterglow Studies of the Temperature Dependencies for Dissociative Recombination of O 2 + , CH 5 + , C 2 H 5 + , and C 6 H 7 + with Electrons
journal, July 2004

  • McLain, Jason L.; Poterya, Viktoriya; Molek, Christopher D.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, Vol. 108, Issue 32
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp040215l

Cold Electron Reactions Producing the Energetic Isomer of Hydrogen Cyanide in Interstellar Clouds
journal, January 2012


Hydrocarbon Anions in Interstellar Clouds and Circumstellar Envelopes
journal, May 2007

  • Millar, T. J.; Walsh, C.; Cordiner, M. A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 662, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/519376

Master Equation Methods in Gas Phase Chemical Kinetics
journal, September 2006

  • Miller, James A.; Klippenstein, Stephen J.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, Vol. 110, Issue 36
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp062693x

Behavior of rate coefficients for ion-ion mutual neutralization, 300–550 K
journal, May 2012

  • Miller, Thomas M.; Shuman, Nicholas S.; Viggiano, A. A.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 136, Issue 20
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4720499

Termolecular ion-molecule reactions in Titan’s atmosphere. II: The structure of the association adducts of HCNH+ with C2H2 and C2H4
journal, May 2001

  • Milligan, Daniel B.; Freeman, Colin G.; Maclagan, Robert G. A. R.
  • Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry, Vol. 12, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1016/S1044-0305(01)00215-X

The dissociative recombination of molecular ions
journal, February 1990


Development of a novel technique for quantitatively determining the products of electron-ion dissociative recombination
journal, August 2009

  • Molek, Christopher D.; Poterya, Viktoriya; Adams, Nigel G.
  • International Journal of Mass Spectrometry, Vol. 285, Issue 1-2
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.ijms.2009.02.031

Ionospheric layer induced by meteoric ionization in Titan's atmosphere
journal, February 2001


Influence of electrophilic species on the lower ionosphere of Titan
journal, May 2000

  • Molina-Cuberos, G. J.; López-Moreno, J. J.; Rodrigo, R.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 27, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1029/1999GL010771

Chemistry of the galactic cosmic ray induced ionosphere of Titan
journal, September 1999

  • Molina-Cuberos, G. J.; López-Moreno, J. J.; Rodrigo, R.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, Vol. 104, Issue E9
  • DOI: 10.1029/1998JE001001

Nitriles produced by ion chemistry in the lower ionosphere of Titan: PRODUCTION OF NITRILES IN TITAN
journal, November 2002

  • Molina-Cuberos, Gregorio J.; Schwingenschuh, Konrad; López-Moreno, José J.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, Vol. 107, Issue E11
  • DOI: 10.1029/2000JE001480

Ionization by cosmic rays of the atmosphere of Titan
journal, October 1999


First detection of hydrogen isocyanide (HNC) in Titan’s atmosphere
journal, December 2011


The abundance, vertical distribution and origin of H2O in Titan’s atmosphere: Herschel observations and photochemical modelling
journal, November 2012


Photochemistry and diffusion in Jupiter's stratosphere: Constraints from ISO observations and comparisons with other giant planets: PHOTOCHEMISTRY IN JUPITER'S STRATOSPHERE
journal, August 2005

  • Moses, J. I.; Fouchet, T.; Bézard, B.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, Vol. 110, Issue E8
  • DOI: 10.1029/2005JE002411

A Model for Negative Ion Chemistry in Titan’s Ionosphere
journal, April 2018


Propylene photolysis at 6.7 eV: calculation of the quantum yields for the secondary processes
journal, March 1986


Dissociative recombination of D3O+ and H3O+: Absolute cross sections and branching ratios
journal, August 2000

  • Neau, A.; Al Khalili, A.; Rosén, S.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 113, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.481979

Dissociative photoionization of N 2 in the 24–32 eV photon energy range
journal, May 2003

  • Nicolas, C.; Alcaraz, C.; Thissen, R.
  • Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, Vol. 36, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1088/0953-4075/36/11/309

Integral and differential cross section measurements at low collision energies for the N[sub 2][sup +]+CH[sub 4]/CD[sub 4] reactions
journal, January 2003

