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Title: Life Cycle Analysis of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Automotive Applications

Abstract

In light of the increasing penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) in the global vehicle market, understanding the environmental impacts of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) that characterize the EVs is key to sustainable EV deployment. This study analyzes the cradle-to-gate total energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, SOx, NOx, PM10 emissions, and water consumption associated with current industrial production of lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) batteries, with the battery life cycle analysis (LCA) module in the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model, which was recently updated with primary data collected from large-scale commercial battery material producers and automotive LIB manufacturers. The results show that active cathode material, aluminum, and energy use for cell production are the major contributors to the energy and environmental impacts of NMC batteries. However, this study also notes that the impacts could change significantly, depending on where in the world the battery is produced, and where the materials are sourced. In an effort to harmonize existing LCAs of automotive LIBs and guide future research, this study also lays out differences in life cycle inventories (LCIs) for key battery materials among existing LIB LCA studies, and identifies knowledge gaps.

Authors:
; ORCiD logo; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
OSTI Identifier:
1529713
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1529586
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Batteries
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Batteries Journal Volume: 5 Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 2313-0105
Publisher:
MDPI
Country of Publication:
Switzerland
Language:
English
Subject:
32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; 25 ENERGY STORAGE; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; emissions; energy use; life cycle analysis; lithium-ion batteries; water consumption

Citation Formats

Dai, Qiang, Kelly, Jarod C., Gaines, Linda, and Wang, Michael. Life Cycle Analysis of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Automotive Applications. Switzerland: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.3390/batteries5020048.
Dai, Qiang, Kelly, Jarod C., Gaines, Linda, & Wang, Michael. Life Cycle Analysis of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Automotive Applications. Switzerland. doi:10.3390/batteries5020048.
Dai, Qiang, Kelly, Jarod C., Gaines, Linda, and Wang, Michael. Sat . "Life Cycle Analysis of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Automotive Applications". Switzerland. doi:10.3390/batteries5020048.
@article{osti_1529713,
title = {Life Cycle Analysis of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Automotive Applications},
author = {Dai, Qiang and Kelly, Jarod C. and Gaines, Linda and Wang, Michael},
abstractNote = {In light of the increasing penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) in the global vehicle market, understanding the environmental impacts of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) that characterize the EVs is key to sustainable EV deployment. This study analyzes the cradle-to-gate total energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, SOx, NOx, PM10 emissions, and water consumption associated with current industrial production of lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) batteries, with the battery life cycle analysis (LCA) module in the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model, which was recently updated with primary data collected from large-scale commercial battery material producers and automotive LIB manufacturers. The results show that active cathode material, aluminum, and energy use for cell production are the major contributors to the energy and environmental impacts of NMC batteries. However, this study also notes that the impacts could change significantly, depending on where in the world the battery is produced, and where the materials are sourced. In an effort to harmonize existing LCAs of automotive LIBs and guide future research, this study also lays out differences in life cycle inventories (LCIs) for key battery materials among existing LIB LCA studies, and identifies knowledge gaps.},
doi = {10.3390/batteries5020048},
journal = {Batteries},
number = 2,
volume = 5,
place = {Switzerland},
year = {2019},
month = {6}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.3390/batteries5020048

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Works referenced in this record:

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journal, August 2017

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Life cycle assessment of lithium-ion batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles – Critical issues
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Life Cycle Environmental Assessment of Lithium-Ion and Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries for Plug-In Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicles
journal, May 2011

  • Majeau-Bettez, Guillaume; Hawkins, Troy R.; Strømman, Anders Hammer
  • Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 45, Issue 10
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Energy impact of cathode drying and solvent recovery during lithium-ion battery manufacturing
journal, August 2016


Comparative Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Conventional and Electric Vehicles
journal, August 2012


Study of a dry room in a battery manufacturing plant using a process model
journal, September 2016


Effects of battery chemistry and performance on the life cycle greenhouse gas intensity of electric mobility
journal, August 2016

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Mapping the Global Flow of Aluminum: From Liquid Aluminum to End-Use Goods
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Impact of the electricity mix and use profile in the life-cycle assessment of electric vehicles
journal, August 2013


Contribution of Li-Ion Batteries to the Environmental Impact of Electric Vehicles
journal, September 2010

