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Title: On behaviour and scaling of small repeating earthquakes in rate and state fault models

Abstract

With abundant seismic data for small repeating earthquakes, it is important to construct a dynamic model that can explain various aspects of related observations. We report on small repeating earthquakes on a fault governed by rate- and state-dependent friction laws. The earthquakes occur on a velocity-weakening patch surrounded by a much larger velocity-strengthening region. The whole fault is subject to long-term tectonic loading. The model with a circular patch and the aging form of rate- and state-dependent friction laws has been shown to reproduce the scaling of recurrence time versus seismic moment for small repeating earthquakes in a previous study. In this work we investigate the behaviour of small repeating earthquakes in related models under different scenarios, including several forms of the state evolution equations in rate- and state-dependent friction laws, rectangular velocity-weakening patch geometries, quasi-dynamic versus fully dynamic representation of inertial effects and 2-D versus 3-D simulations. We discover that the simulated scalings between the recurrence time and seismic moment for these different scenarios is similar while differences do exist. We propose a theoretical consideration for the scaling between the recurrence time and seismic moment of small repeating earthquakes. For patch radii smaller than or comparable to the fullmore » nucleation size, the scaling is explained by the increase of seismic to aseismic slip ratio with magnitude. For patch radii larger than the full nucleation size, the scaling is explained by the model in which the recurrence time is determined by the earthquake nucleation time, which is in turn determined by the time for aseismic slip to penetrate the distance of the full nucleation size into the patch. The obtained theoretical insight is used to find the combinations of fault properties that allow the model to fit the observed scaling and range of the seismic moment and recurrence time.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2]
  1. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  2. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
National Science Foundation (NSF); United States Geological Survey; USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation
OSTI Identifier:
1529538
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-18-29324
Journal ID: ISSN 0956-540X
Grant/Contract Number:  
89233218CNA000001; EAR-1520907; 1724686; G10AP00031; G16AP00117
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Geophysical Journal International
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 218; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 0956-540X
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; Earthquake dynamics; Rheology and friction of fault zones; Seismicity and tectonics; Dynamics and mechanics of faulting; Mechanics; theory; and modelling

Citation Formats

Chen, Ting, and Lapusta, Nadia. On behaviour and scaling of small repeating earthquakes in rate and state fault models. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1093/gji/ggz270.
Chen, Ting, & Lapusta, Nadia. On behaviour and scaling of small repeating earthquakes in rate and state fault models. United States. doi:10.1093/gji/ggz270.
Chen, Ting, and Lapusta, Nadia. Mon . "On behaviour and scaling of small repeating earthquakes in rate and state fault models". United States. doi:10.1093/gji/ggz270. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1529538.
@article{osti_1529538,
title = {On behaviour and scaling of small repeating earthquakes in rate and state fault models},
author = {Chen, Ting and Lapusta, Nadia},
abstractNote = {With abundant seismic data for small repeating earthquakes, it is important to construct a dynamic model that can explain various aspects of related observations. We report on small repeating earthquakes on a fault governed by rate- and state-dependent friction laws. The earthquakes occur on a velocity-weakening patch surrounded by a much larger velocity-strengthening region. The whole fault is subject to long-term tectonic loading. The model with a circular patch and the aging form of rate- and state-dependent friction laws has been shown to reproduce the scaling of recurrence time versus seismic moment for small repeating earthquakes in a previous study. In this work we investigate the behaviour of small repeating earthquakes in related models under different scenarios, including several forms of the state evolution equations in rate- and state-dependent friction laws, rectangular velocity-weakening patch geometries, quasi-dynamic versus fully dynamic representation of inertial effects and 2-D versus 3-D simulations. We discover that the simulated scalings between the recurrence time and seismic moment for these different scenarios is similar while differences do exist. We propose a theoretical consideration for the scaling between the recurrence time and seismic moment of small repeating earthquakes. For patch radii smaller than or comparable to the full nucleation size, the scaling is explained by the increase of seismic to aseismic slip ratio with magnitude. For patch radii larger than the full nucleation size, the scaling is explained by the model in which the recurrence time is determined by the earthquake nucleation time, which is in turn determined by the time for aseismic slip to penetrate the distance of the full nucleation size into the patch. The obtained theoretical insight is used to find the combinations of fault properties that allow the model to fit the observed scaling and range of the seismic moment and recurrence time.},
doi = {10.1093/gji/ggz270},
journal = {Geophysical Journal International},
number = 3,
volume = 218,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {6}
}

