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Title: The spin structure of the nucleon

Abstract

We review the present understanding of the spin structure of protons and neutrons, the fundamental building blocks of nuclei collectively known as nucleons. The field of nucleon spin provides a critical window for testing Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the gauge theory of the strong interactions since it involves fundamental aspects of hadron structure, and it can be probed in detail in experiments, particularly deep inelastic lepton scattering on polarized targets. QCD was initially probed in high energy deep inelastic lepton scattering with unpolarized beams and targets. With time, interest shifted from testing perturbative QCD to illuminating the nucleon structure itself. In fact, the spin degrees of freedom of hadrons provides an essential and detailed verification of both perturbative and nonperturbative QCD dynamics. Nucleon spin was initially thought of coming mostly from the spin of its quark constituents, based on intuition from the parton model. However, the first experiments showed that this expectation was incorrect. It is now clear that nucleon physics is much more complex, involving quark orbital angular momenta as well as gluonic and sea quark contributions. Thus, the nucleon spin structure remains a most active aspect of QCD research, involving important advances such as the developments of generalized partonmore » distributions (GPD) and transverse momentum distributions (TMD). Elastic and inelastic lepton-proton scattering, as well as photoabsorption experiments provide various ways to investigate non-perturbative QCD. Fundamental sum rules --such as the Bjorken sum rule for polarized photoabsorption on polarized nucleons-- are also in the non-perturbative domain. This realization triggered a vigorous program to link the low energy effective hadronic description of the strong interactions to fundamental quarks and gluon degrees of freedom of QCD. This has also led to the development of holographic QCD ideas based on the AdS/CFT or gauge/gravity correspondence, a novel approach providing a well-founded semiclassical approximation to QCD. Any QCD-based model of the nucleon's spin and dynamics must also successfully account for the observed spectroscopy of hadrons. Analytic calculations of the hadron spectrum, a long sought goal of QCD research, has now being realized using light-front holography and superconformal quantum mechanics, a formalism consistent with the results from nucleon spin studies. We begin this review with a phenomenological description of nucleon structure in general and of its spin structure in particular, aimed to engage non-specialist readers. A fundamental tool is Dirac's front form and light-front quantization which provides a frame-independent, relativistic description of hadron structure and dynamics, the derivation of spin-sum rules, and a direct connection to the QCD Lagrangian. Next, we discuss the nucleon spin structure at high energy, including topics such as GPDs and TMDs, as well as nucleon spin observables sensitive to final-state interactions such as the Sivers effect. We then discuss experimental and theoretical advances in the nonperturbative domain --in particular the development of light-front holographic QCD and superconformal quantum mechanics, its predictions for the spin content of nucleons, the computation of PDFs and of hadron masses.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)
  2. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  3. Univ. of Costa Rica, San Jose (Costa Rica)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Nuclear Physics (NP)
OSTI Identifier:
1530179
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1532411
Report Number(s):
JLAB-PHY-18-2760; DOE/OR/23177-4611; arXiv:1807.05250
Journal ID: ISSN 0034-4885
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-06OR23177; AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Reports on Progress in Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 82; Journal Issue: 7; Journal ID: ISSN 0034-4885
Publisher:
IOP Publishing
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
74 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS; QCD; non-perturbative; proton; neutron; nucleon spin structure