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Prospects for reducing the processing cost of lithium ion batteries
journal, February 2015


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    The environmental performance of current and future passenger vehicles: Life cycle assessment based on a novel scenario analysis framework
    journal, November 2015


    Life cycle assessment of lithium-ion batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles – Critical issues
    journal, November 2010


    Providing a common base for life cycle assessments of Li-Ion batteries
    journal, January 2018


    Prospects for reducing the processing cost of lithium ion batteries
    journal, February 2015


    Energy impact of cathode drying and solvent recovery during lithium-ion battery manufacturing
    journal, August 2016


    Study of a dry room in a battery manufacturing plant using a process model
    journal, September 2016


    Cost and energy demand of producing nickel manganese cobalt cathode material for lithium ion batteries
    journal, February 2017


    Impact of the electricity mix and use profile in the life-cycle assessment of electric vehicles
    journal, August 2013


    The environmental impact of Li-Ion batteries and the role of key parameters – A review
    journal, January 2017

    • Peters, Jens F.; Baumann, Manuel; Zimmermann, Benedikt
    • Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 67
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2016.08.039

    Effects of battery chemistry and performance on the life cycle greenhouse gas intensity of electric mobility
    journal, August 2016

    • Ambrose, Hanjiro; Kendall, Alissa
    • Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, Vol. 47
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.trd.2016.05.009

    Identifying key assumptions and differences in life cycle assessment studies of lithium-ion traction batteries with focus on greenhouse gas emissions
    journal, August 2017

    • Ellingsen, Linda Ager-Wick; Hung, Christine Roxanne; Strømman, Anders Hammer
    • Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, Vol. 55
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.trd.2017.06.028

    Cradle-to-Gate Emissions from a Commercial Electric Vehicle Li-Ion Battery: A Comparative Analysis
    journal, June 2016

    • Kim, Hyung Chul; Wallington, Timothy J.; Arsenault, Renata
    • Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 50, Issue 14
    • DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.6b00830

    Life Cycle Environmental Assessment of Lithium-Ion and Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries for Plug-In Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicles
    journal, May 2011

    • Majeau-Bettez, Guillaume; Hawkins, Troy R.; Strømman, Anders Hammer
    • Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 45, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1021/es103607c

    Mapping the Global Flow of Aluminum: From Liquid Aluminum to End-Use Goods
    journal, March 2013

    • Cullen, Jonathan M.; Allwood, Julian M.
    • Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 47, Issue 7
    • DOI: 10.1021/es304256s

    Contribution of Li-Ion Batteries to the Environmental Impact of Electric Vehicles
    journal, September 2010

    • Notter, Dominic A.; Gauch, Marcel; Widmer, Rolf
    • Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 44, Issue 17
    • DOI: 10.1021/es903729a

    Performance and cost of materials for lithium-based rechargeable automotive batteries
    journal, April 2018


    Current status and challenges for automotive battery production technologies
    journal, April 2018


    The significance of Li-ion batteries in electric vehicle life-cycle energy and emissions and recycling's role in its reduction
    journal, January 2015

    • Dunn, J. B.; Gaines, L.; Kelly, J. C.
    • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 8, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1039/c4ee03029j

    Comparative Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Conventional and Electric Vehicles
    journal, August 2012


    Life Cycle Assessment of a Lithium-Ion Battery Vehicle Pack: LCA of a Li-Ion Battery Vehicle Pack
    journal, November 2013

    • Ellingsen, Linda Ager-Wick; Majeau-Bettez, Guillaume; Singh, Bhawna
    • Journal of Industrial Ecology, Vol. 18, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1111/jiec.12072

    The Development and Future of Lithium Ion Batteries
    journal, December 2016

    • Blomgren, George E.
    • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 164, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1149/2.0251701jes

    Life Cycle Assessment of Metals: A Scientific Synthesis
    journal, July 2014


    Globally regional life cycle analysis of automotive lithium-ion nickel manganese cobalt batteries
    journal, August 2019

    • Kelly, Jarod C.; Dai, Qiang; Wang, Michael
    • Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Vol. 25, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1007/s11027-019-09869-2

    Energy use for GWh-scale lithium-ion battery production
    journal, December 2019