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Cited by: 3 works
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Works referenced in this record:

Under the Hood of the Earthquake Machine: Toward Predictive Modeling of the Seismic Cycle
journal, May 2012


Three-dimensional boundary integral modeling of spontaneous earthquake sequences and aseismic slip
journal, January 2009

  • Lapusta, Nadia; Liu, Yi
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 114, Issue B9
  • DOI: 10.1029/2008JB005934

Geophysical properties within the San Andreas Fault Zone at the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth and their relationships to rock properties and fault zone structure
journal, January 2010

  • Jeppson, Tamara N.; Bradbury, Kelly K.; Evans, James P.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 115, Issue B12
  • DOI: 10.1029/2010JB007563

Tectonic stress and the spectra of seismic shear waves from earthquakes
journal, September 1970


Towards a universal rule on the recurrence interval scaling of repeating earthquakes?: RECURRENCE INTERVAL OF REPEATING EARTHQUAKES
journal, August 2007

  • Chen, Kate Huihsuan; Nadeau, Robert M.; Rau, Ruey-Juin
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 34, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1029/2007GL030554

Aseismic slip and seismogenic coupling along the central San Andreas Fault
journal, January 2015

  • Jolivet, R.; Simons, M.; Agram, P. S.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 42, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014GL062222

Earthquake nucleation on rate and state faults – Aging and slip laws
journal, January 2008

  • Ampuero, Jean-Paul; Rubin, Allan M.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 113, Issue B1
  • DOI: 10.1029/2007JB005082

Seismicity on a fault controlled by rate- and state-dependent friction with spatial variations of the critical slip distance
journal, January 2006

  • Hillers, G.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Mai, P. M.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 111, Issue B1
  • DOI: 10.1029/2005JB003859

Evolution of fault-surface roughness with slip
journal, January 2007

  • Sagy, Amir; Brodsky, Emily E.; Axen, Gary J.
  • Geology, Vol. 35, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1130/G23235A.1

Spatio-temporal complexity of slip on a fault
journal, January 1993

  • Rice, James R.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 98, Issue B6
  • DOI: 10.1029/93JB00191

Postseismic variations in seismic moment and recurrence interval of repeating earthquakes
journal, October 2010

  • Chen, Kate Huihusan; Bürgmann, Roland; Nadeau, Robert M.
  • Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 299, Issue 1-2
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2010.08.027

Repeating Earthquakes as Low-Stress-Drop Events at a Border between Locked and Creeping Fault Patches
journal, June 2001

  • Sammis, C. G.
  • Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 91, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1785/0120000075

Repeating earthquakes and interplate aseismic slip in the northeastern Japan subduction zone: REPEATING EARTHQUAKES AND ASEISMIC SLIP
journal, May 2003

  • Igarashi, Toshihiro; Matsuzawa, Toru; Hasegawa, Akira
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 108, Issue B5
  • DOI: 10.1029/2002JB001920

Critical evaluation of state evolution laws in rate and state friction: Fitting large velocity steps in simulated fault gouge with time‐, slip‐, and stress‐dependent constitutive laws
journal, September 2015

  • Bhattacharya, Pathikrit; Rubin, Allan M.; Bayart, Elsa
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 120, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015JB012437

A numerical study on seismic coupling along subduction zones using a laboratory-derived friction law
journal, June 1997


Inversion of GPS data for spatially variable slip-rate on the San Andreas Fault near Parkfield, CA
journal, January 2001

  • Murray, J. R.; Segall, P.; Cervelli, P.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 28, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1029/2000GL011933