Citation Formats

Deur, Alexandre, Brodsky, Stanley J., and de Téramond, Guy F. The spin structure of the nucleon. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1088/1361-6633/ab0b8f.
Deur, Alexandre, Brodsky, Stanley J., & de Téramond, Guy F. The spin structure of the nucleon. United States. doi:10.1088/1361-6633/ab0b8f.
Deur, Alexandre, Brodsky, Stanley J., and de Téramond, Guy F. Tue . "The spin structure of the nucleon". United States. doi:10.1088/1361-6633/ab0b8f. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1530179.
@article{osti_1530179,
title = {The spin structure of the nucleon},
author = {Deur, Alexandre and Brodsky, Stanley J. and de Téramond, Guy F.},
abstractNote = {We review the present understanding of the spin structure of protons and neutrons, the fundamental building blocks of nuclei collectively known as nucleons. The field of nucleon spin provides a critical window for testing Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the gauge theory of the strong interactions since it involves fundamental aspects of hadron structure, and it can be probed in detail in experiments, particularly deep inelastic lepton scattering on polarized targets. QCD was initially probed in high energy deep inelastic lepton scattering with unpolarized beams and targets. With time, interest shifted from testing perturbative QCD to illuminating the nucleon structure itself. In fact, the spin degrees of freedom of hadrons provides an essential and detailed verification of both perturbative and nonperturbative QCD dynamics. Nucleon spin was initially thought of coming mostly from the spin of its quark constituents, based on intuition from the parton model. However, the first experiments showed that this expectation was incorrect. It is now clear that nucleon physics is much more complex, involving quark orbital angular momenta as well as gluonic and sea quark contributions. Thus, the nucleon spin structure remains a most active aspect of QCD research, involving important advances such as the developments of generalized parton distributions (GPD) and transverse momentum distributions (TMD). Elastic and inelastic lepton-proton scattering, as well as photoabsorption experiments provide various ways to investigate non-perturbative QCD. Fundamental sum rules --such as the Bjorken sum rule for polarized photoabsorption on polarized nucleons-- are also in the non-perturbative domain. This realization triggered a vigorous program to link the low energy effective hadronic description of the strong interactions to fundamental quarks and gluon degrees of freedom of QCD. This has also led to the development of holographic QCD ideas based on the AdS/CFT or gauge/gravity correspondence, a novel approach providing a well-founded semiclassical approximation to QCD. Any QCD-based model of the nucleon's spin and dynamics must also successfully account for the observed spectroscopy of hadrons. Analytic calculations of the hadron spectrum, a long sought goal of QCD research, has now being realized using light-front holography and superconformal quantum mechanics, a formalism consistent with the results from nucleon spin studies. We begin this review with a phenomenological description of nucleon structure in general and of its spin structure in particular, aimed to engage non-specialist readers. A fundamental tool is Dirac's front form and light-front quantization which provides a frame-independent, relativistic description of hadron structure and dynamics, the derivation of spin-sum rules, and a direct connection to the QCD Lagrangian. Next, we discuss the nucleon spin structure at high energy, including topics such as GPDs and TMDs, as well as nucleon spin observables sensitive to final-state interactions such as the Sivers effect. We then discuss experimental and theoretical advances in the nonperturbative domain --in particular the development of light-front holographic QCD and superconformal quantum mechanics, its predictions for the spin content of nucleons, the computation of PDFs and of hadron masses.},
doi = {10.1088/1361-6633/ab0b8f},
journal = {Reports on Progress in Physics},
number = 7,
volume = 82,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {6}
}

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Moments of the spin structure functions <mml:math altimg="si1.gif" overflow="scroll" xmlns:xocs="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/xocs/dtd" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd"><mml:msubsup><mml:mi>g</mml:mi><mml:mn>1</mml:mn><mml:mi>p</mml:mi></mml:msubsup></mml:math> and <mml:math altimg="si2.gif" overflow="scroll" xmlns:xocs="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/xocs/dtd" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd"><mml:msubsup><mml:mi>g</mml:mi><mml:mn>1</mml:mn><mml:mi>d</mml:mi></mml:msubsup></mml:math> for <mml:math altimg="si3.gif" overflow="scroll" xmlns:xocs="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/xocs/dtd" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd"><mml:mn>0.05</mml:mn><mml:mo><</mml:mo><mml:msup><mml:mi>Q</mml:mi><mml:mn>2</mml:mn></mml:msup><mml:mo><</mml:mo><mml:mn>3.0</mml:mn><mml:msup><mml:mtext> GeV</mml:mtext><mml:mn>2</mml:mn></mml:msup></mml:math>
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Determination of the proton spin structure functions for 0.05 < Q 2 < 5 GeV 2 using CLAS
journal, December 2017


