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Title: Toward a subhourly net zero energy district design through integrated building and distribution system modeling

Abstract

A modeling framework integrating both building energy modeling and power system modeling is introduced for the design of net zero energy (NZE) districts for the simultaneous selection of both demand-side efficiency measures and supply-side generation technologies. A novel district control scheme is proposed for pursuing NZE on a subhourly basis while mitigating potential grid impacts such as power backfeeding and voltage violations. As a case study, Pena Station NEXT, a new 100-building, mixed-use district on a 1200-node distribution feeder in Denver, Colorado, is modeled in the integrated framework. An exhaustive scenario analysis is conducted for sizing the district's distributed energy resources, considering multiple objectives such as capital cost, net energy import, and equipment violations. Here, when trying to achieve annual NZE, the district incurs frequent operating violations, and achieving NZE on a 15-min basis is also limited by seasonal fluctuations in photovoltaic output, illustrating the need for diverse generation or seasonal storage. As a practical compromise, both annual and 15-min district import can be reduced by ~78% without significant violations.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [4];  [4]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
  2. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  3. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)
  4. Xcel Energy, Denver, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1529870
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1525567
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5D00-72279
Journal ID: ISSN 1941-7012
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 11; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 1941-7012
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY, AND ECONOMY; 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; net zero energy; building energy modeling; power system planning; OpenDSS; URBANopt; OpenStudio

Citation Formats

Doubleday, Kate, Parker, Andrew S., Hafiz, Faeza, Irwin, Benjamin, Hancock, Samuel, Pless, Shanti, and Hodge, Bri -Mathias. Toward a subhourly net zero energy district design through integrated building and distribution system modeling. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1063/1.5093917.
Doubleday, Kate, Parker, Andrew S., Hafiz, Faeza, Irwin, Benjamin, Hancock, Samuel, Pless, Shanti, & Hodge, Bri -Mathias. Toward a subhourly net zero energy district design through integrated building and distribution system modeling. United States. doi:10.1063/1.5093917.
Doubleday, Kate, Parker, Andrew S., Hafiz, Faeza, Irwin, Benjamin, Hancock, Samuel, Pless, Shanti, and Hodge, Bri -Mathias. Tue . "Toward a subhourly net zero energy district design through integrated building and distribution system modeling". United States. doi:10.1063/1.5093917.
@article{osti_1529870,
title = {Toward a subhourly net zero energy district design through integrated building and distribution system modeling},
author = {Doubleday, Kate and Parker, Andrew S. and Hafiz, Faeza and Irwin, Benjamin and Hancock, Samuel and Pless, Shanti and Hodge, Bri -Mathias},
abstractNote = {A modeling framework integrating both building energy modeling and power system modeling is introduced for the design of net zero energy (NZE) districts for the simultaneous selection of both demand-side efficiency measures and supply-side generation technologies. A novel district control scheme is proposed for pursuing NZE on a subhourly basis while mitigating potential grid impacts such as power backfeeding and voltage violations. As a case study, Pena Station NEXT, a new 100-building, mixed-use district on a 1200-node distribution feeder in Denver, Colorado, is modeled in the integrated framework. An exhaustive scenario analysis is conducted for sizing the district's distributed energy resources, considering multiple objectives such as capital cost, net energy import, and equipment violations. Here, when trying to achieve annual NZE, the district incurs frequent operating violations, and achieving NZE on a 15-min basis is also limited by seasonal fluctuations in photovoltaic output, illustrating the need for diverse generation or seasonal storage. As a practical compromise, both annual and 15-min district import can be reduced by ~78% without significant violations.},
doi = {10.1063/1.5093917},
journal = {Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy},
number = 3,
volume = 11,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {6}
}

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