  • Nicolas, Christophe; Torrents, Raquel; Gerlich, Dieter
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 118, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1535423

Gas phase photolysis of propylene at 8.4 and 10.0 eV
journal, January 1982

  • Niedzielski, Jan; Makulski, Włodzimierz; Gawłowski, Janusz
  • Journal of Photochemistry, Vol. 19, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1016/0047-2670(82)87012-3

Composition of Titan's lower atmosphere and simple surface volatiles as measured by the Cassini-Huygens probe gas chromatograph mass spectrometer experiment
journal, January 2010

  • Niemann, H. B.; Atreya, S. K.; Demick, J. E.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 115, Issue E12
  • DOI: 10.1029/2010JE003659

The abundances of constituents of Titan's atmosphere from the GCMS instrument on the Huygens probe
journal, November 2005

  • Niemann, H. B.; Atreya, S. K.; Bauer, S. J.
  • Nature, Vol. 438, Issue 7069
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature04122

Upper limits for undetected trace species in the stratosphere of Titan
journal, January 2010

  • Nixon, Conor A.; Achterberg, Richard K.; Teanby, Nicholas A.
  • Faraday Discussions, Vol. 147
  • DOI: 10.1039/c003771k

Detection of Propene in Titan'S Stratosphere
journal, September 2013


Upper limits for PH3 and H2S in Titan’s atmosphere from Cassini CIRS
journal, May 2013


The radical photodissociation channel of acrylonitrile
journal, December 1996


Rate Coefficients of C 2 H with C 2 H 4 , C 2 H 6 , and H 2 from 150 to 359 K
journal, January 1996

  • Opansky, Brian J.; Leone, Stephen R.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 100, Issue 51
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp9619604

Flowing afterglow studies of dissociative electron-ion recombination for a series of single ring compounds at room temperature
journal, August 2011

  • Osborne, David; Lawson, Patrick A.; Adams, Nigel G.
  • International Journal of Mass Spectrometry, Vol. 305, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.ijms.2011.05.003

ALMA detection and astrobiological potential of vinyl cyanide on Titan
journal, July 2017

  • Palmer, Maureen Y.; Cordiner, Martin A.; Nixon, Conor A.
  • Science Advances, Vol. 3, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1700022

Absolute detection efficiencies of low energy H, H−, H+, H2+ and H3+ incident on a multichannel plate detector
journal, December 2000

  • Peko, B. L.; Stephen, T. M.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Vol. 171, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1016/S0168-583X(00)00306-2

The ion/molecule chemistry of CH2CHCN
journal, July 1991

  • Petrie, S.; Chirnside, T. J.; Freeman, C. G.
  • International Journal of Mass Spectrometry and Ion Processes, Vol. 107, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1016/0168-1176(91)80067-W

The ion-molecule chemistry of acrylonitrile: astrochemical implications
journal, August 1992

  • Petrie, S.; Freeman, C. G.; McEwan, M. J.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 257, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/257.3.438

Some Interstellar Reactions Involving Electrons and Neutral Species: Attachment and Isomerization
journal, December 1997

  • Petrie, Simon; Herbst, Eric
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 491, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/304941

The proton affinity and selected ion/molecule reactions of diacetylene
journal, March 1991

  • Petrie, S.; Knight, J. S.; Freeman, C. G.
  • International Journal of Mass Spectrometry and Ion Processes, Vol. 105, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1016/0168-1176(91)85087-3

NCCN and NCCCCN Formation in Titan's Atmosphere:  2. HNC as a Viable Precursor
journal, April 2004

  • Petrie, Simon; Osamura, Yoshihiro
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, Vol. 108, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp0378182

Reevaluation of the transition‐moment function and Einstein coefficients for the N 2 ( A3 Σ + u X1 Σ + g ) transition
journal, September 1993

  • Piper, Lawrence G.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 99, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.465178

Electron-molecule chemistry and charging processes on organic ices and Titan’s icy aerosol surrogates
journal, September 2015


REACTIONS OF COLD TRAPPED CH + IONS WITH SLOW H ATOMS
journal, August 2011


Production of neutral species in Titan’s ionosphere through dissociative recombination of ions
journal, May 2012


A fifth-order perturbation comparison of electron correlation theories
journal, May 1989