Precision Measurement of the Neutron Spin Asymmetry A 1 n and Spin-Flavor Decomposition in the Valence Quark Region
journal, January 2004


Precision measurement of the neutron spin asymmetries and spin-dependent structure functions in the valence quark region
journal, December 2004


Q 2 Dependence of the Neutron Spin Structure Function g 2 n at Low Q 2
journal, September 2005


Moments of the neutron g 2 structure function at intermediate Q 2
journal, July 2015


Quark-Hadron Duality in Neutron ( He 3 ) Spin Structure
journal, October 2008


Precision measurements of g 1 of the proton and of the deuteron with 6 GeV electrons
journal, August 2014


Precision Measurement of the Neutron Twist-3 Matrix Element d 2 n : Probing Color Forces
journal, July 2014


Measurements of d 2 n and A 1 n : Probing the neutron spin structure
journal, September 2016


Precision measurements of A 1 n in the deep inelastic regime
journal, May 2015


First Measurement of the Double Spin Asymmetry in e p e π + n in the Resonance Region
journal, February 2002


e p ep π 0 reaction studied in the Δ ( 1232 ) mass region using polarization asymmetries
journal, September 2003


Measurement of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering with a Polarized-Proton Target
journal, August 2006


First measurement of target and double spin asymmetries for e p ep π 0 in the nucleon resonance region above the Δ ( 1232 )
journal, October 2008


Measurement of Single- and Double-Spin Asymmetries in Deep Inelastic Pion Electroproduction with a Longitudinally Polarized Target
journal, December 2010


Target and beam-target spin asymmetries in exclusive π + and π electroproduction with 1.6- to 5.7-GeV electrons
journal, November 2016


Beam-target double-spin asymmetry in quasielastic electron scattering off the deuteron with CLAS
journal, February 2017


Longitudinal Target-Spin Asymmetries for Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering
journal, January 2015


Target and beam-target spin asymmetries in exclusive pion electroproduction for Q 2 > 1 GeV 2 . I. e p e π + n
journal, March 2017


Target and beam-target spin asymmetries in exclusive pion electroproduction for Q 2 > 1   GeV 2 . II. e p e π 0 p
journal, March 2017


Single spin asymmetries of inclusive hadrons produced in electron scattering from a transversely polarized 3 He target
journal, April 2014


Double spin asymmetries of inclusive hadron electroproduction from a transversely polarized He 3 target
journal, July 2015


Measurement of the Target-Normal Single-Spin Asymmetry in Deep-Inelastic Scattering from the Reaction He 3 ( e , e ) X
journal, July 2014


G E p / G M p Ratio by Polarization Transfer in e p e p
journal, February 2000


Measurement of G E p / G M p in e p e p to Q 2 = 5.6 GeV 2
journal, February 2002


Proton elastic form factor ratios to Q 2 = 3.5 GeV 2 by polarization transfer
journal, May 2005


Publisher's Note: Proton elastic form factor ratios to Q 2 = 3.5 GeV 2 by polarization transfer [Phys. Rev. C 71, 055202 (2005)]
journal, June 2005


Next-to-leading order determination of the singlet axial charge and the polarized gluon content of the nucleon
journal, June 1996


Determination of the Bjorken sum and strong coupling from polarized structure functions
journal, July 1997


Polarized parton distributions from charged-current deep-inelastic scattering and future neutrino factories
journal, May 2001


Nlo qcd Analysis of Polarized deep Inelastic Scattering
journal, December 1998

  • Leader, Elliot; Sidorov, Aleksander V.; Stamenov, Dimiter B.
  • International Journal of Modern Physics A, Vol. 13, Issue 32
  • DOI: 10.1142/S0217751X98002547