Modeling High Stress Drops, Scaling, Interaction, and Irregularity of Repeating Earthquake Sequences Near Parkfield
journal, December 2018

  • Lui, Semechah K. Y.; Lapusta, Nadia
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 123, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1029/2018JB016472

Quasi-dynamic versus fully dynamic simulations of earthquakes and aseismic slip with and without enhanced coseismic weakening
journal, March 2014

  • Thomas, Marion Y.; Lapusta, Nadia; Noda, Hiroyuki
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 119, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010615

The scale-dependent slip pattern for a uniform fault model obeying the rate- and state-dependent friction law
journal, June 2014

  • Wu, Yan; Chen, Xiaofei
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 119, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013JB010779

A composite rate- and state-dependent law for rock friction
journal, March 2001

  • Kato, Naoyuki; Tullis, Terry E.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 28, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1029/2000GL012060

The Parkfield tremors reveal slow and fast ruptures on the same asperity
journal, April 2016


Does fault strengthening in laboratory rock friction experiments really depend primarily upon time and not slip?: IS FAULT HEALING REALLY TIME DEPENDENT?
journal, August 2017

  • Bhattacharya, Pathikrit; Rubin, Allan M.; Beeler, Nicholas M.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 122, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1002/2017JB013936

Systematic variations in recurrence interval and moment of repeating aftershocks
journal, January 2005


Stability of Steady Frictional Slipping
journal, June 1983

  • Rice, J. R.; Ruina, A. L.
  • Journal of Applied Mechanics, Vol. 50, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1115/1.3167042

Repeating microearthquake sequences interact predominantly through postseismic slip
journal, October 2016

  • Lui, Semechah K. Y.; Lapusta, Nadia
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 7, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms13020

Scientific Drilling Into the San Andreas Fault Zone
journal, June 2010

  • Zoback, mark; Hickman, Stephen; Ellsworth, William
  • Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union, Vol. 91, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1029/2010EO220001

Nucleation and early seismic propagation of small and large events in a crustal earthquake model: NUCLEATION AND EARLY SEISMIC PROPAGATION
journal, April 2003

  • Lapusta, Nadia; Rice, James R.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 108, Issue B4
  • DOI: 10.1029/2001JB000793

A Simple Stick-Slip and Creep-Slip Model for Repeating Earthquakes and its Implication for Microearthquakes at Parkfield
journal, December 2001

  • Beeler, N. M.
  • Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 91, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1785/0120000096

Fault instability on a finite and planar fault related to early phase of nucleation
journal, January 2011

  • Mitsui, Yuta; Hirahara, Kazuro
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 116, Issue B6
  • DOI: 10.1029/2010JB007974

Postseismic response of repeating aftershocks
journal, December 1998

  • Schaff, David P.; Beroza, Gregory C.; Shaw, Bruce E.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 25, Issue 24
  • DOI: 10.1029/1998GL900192

Earthquake Ruptures with Strongly Rate-Weakening Friction and Off-Fault Plasticity, Part 2: Nonplanar Faults
journal, September 2011

  • Dunham, E. M.; Belanger, D.; Cong, L.
  • Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 101, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1785/0120100076

Scientific Drilling Into the San Andreas Fault Zone – An Overview of SAFOD's First Five Years
journal, January 2011


Variations in rupture process with recurrence interval in a repeated small earthquake
journal, April 1994

  • Vidale, J. E.; ElIsworth, W. L.; Cole, A.
  • Nature, Vol. 368, Issue 6472
  • DOI: 10.1038/368624a0

Modeling of rock friction: 1. Experimental results and constitutive equations
journal, January 1979


Repeating earthquake finite source models: Strong asperities revealed on the San Andreas Fault: REPEATING EARTHQUAKE FINITE SOURCE MODELS
journal, December 2007

  • Dreger, Douglas; Nadeau, Robert M.; Chung, Angela
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 34, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1029/2007GL031353

Earthquake nucleation on (aging) rate and state faults: RATE AND STATE EARTHQUAKE NUCLEATION
journal, November 2005