Gas phase reaction rates of N + 2 with CH 4 , O 2 , and n ‐H 2 at very low temperatures
journal, January 1991

  • Randeniya, L. K.; Smith, M. A.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 94, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.460349

Absolute cross sections for dissociative electron attachment to NH3 and CH4
journal, November 2008

  • Rawat, Prashant; Prabhudesai, Vaibhav S.; Rahman, M. A.
  • International Journal of Mass Spectrometry, Vol. 277, Issue 1-3
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.ijms.2008.05.015

The dissociative recombination of hydrocarbon ions. III. Methyl-substituted benzene ring compounds
journal, August 2000

  • Rebrion-Rowe, C.; Mostefaoui, T.; Laubé, S.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 113, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1286974

Herschel /PACS spectroscopy of trace gases of the stratosphere of Titan
journal, December 2013


Energetics of Titan's ionosphere: Model comparisons with Cassini data: ENERGETICS OF TITAN'S IONOSPHERE
journal, September 2011

  • Richard, M. S.; Cravens, T. E.; Robertson, I. P.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 116, Issue A9
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011JA016603

Structure of Titan's ionosphere: Model comparisons with Cassini data
journal, December 2009

  • Robertson, I. P.; Cravens, T. E.; Waite, J. H.
  • Planetary and Space Science, Vol. 57, Issue 14-15
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.pss.2009.07.011

Photofragment Translational Spectroscopy of 1,3-Butadiene and 1,3-Butadiene-1,1,4,4- d 4 at 193 nm
journal, August 2002

  • Robinson, Jason C.; Harris, Sean A.; Sun, Weizhong
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 124, Issue 34
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja0127281

Propane on Titan
journal, October 2003

  • Roe, H. G.; Greathouse, T. K.; Richter, M. J.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 597, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/379816

Reactions of He+ and N+ ions with several molecules at 8 K
journal, January 1985


Mass-selected ion–molecule reactions at very low temperatures. The CRESUS apparatus
journal, January 1989

  • Rowe, Betrand R.; Marquette, Jean-Baptiste; Rebrion, Christiane
  • J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 2, Vol. 85, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1039/F29898501631

Influence of local ionization on ionospheric densities in Titan's upper atmosphere: LOCAL IONIZATION AT TITAN
journal, July 2015

  • Sagnières, Luc B. M.; Galand, Marina; Cui, Jun
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 120, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020890

Ionization yields, total absorption, and dissociative photoionization cross sections of CH 4 from 110 to 950 Å
journal, June 1989

  • Samson, James A. R.; Haddad, G. N.; Masuoka, T.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 90, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.456267

Total and dissociative photoionization cross sections of N 2 from threshold to 107 eV
journal, June 1987

  • Samson, James A. R.; Masuoka, T.; Pareek, P. N.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 86, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.452452

Critically evaluated rate constants for gaseous reactions of several electronically excited species
journal, July 1979

  • Schofield, Keith
  • Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, Vol. 8, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.555606

13C and 15N fractionation of CH4/N2 mixtures during photochemical aerosol formation: Relevance to Titan
journal, May 2016


Photochemistry of Cyanoacetylene at 193.3 nm
journal, January 1996

  • Seki, Kanekazu; He, Maoqi; Liu, Renzhang
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 100, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp952787z

Photochemistry of acetylene at 193.3 nm
journal, May 1993

  • Seki, Kanekazu; Okabe, Hideo
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 97, Issue 20
  • DOI: 10.1021/j100122a018

The role of organic haze in Titan's atmospheric chemistry
journal, March 2008


The role of organic haze in Titan's atmospheric chemistry
journal, March 2008


Dissociative Recombination of HCNH + : Absolute Cross‐Sections and Branching Ratios
journal, August 2001

  • Semaniak, J.; Minaev, B. F.; Derkatch, A. M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 135, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/321797

Isotope Effects in Dissociative Attachment of Electrons in Methane
journal, February 1967

  • Sharp, T. E.; Dowell, J. T.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 46, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1840885

Ion and aerosol precursor densities in Titan's ionosphere: A multi-instrument case study: ION AND AEROSOL PRECURSOR DENSITIES IN TITAN's IONOSPHERE
journal, October 2016