A new study of the polarized parton densities in the nucleon
journal, September 1999


A new evaluation of polarized parton densities in the nucleon
journal, April 2002

  • Leader, E.; Sidorov, A. V.; Stamenov, D. B.
  • The European Physical Journal C, Vol. 23, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1007/s100520200901

Impact of CLAS and COMPASS data on polarized parton densities and higher twist
journal, April 2007

  • Leader, Elliot; Sidorov, Aleksander V.; Stamenov, Dimiter B.
  • Physical Review D, Vol. 75, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.75.074027

Determination of polarized parton densities from a QCD analysis of inclusive and semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering data
journal, December 2010

  • Leader, Elliot; Sidorov, Aleksander V.; Stamenov, Dimiter B.
  • Physical Review D, Vol. 82, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.82.114018

Non-singlet QCD analysis of deep inelastic world data at
journal, July 2007


QCD analysis of polarized deep inelastic scattering data
journal, December 2010


Polarized parton distribution functions in the nucleon
journal, July 2000


Determination of polarized parton distribution functions and their uncertainties
journal, March 2004


Determination of polarized parton distribution functions with recent data on polarization asymmetries
journal, July 2006


Determination of gluon polarization from deep inelastic scattering and collider data
journal, May 2009


Impact of hadronic and nuclear corrections on global analysis of spin-dependent parton distributions
journal, February 2014


Constraints on spin-dependent parton distributions at large x from global QCD analysis
journal, November 2014


Extraction of spin-dependent parton densities and their uncertainties
journal, August 2009


Global Analysis of Helicity Parton Densities and their Uncertainties
journal, August 2008


Models for the polarized parton distributions of the nucleon
journal, March 2001


A first unbiased global determination of polarized PDFs and their uncertainties
journal, October 2014


Evidence for Polarization of Gluons in the Proton
journal, July 2014


First Simultaneous Extraction of Spin-Dependent Parton Distributions and Fragmentation Functions from a Global QCD Analysis
journal, September 2017


Next-to-next-to-leading order QCD analysis of spin-dependent parton distribution functions and their uncertainties: Jacobi polynomials approach
journal, June 2016


Nucleon spin structure functions at NNLO in the presence of target mass corrections and higher twist effects
journal, April 2017


Flavour separation of helicity distributions from deep inelastic muon–deuteron scattering
journal, September 2009


Quark helicity distributions from longitudinal spin asymmetries in muon–proton and muon–deuteron scattering
journal, October 2010


The spin structure function g 1 p of the proton and a test of the Bjorken sum rule
journal, February 2016


Final COMPASS results on the deuteron spin-dependent structure function g 1 d and the Bjorken sum rule
journal, June 2017


First Measurement of the Transverse Spin Asymmetries of the Deuteron in Semi-inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering
journal, May 2005


Electron-Ion Collider: The next QCD frontier: Understanding the glue that binds us all
journal, September 2016


Hunting the Gluon Orbital Angular Momentum at the Electron-Ion Collider
journal, May 2017


Pion and Nucleon Structure Functions near x = 1
journal, November 1975


Comparisons of Deep-Inelastic e p and e n Cross Sections
journal, May 1973


Extraction of R = σ L σ T from Deep Inelastic e p and e d Cross Sections
journal, August 1974


High-Energy Single-Arm Inelastic e p and e d Scattering at 6 and 10°
journal, January 1974


Valence quark spin distribution functions
journal, January 1999


Chiral quarks and the non-relativistic quark model
journal, March 1984


Phenomenological Lagrangians
journal, April 1979


Nucleon structure functions and longitudinal spin asymmetries in the chiral quark constituent model
journal, June 2016


Re-examining valence quark spin distributions
journal, June 2017


A statistical approach for polarized parton distributions
journal, April 2002

  • Bourrely, C.; Soffer, J.; Buccella, F.
  • The European Physical Journal C, Vol. 23, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1007/s100520100855

