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Title: Life Cycle Analysis of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Automotive Applications

Abstract

In light of the increasing penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) in the global vehicle market, understanding the environmental impacts of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) that characterize the EVs is key to sustainable EV deployment. This study analyzes the cradle-to-gate total energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, SOx, NOx, PM10 emissions, and water consumption associated with current industrial production of lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) batteries, with the battery life cycle analysis (LCA) module in the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model, which was recently updated with primary data collected from large-scale commercial battery material producers and automotive LIB manufacturers. The results show that active cathode material, aluminum, and energy use for cell production are the major contributors to the energy and environmental impacts of NMC batteries. However, this study also notes that the impacts could change significantly, depending on where in the world the battery is produced, and where the materials are sourced. In an effort to harmonize existing LCAs of automotive LIBs and guide future research, this study also lays out differences in life cycle inventories (LCIs) for key battery materials among existing LIB LCA studies, and identifies knowledge gaps.

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
OSTI Identifier:
1529713
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1529586
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Batteries
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 5; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 2313-0105
Publisher:
MDPI
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; 25 ENERGY STORAGE; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; emissions; energy use; life cycle analysis; lithium-ion batteries; water consumption

Citation Formats

Dai, Qiang, Kelly, Jarod C., Gaines, Linda, and Wang, Michael. Life Cycle Analysis of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Automotive Applications. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.3390/batteries5020048.
Dai, Qiang, Kelly, Jarod C., Gaines, Linda, & Wang, Michael. Life Cycle Analysis of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Automotive Applications. United States. doi:10.3390/batteries5020048.
Dai, Qiang, Kelly, Jarod C., Gaines, Linda, and Wang, Michael. Sat . "Life Cycle Analysis of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Automotive Applications". United States. doi:10.3390/batteries5020048.
@article{osti_1529713,
title = {Life Cycle Analysis of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Automotive Applications},
author = {Dai, Qiang and Kelly, Jarod C. and Gaines, Linda and Wang, Michael},
abstractNote = {In light of the increasing penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) in the global vehicle market, understanding the environmental impacts of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) that characterize the EVs is key to sustainable EV deployment. This study analyzes the cradle-to-gate total energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, SOx, NOx, PM10 emissions, and water consumption associated with current industrial production of lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) batteries, with the battery life cycle analysis (LCA) module in the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model, which was recently updated with primary data collected from large-scale commercial battery material producers and automotive LIB manufacturers. The results show that active cathode material, aluminum, and energy use for cell production are the major contributors to the energy and environmental impacts of NMC batteries. However, this study also notes that the impacts could change significantly, depending on where in the world the battery is produced, and where the materials are sourced. In an effort to harmonize existing LCAs of automotive LIBs and guide future research, this study also lays out differences in life cycle inventories (LCIs) for key battery materials among existing LIB LCA studies, and identifies knowledge gaps.},
doi = {10.3390/batteries5020048},
journal = {Batteries},
number = 2,
volume = 5,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {6}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.3390/batteries5020048

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