  • Shebanits, O.; Wahlund, J. -E.; Edberg, N. J. T.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 121, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022980

Negative ion densities in the ionosphere of Titan–Cassini RPWS/LP results
journal, August 2013


Potential energy surfaces and branching ratio of the dissociative recombination reaction HCNH++e−: An ab initio molecular orbital study
journal, January 1998

  • Shiba, Yoko; Hirano, Tsuneo; Nagashima, Umpei
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 108, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.475443

The role of ion-neutral collisions in Titan׳s magnetospheric interaction
journal, April 2015


H elimination and metastable lifetimes in the UV photoexcitation of diacetylene
journal, August 2008

  • Silva, R.; Gichuhi, W. K.; Huang, C.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 105, Issue 35
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0801180105

UV Photodissociation of Cyanoacetylene: A Combined Ion Imaging and Theoretical Investigation
journal, July 2009

  • Silva, R.; Gichuhi, W. K.; Kislov, V. V.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, Vol. 113, Issue 42
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp904183a

A laboratory study of the reactions of N+, N2+, N3+, N4+, O+, O2+, and NO+ ions with several molecules at 300 K
journal, January 1978

  • Smith, D.; Adams, N. G.; Miller, T. M.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 69, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.436354

The temperature-dependence of rapid low temperature reactions: experiment, understanding and prediction
journal, January 2006

  • Smith, Ian W. M.; Sage, Amy M.; Donahue, Neil M.
  • Faraday Discussions, Vol. 133
  • DOI: 10.1039/b600721j

The temperature dependent absorption cross sections of C4H2 at mid ultraviolet wavelengths
journal, October 1998


Modeling of methane photolysis in the reducing atmospheres of the outer solar system
journal, January 1999

  • Smith, Nicholas S.; Raulin, François
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, Vol. 104, Issue E1
  • DOI: 10.1029/1998JE900027

Solar–Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment II (Solstice II): Examination of the Solar–Stellar Comparison Technique
journal, August 2005


Formation of Gas-Phase Glycine and Cyanoacetylene via Associative Detachment Reactions
journal, December 2009

  • Snow, Theodore P.; Stepanovic, Momir; Betts, Nicholas B.
  • Astrobiology, Vol. 9, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1089/ast.2008.0277

Energy deposition and ion production from thermal oxygen ion precipitation during Cassini’s T57 flyby
journal, May 2018


Auroral electron precipitation and flux tube erosion in Titan’s upper atmosphere
journal, September 2013


Mass spectrometric study of three-body ion-molecule clustering reactions of CpHq+ ions with N2 or CH4 in N2CH4 mixtures
journal, January 1995


Chemical processes in astrophysical radiation fields
journal, January 1998

  • Stancil, P. C.; Dalgarno, A.
  • Faraday Discussions, Vol. 109
  • DOI: 10.1039/a800074c

Reactions of N+ and N2+ with several cyclic molecules studied using a selected ion flow tube
journal, April 2009

  • Stavish, Leah; Fondren, L. Dalila; Adams, Nigel G.
  • International Journal of Mass Spectrometry, Vol. 281, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.ijms.2008.12.009

Molecular nitrogen and methane density retrievals from Cassini UVIS dayglow observations of Titan’s upper atmosphere
journal, February 2015


The photochemistry of hydrocarbons in the atmosphere of Titan
journal, April 1974


Titan's hydrodynamically escaping atmosphere
journal, February 2008


Titan's stratospheric C2N2, C3H4, and C4H2 abundances from Cassini/CIRS far-infrared spectra
journal, August 2009


Mapping Titan's HCN in the far infra-red: implications for photochemistry
journal, January 2010

  • Teanby, N. A.; Irwin, P. G. J.; de Kok, R.
  • Faraday Discussions, Vol. 147
  • DOI: 10.1039/c001690j

Constraints on Titan's middle atmosphere ammonia abundance from Herschel/SPIRE sub-millimetre spectra
journal, January 2013


Active upper-atmosphere chemistry and dynamics from polar circulation reversal on Titan
journal, November 2012

  • Teanby, Nicholas A.; Irwin, Patrick G. J.; Nixon, Conor A.
  • Nature, Vol. 491, Issue 7426
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature11611