Statistical description of the proton spin with a large gluon helicity distribution
journal, January 2015


New developments in the statistical approach of parton distributions: Tests and predictions up to LHC energies
journal, September 2015


Symmetry breaking and quark-hadron duality in structure functions
journal, September 2003


Parton distributions for the octet and decuplet baryons
journal, September 1999


Instantons and polarized structure functions
journal, May 1998


Nucleon structure functions from a chiral soliton
journal, May 1997


Nucleon structures functionsin the three-flavor NJL soliton model
journal, May 1999


Nucleon quark distributions in a covariant quark–diquark model
journal, August 2005


The Q2-dependence of the generalised Gerasimov–Drell–Hearn integral for the proton
journal, November 2000


The Q-dependence of the generalised Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn integral for the deuteron, proton and neutron
journal, February 2003


Determination of the deep inelastic contribution to the generalised Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn integral for the proton and neutron
journal, December 1998


Parameterisation of [σ1/2−σ3/2] for Q2≥0 and non-resonance contribution to the GDH sum rule
journal, March 1999


The spin and flavour dependence of high-energy photoabsorption
journal, March 1999

  • Bass, S. D.; Brisudová, M. M.
  • The European Physical Journal A, Vol. 4, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1007/s100500050228

Spin Constraints on Regge Predictions and Perturbative Evolution in high Energy Collisions
journal, May 2007


Spin asymmetry <mml:math altimg="si1.gif" overflow="scroll" xmlns:xocs="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/xocs/dtd" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd"><mml:msubsup><mml:mi>A</mml:mi><mml:mn>1</mml:mn><mml:mi>d</mml:mi></mml:msubsup></mml:math> and the spin-dependent structure function <mml:math altimg="si2.gif" overflow="scroll" xmlns:xocs="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/xocs/dtd" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd"><mml:msubsup><mml:mi>g</mml:mi><mml:mn>1</mml:mn><mml:mi>d</mml:mi></mml:msubsup></mml:math> of the deuteron at low values of x and <mml:math altimg="si3.gif" overflow="scroll" xmlns:xocs="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/xocs/dtd" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd"><mml:msup><mml:mi>Q</mml:mi><mml:mn>2</mml:mn></mml:msup></mml:math>
journal, April 2007


The spin-dependent structure function of the proton <mml:math altimg="si1.gif" overflow="scroll" xmlns:xocs="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/xocs/dtd" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd"><mml:msubsup><mml:mi>g</mml:mi><mml:mn>1</mml:mn><mml:mi>p</mml:mi></mml:msubsup></mml:math> and a test of the Bjorken sum rule
journal, July 2010


Experimental Determination of the Evolution of the Bjorken Integral at Low Q 2
journal, November 2004


High precision determination of the Q 2 evolution of the Bjorken sum
journal, July 2014


Experimental study of isovector spin sum rules
journal, August 2008


Nucleon axial charge in lattice QCD with controlled errors
journal, October 2012


Lattice calculation of nucleon isovector axial charge with improved currents
journal, August 2017


QCD radiative and power corrections and generalized Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rules
journal, December 2004


On the Q2 variation of spin-dependent deep-inelastic electron-proton scattering
journal, December 1992


Nucleon spin structure at low momentum transfers
journal, October 2010


Nucleon spin structure and perturbative QCD frontier on the move
journal, January 2010


Nonperturbative QCD coupling and its β function from light-front holography
journal, May 2010


What do we know about the Q 2 evolution of the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule?
journal, January 1993


Dispersion-theoretical analysis of the nucleon electromagnetic form factors
journal, January 1996


Investigation of the second moment of the nucleon’s g 1 and g 2 structure functions in two-flavor lattice QCD
journal, September 2005


Iterative Monte Carlo analysis of spin-dependent parton distributions
journal, April 2016


