skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Performance of ePix10K, a high dynamic range, gain auto-ranging pixel detector for FELs

Abstract

ePix10K is a hybrid pixel detector developed at SLAC for demanding free-electron laser (FEL) applications, providing an ultrahigh dynamic range (245 eV to 88 MeV) through gain auto-ranging. It has three gain modes (high, medium and low) and two auto-ranging modes (high-to-low and medium-to-low). The first ePix10K cameras are built around modules consisting of a sensor flip-chip bonded to 4 ASICs, resulting in 352 × 384 pixels of 100 µm x 100 µm each. We present results from extensive testing of three ePix10K cameras with FEL beams at LCLS, resulting in a measured noise floor of 245 eV rms, or 67 e- equivalent noise charge (ENC), and a range of 11 000 photons at 8 keV. We demonstrate the linearity of the response in various gain combinations: fixed high, fixed medium, fixed low, auto-ranging high to low, and auto-ranging medium-to-low, while maintaining a low noise (well within the counting statistics), a very low cross-talk, perfect saturation response at fluxes up to 900 times the maximum range, and acquisition rates of up to 480 Hz. Finally, we present examples of high dynamic range x-ray imaging spanning more than 4 orders of magnitude dynamic range (from a single photon to 11 000more » photons/pixel/pulse at 8 keV). Achieving this high performance with only one auto-ranging switch leads to relatively simple calibration and reconstruction procedures. The low noise levels allow usage with long integration times at non-FEL sources. ePix10K cameras leverage the advantages of hybrid pixel detectors with high production yield and good availability, minimize development complexity through sharing the hardware, software and DAQ development with all other versions of ePix cameras, while providing an upgrade path to 5 kHz, 25 kHz and 100 kHz in three steps over the next few years, matching the LCLS-II requirements.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1] more »;  [1] « less
  1. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1529443
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
AIP Conference Proceedings
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 2054; Journal ID: ISSN 0094-243X
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION

Citation Formats

Blaj, G., Dragone, A., Kenney, C. J., Abu-Nimeh, F., Caragiulo, P., Doering, D., Kwiatkowski, M., Markovic, B., Pines, J., Weaver, M., Boutet, S., Carini, G., Chang, C.-E., Hart, P., Hasi, J., Hayes, M., Herbst, R., Koglin, J., Nakahara, K., Segal, J., and Haller, G. Performance of ePix10K, a high dynamic range, gain auto-ranging pixel detector for FELs. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5084693.
Blaj, G., Dragone, A., Kenney, C. J., Abu-Nimeh, F., Caragiulo, P., Doering, D., Kwiatkowski, M., Markovic, B., Pines, J., Weaver, M., Boutet, S., Carini, G., Chang, C.-E., Hart, P., Hasi, J., Hayes, M., Herbst, R., Koglin, J., Nakahara, K., Segal, J., & Haller, G. Performance of ePix10K, a high dynamic range, gain auto-ranging pixel detector for FELs. United States. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5084693
Blaj, G., Dragone, A., Kenney, C. J., Abu-Nimeh, F., Caragiulo, P., Doering, D., Kwiatkowski, M., Markovic, B., Pines, J., Weaver, M., Boutet, S., Carini, G., Chang, C.-E., Hart, P., Hasi, J., Hayes, M., Herbst, R., Koglin, J., Nakahara, K., Segal, J., and Haller, G. Wed . "Performance of ePix10K, a high dynamic range, gain auto-ranging pixel detector for FELs". United States. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5084693. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1529443.
@article{osti_1529443,
title = {Performance of ePix10K, a high dynamic range, gain auto-ranging pixel detector for FELs},
author = {Blaj, G. and Dragone, A. and Kenney, C. J. and Abu-Nimeh, F. and Caragiulo, P. and Doering, D. and Kwiatkowski, M. and Markovic, B. and Pines, J. and Weaver, M. and Boutet, S. and Carini, G. and Chang, C.-E. and Hart, P. and Hasi, J. and Hayes, M. and Herbst, R. and Koglin, J. and Nakahara, K. and Segal, J. and Haller, G.},
abstractNote = {ePix10K is a hybrid pixel detector developed at SLAC for demanding free-electron laser (FEL) applications, providing an ultrahigh dynamic range (245 eV to 88 MeV) through gain auto-ranging. It has three gain modes (high, medium and low) and two auto-ranging modes (high-to-low and medium-to-low). The first ePix10K cameras are built around modules consisting of a sensor flip-chip bonded to 4 ASICs, resulting in 352 × 384 pixels of 100 µm x 100 µm each. We present results from extensive testing of three ePix10K cameras with FEL beams at LCLS, resulting in a measured noise floor of 245 eV rms, or 67 e- equivalent noise charge (ENC), and a range of 11 000 photons at 8 keV. We demonstrate the linearity of the response in various gain combinations: fixed high, fixed medium, fixed low, auto-ranging high to low, and auto-ranging medium-to-low, while maintaining a low noise (well within the counting statistics), a very low cross-talk, perfect saturation response at fluxes up to 900 times the maximum range, and acquisition rates of up to 480 Hz. Finally, we present examples of high dynamic range x-ray imaging spanning more than 4 orders of magnitude dynamic range (from a single photon to 11 000 photons/pixel/pulse at 8 keV). Achieving this high performance with only one auto-ranging switch leads to relatively simple calibration and reconstruction procedures. The low noise levels allow usage with long integration times at non-FEL sources. ePix10K cameras leverage the advantages of hybrid pixel detectors with high production yield and good availability, minimize development complexity through sharing the hardware, software and DAQ development with all other versions of ePix cameras, while providing an upgrade path to 5 kHz, 25 kHz and 100 kHz in three steps over the next few years, matching the LCLS-II requirements.},
doi = {10.1063/1.5084693},
journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
number = ,
volume = 2054,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {1}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 2 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: (a) Typical (vacuum compatible) ePix camera with covers removed, showing the large 35.2 mm × 38.4 mm sensor with 4 read-out ASICs; (b) the first four ePix10K cameras; (c) top view schematic diagram of the experimental setup used for gain calibration, linearity testing, flat field and imaging tests;more » objects for imaging were inserted between the Cu target and the sensor.« less