Titan's winter polar vortex structure revealed by chemical tracers
journal, January 2008

  • Teanby, N. A.; de Kok, R.; Irwin, P. G. J.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 113, Issue E12
  • DOI: 10.1029/2008JE003218

Latitudinal variations of HCN, HC3N, and C2N2 in Titan's stratosphere derived from Cassini CIRS data
journal, March 2006


A Revised Sensitivity Model for Cassini INMS: Results at Titan
journal, January 2015


The possibility of nitrogen isotopic fractionation in interstellar clouds
journal, September 2000


Dissociative Recombination of CH 4 +
journal, March 2013

  • Thomas, Richard D.; Kashperka, Iryna; Vigren, E.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, Vol. 117, Issue 39
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp400353x

A study of the reactions of the ground and metastable states of C+, N+, S+ and N2+ at 300 K
journal, March 1979

  • Tichý, M.; Rakshit, A. B.; Lister, D. G.
  • International Journal of Mass Spectrometry and Ion Physics, Vol. 29, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1016/0020-7381(79)80036-4

Episodic outgassing as the origin of atmospheric methane on Titan
journal, March 2006

  • Tobie, Gabriel; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Sotin, Christophe
  • Nature, Vol. 440, Issue 7080
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature04497

A model of Titan's aerosols based on measurements made inside the atmosphere
journal, April 2008


Rain, winds and haze during the Huygens probe's descent to Titan's surface
journal, November 2005

  • Tomasko, M. G.; Archinal, B.; Becker, T.
  • Nature, Vol. 438, Issue 7069
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature04126

Photochemical Modeling of Titan's Atmosphere
journal, January 1995


Predictive possibilities of unimolecular rate theory
journal, January 1979


Theory of Thermal Unimolecular Reactions in the Fall-off Range. I. Strong Collision Rate Constants
journal, February 1983


Current Status of Transition-State Theory
journal, January 1996

  • Truhlar, Donald G.; Garrett, Bruce C.; Klippenstein, Stephen J.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 100, Issue 31
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp953748q

Examining the exobase approximation: DSMC models of Titan's upper atmosphere
journal, July 2016


Ion-molecule clustering reactions of HCNH+ ion with N2 and/or CH4 in N2CH4 mixtures
journal, November 1997


Clustering reactions of HCNH+, HCNH+(N2) and HCNH+(CH4) with ethane: application to Titan atmosphere
journal, February 2000


Kinetics of C2H radical reactions with ethene, propene and 1-butene measured in a pulsed Laval nozzle apparatus at T=103 and 296 K
journal, November 2001


Kinetics of reactions of C2H radical with acetylene, O2, methylacetylene, and allene in a pulsed Laval nozzle apparatus at T=103K
journal, August 2001


Increasing Positive ion Number Densities Below the peak of Ion-Electron pair Production in Titan'S Ionosphere
journal, April 2014


On the thermal electron balance in Titan’s sunlit upper atmosphere
journal, March 2013


Ionization balance in Titan’s nightside ionosphere
journal, March 2015


DISSOCIATIVE RECOMBINATION OF PROTONATED PROPIONITRILE, CH 3 CH 2 CNH + : IMPLICATIONS FOR TITAN'S UPPER ATMOSPHERE
journal, September 2010


Dissociative recombination of the acetaldehyde cation, CH3CHO+
journal, January 2010

  • Vigren, Erik; Hamberg, Mathias; Zhaunerchyk, Vitali
  • Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 12, Issue 37
  • DOI: 10.1039/c003857a

Dissociative recombination of fully deuterated protonated acetonitrile, CD3CND+: product branching fractions, absolute cross section and thermal rate coefficient
journal, January 2008

  • Vigren, Erik; Kamińska, Magdalena; Hamberg, Mathias
  • Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 10, Issue 27
  • DOI: 10.1039/b801566j

Dissociative recombination of nitrile ions with implications for Titan's upper atmosphere
journal, January 2012


REASSESSMENT OF THE DISSOCIATIVE RECOMBINATION OF N 2 H + AT CRYRING
journal, September 2012


The Titan 14N/15N and 12C/13C isotopic ratios in HCN from Cassini/CIRS
journal, November 2007


