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Title: Extreme Fast Charge Challenges for Lithium-Ion Battery: Variability and Positive Electrode Issues

Abstract

Enabling a 10 min fast charge for electric vehicles is a possible route to reduce range anxiety and increase the utility of electric vehicles. While lithium plating during fast charging is a known challenge, the full suite of limitations which occur in full cells during a 10 min fast charge are unknown. In the present work the central constraints of extreme fast charging are explored through extensive experiments and analysis in single layer graphite/NMC532 pouch cells. Methods of developing fast-charging protocols considering the impedance and transport limitations are presented and the relative benefits of altering the charging rate, profile, relaxation, etc., are investigated. Analysis during and at the end of cycling identified both known and unexpected aging pathways. The most distinct outcomes from the work are a significant increase in cell-to-cell variability as the number of fast charge cycles increase [up to 11% (1s)] and the identification of distinct aging of the NMC532 positive electrode including cracking of the secondary particles and a trend towards under-lithiation of the positive electrode. While significant aging of the positive electrode was observed, only a few conditions had discernible Li plating and no distinct reversible Li signature was seen during periodic reference performance tests.

Authors:
ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
OSTI Identifier:
1529607
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1527021
Report Number(s):
INL/JOU-19-52509-Rev002
Journal ID: ISSN 0013-4651
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC07-05ID14517; AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of the Electrochemical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 166; Journal Issue: 10; Journal ID: ISSN 0013-4651
Publisher:
The Electrochemical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 - ENERGY STORAGE; Lithium-ion battery; Electric drive vehicles; Fast charging; Battery state-of-health; Cathode aging; Cell variability; 25 ENERGY STORAGE; 42 ENGINEERING; batteries - lithium; electric drive vehicle; fast charging; lithium-ion battery

Citation Formats

Tanim, Tanvir R., Dufek, Eric J., Evans, Michael, Dickerson, Charles, Jansen, Andrew N., Polzin, Bryant J., Dunlop, Alison R., Trask, Stephen E., Jackman, Ryan, Bloom, Ira, Yang, Zhenzhen, and Lee, Eungje. Extreme Fast Charge Challenges for Lithium-Ion Battery: Variability and Positive Electrode Issues. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1149/2.0731910jes.
Tanim, Tanvir R., Dufek, Eric J., Evans, Michael, Dickerson, Charles, Jansen, Andrew N., Polzin, Bryant J., Dunlop, Alison R., Trask, Stephen E., Jackman, Ryan, Bloom, Ira, Yang, Zhenzhen, & Lee, Eungje. Extreme Fast Charge Challenges for Lithium-Ion Battery: Variability and Positive Electrode Issues. United States. doi:10.1149/2.0731910jes.
Tanim, Tanvir R., Dufek, Eric J., Evans, Michael, Dickerson, Charles, Jansen, Andrew N., Polzin, Bryant J., Dunlop, Alison R., Trask, Stephen E., Jackman, Ryan, Bloom, Ira, Yang, Zhenzhen, and Lee, Eungje. Tue . "Extreme Fast Charge Challenges for Lithium-Ion Battery: Variability and Positive Electrode Issues". United States. doi:10.1149/2.0731910jes. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1529607.
@article{osti_1529607,
title = {Extreme Fast Charge Challenges for Lithium-Ion Battery: Variability and Positive Electrode Issues},
author = {Tanim, Tanvir R. and Dufek, Eric J. and Evans, Michael and Dickerson, Charles and Jansen, Andrew N. and Polzin, Bryant J. and Dunlop, Alison R. and Trask, Stephen E. and Jackman, Ryan and Bloom, Ira and Yang, Zhenzhen and Lee, Eungje},
abstractNote = {Enabling a 10 min fast charge for electric vehicles is a possible route to reduce range anxiety and increase the utility of electric vehicles. While lithium plating during fast charging is a known challenge, the full suite of limitations which occur in full cells during a 10 min fast charge are unknown. In the present work the central constraints of extreme fast charging are explored through extensive experiments and analysis in single layer graphite/NMC532 pouch cells. Methods of developing fast-charging protocols considering the impedance and transport limitations are presented and the relative benefits of altering the charging rate, profile, relaxation, etc., are investigated. Analysis during and at the end of cycling identified both known and unexpected aging pathways. The most distinct outcomes from the work are a significant increase in cell-to-cell variability as the number of fast charge cycles increase [up to 11% (1s)] and the identification of distinct aging of the NMC532 positive electrode including cracking of the secondary particles and a trend towards under-lithiation of the positive electrode. While significant aging of the positive electrode was observed, only a few conditions had discernible Li plating and no distinct reversible Li signature was seen during periodic reference performance tests.},
doi = {10.1149/2.0731910jes},
journal = {Journal of the Electrochemical Society},
number = 10,
volume = 166,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {1}
}

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