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

High-Z radiation shields for x-ray free electron laser detectors
conference, October 2012

  • Tomada, A.; Boutet, S.; Duda, B.
  • 2012 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (2012 NSS/MIC), 2012 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record (NSS/MIC)
  • DOI: 10.1109/NSSMIC.2012.6551159

Detector Damage at X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Sources
journal, June 2016


Design and characterization of the ePix10k prototype: A high dynamic range integrating pixel ASIC for LCLS detectors
conference, November 2014

  • Caragiulo, P.; Dragone, A.; Markovic, B.
  • 2014 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (NSS/MIC)
  • DOI: 10.1109/NSSMIC.2014.7431049

Characterization of the ePix10k camera at SSRL and LCLS
conference, November 2014

  • Hart, P. A.; Blaj, G.; Caragiulo, P.
  • 2014 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (NSS/MIC)
  • DOI: 10.1109/NSSMIC.2014.7431214

X-ray detectors at the Linac Coherent Light Source
journal, April 2015

  • Blaj, Gabriel; Caragiulo, Pietro; Carini, Gabriella
  • Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, Vol. 22, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1107/S1600577515005317

Detector Development for the Linac Coherent Light Source
journal, July 2014


Optimal Pulse Processing, Pile-Up Decomposition, and Applications of Silicon Drift Detectors at LCLS
journal, November 2017

  • Blaj, G.; Kenney, C. J.; Dragone, A.
  • IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, Vol. 64, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1109/TNS.2017.2762281

ePix100 camera: Use and applications at LCLS
conference, January 2016

  • Carini, G. A.; Alonso-Mori, R.; Blaj, G.
  • PROCEEDINGS OF THE 12TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SYNCHROTRON RADIATION INSTRUMENTATION – SRI2015, AIP Conference Proceedings
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4952880

First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser
journal, August 2010


Detector Development for the European XFEL: Requirements and Status
journal, March 2013


Future of ePix detectors for high repetition rate FELs
conference, January 2016

  • Blaj, G.; Caragiulo, P.; Carini, G.
  • PROCEEDINGS OF THE 12TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SYNCHROTRON RADIATION INSTRUMENTATION – SRI2015, AIP Conference Proceedings
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4952884

New calibration circuitry and concept for AGIPD
journal, November 2016


KPiX, an array of self triggered charge sensitive cells generating digital time and amplitude information.
conference, October 2008

  • Freytag, D.; Herbst, R.; Brau, J.
  • 2008 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging conference (2008 NSS/MIC), 2008 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record
  • DOI: 10.1109/NSSMIC.2008.4775080

First light from SACLA
journal, July 2011


Design and performance of the ePix camera system
conference, January 2016

  • Nishimura, K.; Blaj, G.; Caragiulo, P.
  • PROCEEDINGS OF THE 12TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SYNCHROTRON RADIATION INSTRUMENTATION – SRI2015, AIP Conference Proceedings
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4952919

The New Macromolecular Femtosecond Crystallography (MFX) Instrument at LCLS
journal, January 2016


The CSPAD megapixel x-ray camera at LCLS
conference, October 2012

  • Hart, Philip; Boutet, Sébastien; Carini, Gabriella
  • SPIE Optical Engineering + Applications, SPIE Proceedings
  • DOI: 10.1117/12.930924

The adaptive gain integrating pixel detector AGIPD a detector for the European XFEL
journal, May 2011

  • Henrich, B.; Becker, J.; Dinapoli, R.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 633
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2010.06.107

ePix: a class of architectures for second generation LCLS cameras
journal, March 2014


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    The Macromolecular Femtosecond Crystallography Instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source
    journal, February 2019

    • Sierra, Raymond G.; Batyuk, Alexander; Sun, Zhibin
    • Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, Vol. 26, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1107/s1600577519001577

      Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.