Analysis of Cassini/CIRS limb spectra of Titan acquired during the nominal mission
journal, February 2010


Experimental and theoretical study of hydrocarbon photochemistry applied to Titan stratosphere
journal, November 2006


Negative ion chemistry in Titan's upper atmosphere
journal, November 2009


The Nitrogen Chemistry of Titan's Upper Atmosphere Revealed
journal, August 2006

  • Vuitton, V.; Yelle, R. V.; Anicich (Retired), V. G.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 647, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/507467

Formation and distribution of benzene on Titan
journal, January 2008

  • Vuitton, V.; Yelle, R. V.; Cui, J.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 113, Issue E5
  • DOI: 10.1029/2007JE002997

Rapid Association Reactions at low Pressure: Impact on the Formation of Hydrocarbons on Titan
journal, December 2011


Ion chemistry and N-containing molecules in Titan's upper atmosphere
journal, November 2007


Cassini Measurements of Cold Plasma in the Ionosphere of Titan
journal, May 2005


Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer Results from the First Flyby of Titan
journal, May 2005


The Process of Tholin Formation in Titan's Upper Atmosphere
journal, May 2007


A Kinetic Database for Astrochemistry (Kida)
journal, March 2012

  • Wakelam, V.; Herbst, E.; Loison, J. -C.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 199, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/199/1/21

The 2014 kida Network for Interstellar Chemistry
journal, March 2015

  • Wakelam, V.; Loison, J. -C.; Herbst, E.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 217, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/217/2/20

The Effects of Molecular Anions on the Chemistry of dark Clouds
journal, July 2009


Calculations of Rate Coefficients for the Chemically Activated Reactions of Acetylene with Vinylic and Aromatic Radicals
journal, November 1994

  • Wang, Hai; Frenklach, Michael
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 98, Issue 44
  • DOI: 10.1021/j100095a033

Cassini CAPS-ELS observations of negative ions in Titan's ionosphere: Trends of density with altitude: NEGATIVE ION ALTITUDE TRENDS AT TITAN
journal, September 2013

  • Wellbrock, A.; Coates, A. J.; Jones, G. H.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 40, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1002/grl.50751

Observed decline in Titan's thermospheric methane due to solar cycle drivers: Solar Cycle Effect on Titan's Atmosphere
journal, October 2014

  • Westlake, J. H.; Waite, J. H.; Bell, J. M.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 119, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020394

Titan's ionospheric composition and structure: Photochemical modeling of Cassini INMS data: TITAN'S ION COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE
journal, January 2012

  • Westlake, J. H.; Waite, J. H.; Mandt, K. E.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, Vol. 117, Issue E1
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011JE003883

Improved Critical Compilations of Selected Atomic Transition Probabilities for Neutral and Singly Ionized Carbon and Nitrogen
journal, December 2007

  • Wiese, W. L.; Fuhr, J. R.
  • Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, Vol. 36, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2740642

Photodissociation of vinyl cyanide at 193 nm: Nascent product distributions of the molecular elimination channels
journal, January 2009

  • Wilhelm, Michael J.; Nikow, Matthew; Letendre, Laura
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 130, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3065986

A new Astrobiological Model of the Atmosphere of Titan
journal, September 2016


Sensitivity studies of methane photolysis and its impact on hydrocarbon chemistry in the atmosphere of Titan
journal, August 2000

  • Wilson, Eric H.; Atreya, Sushil K.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, Vol. 105, Issue E8
  • DOI: 10.1029/1999JE001221

Chemical sources of haze formation in Titan's atmosphere
journal, December 2003


Current state of modeling the photochemistry of Titan's mutually dependent atmosphere and ionosphere
journal, January 2004


Mechanisms for the formation of benzene in the atmosphere of Titan: FORMATION OF BENZENE IN TITAN'S ATMOSPHERE
journal, February 2003

  • Wilson, E. H.; Atreya, S. K.; Coustenis, A.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, Vol. 108, Issue E2
  • DOI: 10.1029/2002JE001896

Evolution of CO on Titan
journal, February 2002


Solar EUV Experiment (SEE): Mission overview and first results
journal, January 2005