Power corrections 1/Q2to parton sum rules for deep inelastic scattering from polarized nucleons
journal, June 1990


QCD sum rule calculation of twist-3 contributions to polarized nucleon structure functions
journal, January 1995


Polarized structure function g 2 in the c.m. bag model
journal, August 1996


Polarized nucleon structure functions within a chiral soliton model
journal, June 1997


Chiral quark model
journal, November 2003


QCD tests with an infrared finite gluon propagator and coupling constant
journal, February 2010


“Massive” perturbative QCD, Regular in the IR limit
journal, May 2013


Higher twists and color polarizabilities in the neutron
journal, May 2005


Calculation of baryon masses in quantum chromodynamics
journal, September 1981


Spin-dependent twist-4 matrix elements from the instanton vacuum: Flavor-singlet and nonsinglet
journal, January 2002


Higher twists in polarized DIS and the size of the constituent quark
journal, April 2006


Experimental determination of the effective strong coupling constant
journal, July 2007


Determination of the effective strong coupling constant <mml:math altimg="si1.gif" overflow="scroll" xmlns:xocs="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/xocs/dtd" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd"><mml:msub><mml:mi>α</mml:mi><mml:mrow><mml:mi>s</mml:mi><mml:mo>,</mml:mo><mml:msub><mml:mi>g</mml:mi><mml:mn>1</mml:mn></mml:msub></mml:mrow></mml:msub><mml:mo stretchy="false">(</mml:mo><mml:msup><mml:mi>Q</mml:mi><mml:mn>2</mml:mn></mml:msup><mml:mo stretchy="false">)</mml:mo></mml:math> from CLAS spin structure function data
journal, July 2008


Role of higher twist in polarized deep inelastic scattering
journal, April 2003

  • Leader, Elliot; Sidorov, Aleksander V.; Stamenov, Dimiter B.
  • Physical Review D, Vol. 67, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.67.074017

QCD analysis of polarized deep-inelastic scattering data and parton distributions
journal, August 2002


Studies of the transverse spin-dependent structure function g 2 ( x ,   Q 2 )
journal, February 1991


Measurements of the Proton and Deuteron Spin Structure Function g 2 and Asymmetry A 2
journal, January 1996


Measurement of the virtual-photon asymmetry A 2 and the spin-structure function g 2 of the proton
journal, March 2012


Polarized structure function g2(x) in the chiral quark soliton model
journal, August 2000


Bag model predictions for polarized structure functions and theirQ 2-evolutions
journal, December 1993

  • Stratmann, M.
  • Zeitschrift für Physik C Particles and Fields, Vol. 60, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF01558408

Evidence for Quark-Hadron Duality in the Proton Spin Asymmetry A 1
journal, March 2003


Disconnected contributions to the spin of the nucleon
journal, December 2015


Flavor structure of the nucleon sea
journal, November 2014


Calculation of hyperon axial couplings from lattice QCD
journal, February 2009


Axial charges of octet baryons in two-flavor lattice QCD
journal, March 2010


Possible resolution of the strange quark polarization puzzle?
journal, July 2011


New analysis concerning the strange quark polarization puzzle
journal, March 2015


On the sensitivity of the polarized parton densities to flavour SU(3) symmetry breaking
journal, September 2000


Quark helicity distributions in the nucleon for up, down, and strange quarks from semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering
journal, January 2005


Flavor decomposition of the polarized quark distributions in the nucleon from inclusive and semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering
journal, October 1999


Flavor Decomposition of the Sea-Quark Helicity Distributions in the Nucleon from Semiinclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering
journal, January 2004


Light-Cone Parton Distribution Functions from Lattice QCD
journal, September 2018


Polarized light-antiquark distributions in a meson-cloud model
journal, January 2002


Nucleon parton distributions at low normalization point in the large Nc limit
journal, November 1996