  • Rubin, A. M.; Ampuero, J. -P.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 110, Issue B11
  • DOI: 10.1029/2005JB003686

Earthquake nucleation on faults with rate-and state-dependent strength
journal, September 1992


Crack Models of Repeating Earthquakes Predict Observed Moment‐Recurrence Scaling
journal, January 2019

  • Cattania, C.; Segall, P.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 124, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1029/2018JB016056

Stress drops of repeating earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault at Parkfield: Stress drops of Repeating Earthquakes
journal, December 2014


Slip instability and state variable friction laws
journal, December 1983


Dilatancy, compaction, and slip instability of a fluid-infiltrated fault
journal, November 1995

  • Segall, Paul; Rice, James R.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 100, Issue B11
  • DOI: 10.1029/95JB02403

Laboratory-Derived Friction laws and Their Application to Seismic Faulting
journal, May 1998


A model for complex slip behavior on a large asperity at subduction zones: COMPLEX SLIP BEHAVIOR ON AN ASPERITY
journal, November 2002

  • Hirose, Hitoshi; Hirahara, Kazuro
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 29, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1029/2002GL015825

Dilatant strengthening as a mechanism for slow slip events
journal, January 2010

  • Segall, Paul; Rubin, Allan M.; Bradley, Andrew M.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 115, Issue B12
  • DOI: 10.1029/2010JB007449

Slip patterns and earthquake populations along different classes of faults in elastic solids
journal, July 1995

  • Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Rice, James R.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 100, Issue B7
  • DOI: 10.1029/94JB03037

Dependence of earthquake stress drop on critical slip-weakening distance: EARTHQUAKE STRESS DROP
journal, January 2012

  • Kato, Naoyuki
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 117, Issue B1
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011JB008359

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Quasi-dynamic versus fully dynamic simulations of earthquakes and aseismic slip with and without enhanced coseismic weakening
    journal, March 2014

    • Thomas, Marion Y.; Lapusta, Nadia; Noda, Hiroyuki
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 119, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1002/2013jb010615

    The scale-dependent slip pattern for a uniform fault model obeying the rate- and state-dependent friction law
    journal, June 2014

    • Wu, Yan; Chen, Xiaofei
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 119, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1002/2013jb010779

    Stress drops of repeating earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault at Parkfield: Stress drops of Repeating Earthquakes
    journal, December 2014


    Aseismic slip and seismogenic coupling along the central San Andreas Fault
    journal, January 2015

    • Jolivet, R.; Simons, M.; Agram, P. S.
    • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 42, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1002/2014gl062222

    Critical evaluation of state evolution laws in rate and state friction: Fitting large velocity steps in simulated fault gouge with time‐, slip‐, and stress‐dependent constitutive laws
    journal, September 2015

    • Bhattacharya, Pathikrit; Rubin, Allan M.; Bayart, Elsa
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 120, Issue 9
    • DOI: 10.1002/2015jb012437

    Does fault strengthening in laboratory rock friction experiments really depend primarily upon time and not slip?: IS FAULT HEALING REALLY TIME DEPENDENT?
    journal, August 2017

    • Bhattacharya, Pathikrit; Rubin, Allan M.; Beeler, Nicholas M.
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 122, Issue 8
    • DOI: 10.1002/2017jb013936

    Earthquake nucleation on faults with rate-and state-dependent strength
    journal, September 1992


    Postseismic variations in seismic moment and recurrence interval of repeating earthquakes
    journal, October 2010

    • Chen, Kate Huihusan; Bürgmann, Roland; Nadeau, Robert M.
    • Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 299, Issue 1-2
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2010.08.027

    A numerical study on seismic coupling along subduction zones using a laboratory-derived friction law
    journal, June 1997


    Postseismic response of repeating aftershocks
    journal, December 1998

    • Schaff, David P.; Beroza, Gregory C.; Shaw, Bruce E.
    • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 25, Issue 24
    • DOI: 10.1029/1998gl900192

    Inversion of GPS data for spatially variable slip-rate on the San Andreas Fault near Parkfield, CA
    journal, January 2001

