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Title: Towards an integrated experimental and computational framework for large-scale metal additive manufacturing

Abstract

In this work using the Metal Big Area Additive Manufacturing (MBAAM) system, a thin steel wall was manufactured from a low carbon steel wire. The wall was then characterized comprehensively by high-throughput high-energy X-ray diffraction (HEXRD), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and in-situ HEXRD tensile tests. With the predicted temperature histories from the finite element-based additive manufacturing process simulations, the correlations between processing parameters, microstructure, and properties were established. The correlation between the final microstructure with the predicted temperature history is well explained with the material's continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram calculated based on the composition of the low carbon steel wire. The final microstructure is dependent on the cooling rate during austenite to ferrite/bainite transformation during initial cooling and the subsequent reheating cycles. Fast cooling rate resulted in small ferrite grain size and fine bainite structure at the location closest to the base plate. Slower cooling rate at the side wall location and repeated reheating cycles to the ferrite-pearlite regions resulted in all allotriomorphic (equiaxed) ferrite with medium grain size with small amount of pearlite. With no reheating cycles, the top location has the slowest cooling rate and a large grained allotriomorphic ferrite and bainitic structures. The measured mechanical strengthmore » is then related to the microstructural feature size (grain or lath size) observed in those locations. Thus, a good correlation is found between the mechanical properties, microstructure features and the temperature history at various locations of the printed wall.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [1]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  2. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Advanced Manufacturing Office (EE-5A); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22). Scientific User Facilities Division
OSTI Identifier:
1530073
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725; AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Materials Science and Engineering. A, Structural Materials: Properties, Microstructure and Processing
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 761; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0921-5093
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; Additive manufacturing; Modeling; Microstructure heterogeneity; CCT diagram; Strength; Uniform elongation; Post-necking elongation

Citation Formats

Hu, Xiaohua, Nycz, Andrzej, Lee, Yousub, Shassere, Benjamin, Simunovic, Srdjan, Noakes, Mark, Ren, Yang, and Sun, Xin. Towards an integrated experimental and computational framework for large-scale metal additive manufacturing. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1016/j.msea.2019.138057.
Hu, Xiaohua, Nycz, Andrzej, Lee, Yousub, Shassere, Benjamin, Simunovic, Srdjan, Noakes, Mark, Ren, Yang, & Sun, Xin. Towards an integrated experimental and computational framework for large-scale metal additive manufacturing. United States. doi:10.1016/j.msea.2019.138057.
Hu, Xiaohua, Nycz, Andrzej, Lee, Yousub, Shassere, Benjamin, Simunovic, Srdjan, Noakes, Mark, Ren, Yang, and Sun, Xin. Fri . "Towards an integrated experimental and computational framework for large-scale metal additive manufacturing". United States. doi:10.1016/j.msea.2019.138057.
@article{osti_1530073,
title = {Towards an integrated experimental and computational framework for large-scale metal additive manufacturing},
author = {Hu, Xiaohua and Nycz, Andrzej and Lee, Yousub and Shassere, Benjamin and Simunovic, Srdjan and Noakes, Mark and Ren, Yang and Sun, Xin},
abstractNote = {In this work using the Metal Big Area Additive Manufacturing (MBAAM) system, a thin steel wall was manufactured from a low carbon steel wire. The wall was then characterized comprehensively by high-throughput high-energy X-ray diffraction (HEXRD), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and in-situ HEXRD tensile tests. With the predicted temperature histories from the finite element-based additive manufacturing process simulations, the correlations between processing parameters, microstructure, and properties were established. The correlation between the final microstructure with the predicted temperature history is well explained with the material's continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram calculated based on the composition of the low carbon steel wire. The final microstructure is dependent on the cooling rate during austenite to ferrite/bainite transformation during initial cooling and the subsequent reheating cycles. Fast cooling rate resulted in small ferrite grain size and fine bainite structure at the location closest to the base plate. Slower cooling rate at the side wall location and repeated reheating cycles to the ferrite-pearlite regions resulted in all allotriomorphic (equiaxed) ferrite with medium grain size with small amount of pearlite. With no reheating cycles, the top location has the slowest cooling rate and a large grained allotriomorphic ferrite and bainitic structures. The measured mechanical strength is then related to the microstructural feature size (grain or lath size) observed in those locations. Thus, a good correlation is found between the mechanical properties, microstructure features and the temperature history at various locations of the printed wall.},
doi = {10.1016/j.msea.2019.138057},
journal = {Materials Science and Engineering. A, Structural Materials: Properties, Microstructure and Processing},
number = C,
volume = 761,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {6}
}

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This content will become publicly available on June 21, 2020
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