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Title: Rapid Flame-Annealed CuFe 2O 4 as Efficient Photocathode for Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production

Abstract

Copper ferrite (CuFe 2O 4) possesses an indirect bandgap in the range of 1.54–1.95 eV. It is used as an attractive p-type photocathode in photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting, and theoretically it can yield a maximum photocurrent density of ~27 mA/cm 2 and a maximum solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of ~33%. To date, only a few reports have been published on CuFe 2O 4 photocathodes with very low-photocurrent densities, with a maximum value of 0.4 mA/cm2 at 0.4 V vs RHE. Herein, we prepared a CuFe 2O 4 photocathode on FTO glass with the sol–gel method followed by either high-temperature flame annealing or furnace annealing. We found that the flame-annealed CuFe 2O 4 photocathode generated a photocurrent density of 1.82 mA/cm 2 at 0.4 V vs RHE that is approximately 3.5 times higher than the furnace-annealed CuFe 2O 4 (0.52 mA/cm 2). This photocurrent density is also higher than those of all the reported CuFe 2O 4 photocathodes, and any Cu containing ternary oxide (Cu–M–O, M: Fe, Bi, V, and Nb) photocathode (0.1–1.3 mA/cm 2 at 0.4 V vs RHE). An improved PEC performance of the flame-annealed CuFe 2O 4 photocathode is elicited owing to the beneficial effects of flame annealing onmore » the physical, optical, and electrical properties of CuFe 2O 4. Flame annealing enhances the light absorption property of the CuFe 2O 4 photocathode by slightly reducing the bandgap, and by forming a thicker film with increased porosity. Flame annealing also reduces the oxygen vacancy concentration in CuFe 2O 4, thus facilitating charge transport and interfacial charge transfer processes. Moreover, flame annealing requires only 16 min, which is much shorter than the time required for furnace annealing (~9 h). Furthermore, these results demonstrate that flame annealing is a rapid and effective means for fabricating metal oxide photoelectrodes with an enhanced PEC water splitting performance.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [4];  [5]; ORCiD logo [6]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)
  2. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Republic of Korea)
  3. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  4. Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Republic of Korea)
  5. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  6. Ajou Univ., Suwon (Republic of Korea)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1529088
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515; 2016M3D1A1027664; 2017R1A2B3010927; 2012M3A6A7054855
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 7; Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 2168-0485
Publisher:
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Park, Sangwook, Baek, Ji Hyun, Zhang, Liang, Lee, Jae Myeong, Stone, Kevin H., Cho, In Sun, Guo, Jinghua, Jung, Hyun Suk, and Zheng, Xiaolin. Rapid Flame-Annealed CuFe2O4 as Efficient Photocathode for Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1021/acssuschemeng.8b05824.
Park, Sangwook, Baek, Ji Hyun, Zhang, Liang, Lee, Jae Myeong, Stone, Kevin H., Cho, In Sun, Guo, Jinghua, Jung, Hyun Suk, & Zheng, Xiaolin. Rapid Flame-Annealed CuFe2O4 as Efficient Photocathode for Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production. United States. doi:10.1021/acssuschemeng.8b05824.
Park, Sangwook, Baek, Ji Hyun, Zhang, Liang, Lee, Jae Myeong, Stone, Kevin H., Cho, In Sun, Guo, Jinghua, Jung, Hyun Suk, and Zheng, Xiaolin. Wed . "Rapid Flame-Annealed CuFe2O4 as Efficient Photocathode for Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production". United States. doi:10.1021/acssuschemeng.8b05824.
@article{osti_1529088,
title = {Rapid Flame-Annealed CuFe2O4 as Efficient Photocathode for Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production},
author = {Park, Sangwook and Baek, Ji Hyun and Zhang, Liang and Lee, Jae Myeong and Stone, Kevin H. and Cho, In Sun and Guo, Jinghua and Jung, Hyun Suk and Zheng, Xiaolin},
abstractNote = {Copper ferrite (CuFe2O4) possesses an indirect bandgap in the range of 1.54–1.95 eV. It is used as an attractive p-type photocathode in photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting, and theoretically it can yield a maximum photocurrent density of ~27 mA/cm2 and a maximum solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of ~33%. To date, only a few reports have been published on CuFe2O4 photocathodes with very low-photocurrent densities, with a maximum value of 0.4 mA/cm2 at 0.4 V vs RHE. Herein, we prepared a CuFe2O4 photocathode on FTO glass with the sol–gel method followed by either high-temperature flame annealing or furnace annealing. We found that the flame-annealed CuFe2O4 photocathode generated a photocurrent density of 1.82 mA/cm2 at 0.4 V vs RHE that is approximately 3.5 times higher than the furnace-annealed CuFe2O4 (0.52 mA/cm2). This photocurrent density is also higher than those of all the reported CuFe2O4 photocathodes, and any Cu containing ternary oxide (Cu–M–O, M: Fe, Bi, V, and Nb) photocathode (0.1–1.3 mA/cm2 at 0.4 V vs RHE). An improved PEC performance of the flame-annealed CuFe2O4 photocathode is elicited owing to the beneficial effects of flame annealing on the physical, optical, and electrical properties of CuFe2O4. Flame annealing enhances the light absorption property of the CuFe2O4 photocathode by slightly reducing the bandgap, and by forming a thicker film with increased porosity. Flame annealing also reduces the oxygen vacancy concentration in CuFe2O4, thus facilitating charge transport and interfacial charge transfer processes. Moreover, flame annealing requires only 16 min, which is much shorter than the time required for furnace annealing (~9 h). Furthermore, these results demonstrate that flame annealing is a rapid and effective means for fabricating metal oxide photoelectrodes with an enhanced PEC water splitting performance.},
doi = {10.1021/acssuschemeng.8b05824},
journal = {ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering},
number = 6,
volume = 7,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {2}
}

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