    • Murray, J. R.; Segall, P.; Cervelli, P.
    • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 28, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1029/2000gl011933

    A composite rate- and state-dependent law for rock friction
    journal, March 2001

    • Kato, Naoyuki; Tullis, Terry E.
    • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 28, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1029/2000gl012060

    Nucleation and early seismic propagation of small and large events in a crustal earthquake model: NUCLEATION AND EARLY SEISMIC PROPAGATION
    journal, April 2003

    • Lapusta, Nadia; Rice, James R.
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 108, Issue B4
    • DOI: 10.1029/2001jb000793

    A model for complex slip behavior on a large asperity at subduction zones: COMPLEX SLIP BEHAVIOR ON AN ASPERITY
    journal, November 2002

    • Hirose, Hitoshi; Hirahara, Kazuro
    • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 29, Issue 22
    • DOI: 10.1029/2002gl015825

    Repeating earthquakes and interplate aseismic slip in the northeastern Japan subduction zone: REPEATING EARTHQUAKES AND ASEISMIC SLIP
    journal, May 2003

    • Igarashi, Toshihiro; Matsuzawa, Toru; Hasegawa, Akira
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 108, Issue B5
    • DOI: 10.1029/2002jb001920

    Systematic variations in recurrence interval and moment of repeating aftershocks
    journal, January 2005


    Earthquake nucleation on (aging) rate and state faults: RATE AND STATE EARTHQUAKE NUCLEATION
    journal, November 2005

    • Rubin, A. M.; Ampuero, J. -P.
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 110, Issue B11
    • DOI: 10.1029/2005jb003686

    Seismicity on a fault controlled by rate- and state-dependent friction with spatial variations of the critical slip distance
    journal, January 2006

    • Hillers, G.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Mai, P. M.
    • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 111, Issue B1
    • DOI: 10.1029/2005jb003859

    Towards a universal rule on the recurrence interval scaling of repeating earthquakes?: RECURRENCE INTERVAL OF REPEATING EARTHQUAKES
    journal, August 2007

    • Chen, Kate Huihsuan; Nadeau, Robert M.; Rau, Ruey-Juin
    • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 34, Issue 16
    • DOI: 10.1029/2007gl030554

    Repeating earthquake finite source models: Strong asperities revealed on the San Andreas Fault: REPEATING EARTHQUAKE FINITE SOURCE MODELS
    journal, December 2007

    • Dreger, Douglas; Nadeau, Robert M.; Chung, Angela
    • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 34, Issue 23
    • DOI: 10.1029/2007gl031353

    Earthquake nucleation on rate and state faults – Aging and slip laws
    journal, January 2008

    • Ampuero, Jean-Paul; Rubin, Allan M.
    • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 113, Issue B1
    • DOI: 10.1029/2007jb005082

    Three-dimensional boundary integral modeling of spontaneous earthquake sequences and aseismic slip
    journal, January 2009

    • Lapusta, Nadia; Liu, Yi
    • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 114, Issue B9
    • DOI: 10.1029/2008jb005934

    Scientific Drilling Into the San Andreas Fault Zone
    journal, June 2010

    • Zoback, mark; Hickman, Stephen; Ellsworth, William
    • Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union, Vol. 91, Issue 22
    • DOI: 10.1029/2010eo220001

    Dilatant strengthening as a mechanism for slow slip events
    journal, January 2010

    • Segall, Paul; Rubin, Allan M.; Bradley, Andrew M.
    • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 115, Issue B12
    • DOI: 10.1029/2010jb007449

    Geophysical properties within the San Andreas Fault Zone at the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth and their relationships to rock properties and fault zone structure
    journal, January 2010

    • Jeppson, Tamara N.; Bradbury, Kelly K.; Evans, James P.
    • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 115, Issue B12
    • DOI: 10.1029/2010jb007563

    Fault instability on a finite and planar fault related to early phase of nucleation
    journal, January 2011

    • Mitsui, Yuta; Hirahara, Kazuro
    • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 116, Issue B6
    • DOI: 10.1029/2010jb007974