Chiral symmetry and the nucleon structure functions
journal, May 1998


Is the polarized antiquark sea in the nucleon flavor symmetric?
journal, January 2001


Heavy quark mass expansion and intrinsic charm in light hadrons
journal, September 2000


Intrinsic charm contribution to the proton spin
journal, August 1999


The gluon and charm content of the deuteron
journal, August 2018


Novel six-quark hidden-color dibaryon states in QCD
journal, December 2013


Constraining Quark Angular Momentum through Semi-Inclusive Measurements
journal, November 2011


Evidence for the absence of gluon orbital angular momentum in the nucleon
journal, November 2006


Light-Front Holography: A First Approximation to QCD
journal, February 2009


Superconformal Algebraic Approach to Hadron Structure
journal, January 2017


Physics opportunities of a fixed-target experiment using LHC beams
journal, January 2013


Feasibility Studies for Single Transverse-Spin Asymmetry Measurements at a Fixed-Target Experiment Using the LHC Proton and Lead Beams (AFTER@LHC)
journal, May 2017

  • Kikoła, Daniel; Echevarria, Miguel García; Hadjidakis, Cynthia
  • Few-Body Systems, Vol. 58, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00601-017-1299-x

Spin Physics Experiments at NICA-SPD with polarized proton and deuteron beams
journal, January 2015


Quark spin content of the proton in the Skyrme model
journal, March 1991


Instanton-induced asymmetric quark configurations in the nucleon and parton sum rules
journal, April 1993


Flavor and Spin Contents of the Nucleon in the Quark Model with Chiral Symmetry
journal, April 1995


Is nucleon spin structure inconsistent with the constituent quark model?
journal, November 1998


Axial-vector form factors of the nucleon within the chiral quark-soliton model and their strange components
journal, November 2005


Generalized form factors, generalized parton distributions, and the spin contents of the nucleon
journal, September 2006


Spin of the proton in chiral effective field theory
journal, April 2016


Baryon properties from light-front holographic QCD
journal, November 2015


Axial baryonic charge and the spin content of the nucleon: A lattice investigation
journal, April 1994


Proton Spin Structure from Lattice QCD
journal, September 1995


Flavor-Singlet g A from Lattice QCD
journal, September 1995


Quark orbital angular momentum from lattice QCD
journal, October 2000


Flavor singlet axial vector coupling of the proton with dynamical Wilson fermions
journal, April 1999


Generalized Parton Distributions from Lattice QCD
journal, January 2004


Nucleon structure from mixed action calculations using 2 + 1 flavors of asqtad sea and domain wall valence fermions
journal, November 2010


Strangeness Contribution to the Proton Spin from Lattice QCD
journal, May 2012


Moments of nucleon generalized parton distributions from lattice QCD
journal, June 2011


Nucleon form factors and moments of generalized parton distributions using N f = 2 + 1 + 1 twisted mass fermions
journal, July 2013


Disconnected quark loop contributions to nucleon observables in lattice QCD
journal, February 2014


Lattice study of quark and glue momenta and angular momenta in the nucleon
journal, January 2015


Up, down, and strange nucleon axial form factors from lattice QCD
journal, June 2017


Static properties of baryons from an SU(3) pseudoscalar vector meson lagrangian
journal, May 1992


Strange nucleon form factors in the perturbative chiral quark model
journal, November 2002


Strangeness spin, magnetic moment, and strangeness configurations of the proton
journal, March 2006


The strangeness form factors of the proton
journal, May 2006


Exploring strange nucleon form factors on the lattice
journal, March 2012


A limit on the pionic component of the nucleon through SU(3) flavour breaking in the sea
journal, June 1983


Flavor asymmetry in the light-quark sea of the nucleon
journal, April 1992


Polarized ρ mesons and the asymmetry between and in the sea of the nucleon
journal, December 1998


Polarised quark distributions in the nucleon from semi-inclusive spin asymmetries
journal, February 1998