Quantum Chemical Predictions of the Properties of Known and Postulated Neutral Interstellar Molecules
journal, November 2009


Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Reactions Between h Atoms and Nitrogen-Containing Carbanions
journal, August 2011


Methane escape from Titan's atmosphere
journal, January 2008

  • Yelle, R. V.; Cui, J.; Müller-Wodarg, I. C. F.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 113, Issue E10
  • DOI: 10.1029/2007JE003031

Formation of NH3 and CH2NH in Titan's upper atmosphere
journal, January 2010

  • Yelle, Roger V.; Vuitton, V.; Lavvas, P.
  • Faraday Discussions, Vol. 147
  • DOI: 10.1039/c004787m

Photochemistry of the atmosphere of Titan - Comparison between model and observations
journal, June 1984

  • Yung, Y. L.; Allen, M.; Pinto, J. P.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 55
  • DOI: 10.1086/190963

Reactivity of C 2 H 5 + with Benzene: Formation of Ethylbenzenium Ions and Implications for Titan’s Ionospheric Chemistry
journal, July 2009

  • Žabka, Jan; Polášek, Miroslav; Ascenzi, Daniela
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, Vol. 113, Issue 42
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp905052h

Dynamics of Formation of Products D 2 CN + , DCN + , and CD 3 + in the Reaction of N + with CD 4 : A Crossed-Beam and Theoretical Study
journal, October 2009

  • Žabka, Jan; Roithová, Jana; Španěl, Patrik
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, Vol. 114, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp9069493

A crossed molecular beams study of the reaction of the ethynyl radical (C2H(X2Σ+)) with allene (H2CCCH2(X1A1))
journal, January 2009

  • Zhang, Fangtong; Kim, Seol; Kaiser, Ralf I.
  • Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 11, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1039/b822366a

LOW-TEMPERATURE ION TRAP STUDIES OF N + ( 3 P ja ) + H 2 ( j ) → NH + + H
journal, April 2013


Works referencing / citing this record:

Low‐Pressure EUV Photochemical Experiments: Insight on the Ion Chemistry Occurring in Titan's Atmosphere
journal, November 2019

  • Bourgalais, J.; Carrasco, N.; Vettier, L.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 124, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1029/2019ja026953

A low temperature investigation of the N( 2 D) + CH 4 , C 2 H 6 and C 3 H 8 reactions
journal, January 2019

  • Nuñez-Reyes, Dianailys; Loison, Jean-Christophe; Hickson, Kevin M.
  • Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 21, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1039/c9cp00798a

Ethane in Titan’s Stratosphere from Cassini CIRS Far- and Mid-infrared Spectra
journal, April 2019

  • Lombardo, Nicholas A.; Nixon, Conor A.; Sylvestre, Melody
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 157, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-3881/ab0e07

Low-temperature synthesis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Titan’s surface ices and on airless bodies
journal, October 2019

  • Abplanalp, Matthew J.; Frigge, Robert; Kaiser, Ralf I.
  • Science Advances, Vol. 5, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaw5841

Detection of Propadiene on Titan
journal, August 2019

  • Lombardo, Nicholas A.; Nixon, Conor A.; Greathouse, Thomas K.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 881, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ab3860

ALMA Spectral Imaging of Titan Contemporaneous with Cassini 's Grand Finale
journal, July 2019

  • Cordiner, M. A.; Teanby, N. A.; Nixon, C. A.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 158, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-3881/ab2d20

Seasonal Evolution of Titan's Stratosphere During the Cassini Mission
journal, March 2019

  • Teanby, N. A.; Sylvestre, M.; Sharkey, J.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 46, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1029/2018gl081401

Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) Observations of Titan 2004–2017
journal, September 2019

  • Nixon, Conor A.; Ansty, Todd M.; Lombardo, Nicholas A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 244, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/ab3799

Heavy negative ion growth in Titan’s polar winter
journal, September 2019

  • Wellbrock, A.; Coates, A. J.; Jones, G. H.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 490, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz2655

Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) Observations of Titan 2004--2017
text, January 2019


Detection of Propadiene on Titan
text, January 2019


Low Pressure EUV Photochemical Experiments: Insight on the Ion-Chemistry Occurring in Titan's Atmosphere
text, January 2020