    Dependence of earthquake stress drop on critical slip-weakening distance: EARTHQUAKE STRESS DROP
    journal, January 2012

    • Kato, Naoyuki
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 117, Issue B1
    • DOI: 10.1029/2011jb008359

    Crack Models of Repeating Earthquakes Predict Observed Moment‐Recurrence Scaling
    journal, January 2019

    • Cattania, C.; Segall, P.
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 124, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1029/2018jb016056

    Modeling High Stress Drops, Scaling, Interaction, and Irregularity of Repeating Earthquake Sequences Near Parkfield
    journal, December 2018

    • Lui, Semechah K. Y.; Lapusta, Nadia
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 123, Issue 12
    • DOI: 10.1029/2018jb016472

    Spatio-temporal complexity of slip on a fault
    journal, January 1993

    • Rice, James R.
    • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 98, Issue B6
    • DOI: 10.1029/93jb00191

    Slip patterns and earthquake populations along different classes of faults in elastic solids
    journal, July 1995

    • Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Rice, James R.
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 100, Issue B7
    • DOI: 10.1029/94jb03037

    Dilatancy, compaction, and slip instability of a fluid-infiltrated fault
    journal, November 1995

    • Segall, Paul; Rice, James R.
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 100, Issue B11
    • DOI: 10.1029/95jb02403

    Tectonic stress and the spectra of seismic shear waves from earthquakes
    journal, September 1970


    Modeling of rock friction: 1. Experimental results and constitutive equations
    journal, January 1979


    Slip instability and state variable friction laws
    journal, December 1983


    Variations in rupture process with recurrence interval in a repeated small earthquake
    journal, April 1994

    • Vidale, J. E.; ElIsworth, W. L.; Cole, A.
    • Nature, Vol. 368, Issue 6472
    • DOI: 10.1038/368624a0

    The Parkfield tremors reveal slow and fast ruptures on the same asperity
    journal, April 2016


    Repeating microearthquake sequences interact predominantly through postseismic slip
    journal, October 2016

    • Lui, Semechah K. Y.; Lapusta, Nadia
    • Nature Communications, Vol. 7, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms13020

    Stability of Steady Frictional Slipping
    journal, June 1983

    • Rice, J. R.; Ruina, A. L.
    • Journal of Applied Mechanics, Vol. 50, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1115/1.3167042

    Under the Hood of the Earthquake Machine: Toward Predictive Modeling of the Seismic Cycle
    journal, May 2012


    Evolution of fault-surface roughness with slip
    journal, January 2007

    • Sagy, Amir; Brodsky, Emily E.; Axen, Gary J.
    • Geology, Vol. 35, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1130/g23235a.1

    Laboratory-Derived Friction laws and Their Application to Seismic Faulting
    journal, May 1998


    Repeating Earthquakes as Low-Stress-Drop Events at a Border between Locked and Creeping Fault Patches
    journal, June 2001

    • Sammis, C. G.
    • Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 91, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1785/0120000075

    A Simple Stick-Slip and Creep-Slip Model for Repeating Earthquakes and its Implication for Microearthquakes at Parkfield
    journal, December 2001

    • Beeler, N. M.
    • Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 91, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1785/0120000096

    Earthquake Ruptures with Strongly Rate-Weakening Friction and Off-Fault Plasticity, Part 2: Nonplanar Faults
    journal, September 2011

    • Dunham, E. M.; Belanger, D.; Cong, L.
    • Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 101, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1785/0120100076

    Scientific Drilling Into the San Andreas Fault Zone – An Overview of SAFOD's First Five Years
    journal, January 2011


    Scaling and Variability of Interacting Repeating Earthquake Sequences Controlled by Asperity Density
    journal, November 2019


    The Long Recurrence Intervals of Small Repeating Earthquakes May Be Due to the Slow Slip Rates of Small Fault Strands
    journal, November 2019

    • Williams, J. R.; Hawthorne, J. C.; Lengliné, O.
    • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 46, Issue 22
    • DOI: 10.1029/2019gl084778