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Title: Three-dimensional quantum Hall effect and metal–insulator transition in ZrTe5

Abstract

The discovery of the quantum Hall effect (QHE)1,2 in two-dimensional electronic systems has given topology a central role in condensed matter physics. Although the possibility of generalizing the QHE to three-dimensional (3D) electronic systems3,4 was proposed decades ago, it has not been demonstrated experimentally. Here we report the experimental realization of the 3D QHE in bulk zirconium pentatelluride (ZrTe5) crystals. We perform low-temperature electric-transport measurements on bulk ZrTe5 crystals under a magnetic field and achieve the extreme quantum limit, where only the lowest Landau level is occupied, at relatively low magnetic fields. In this regime, we observe a dissipationless longitudinal resistivity close to zero, accompanied by a well-developed Hall resistivity plateau proportional to half of the Fermi wavelength along the field direction. This response is the signature of the 3D QHE and strongly suggests a Fermi surface instability driven by enhanced interaction effects in the extreme quantum limit. By further increasing the magnetic field, both the longitudinal and Hall resistivity increase considerably and display a metal–insulator transition, which represents another magnetic-field-driven quantum phase transition. Our findings provide experimental evidence of the 3D QHE and a promising platform for further exploration of exotic quantum phases and transitions in 3D systems.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [3];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6]; ORCiD logo [3];  [2];  [1]
  1. Southern Univ. of Science and Technology, Shenzhen (China)
  2. Univ. of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China)
  3. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  4. Singapore Univ. of Technology and Design (Singapore)
  5. Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)
  6. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES)
OSTI Identifier:
1529075
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1777867
Report Number(s):
BNL-211782-2019-JAAM
Journal ID: ISSN 0028-0836
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0012704; FG02-03ER46076
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature (London)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Nature (London); Journal Volume: 569; Journal Issue: 7757; Journal ID: ISSN 0028-0836
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY

Citation Formats

Tang, Fangdong, Ren, Yafei, Wang, Peipei, Zhong, Ruidan, Schneeloch, John, Yang, Shengyuan A., Yang, Kun, Lee, Patrick A., Gu, Genda, Qiao, Zhenhua, and Zhang, Liyuan. Three-dimensional quantum Hall effect and metal–insulator transition in ZrTe5. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1180-9.
Tang, Fangdong, Ren, Yafei, Wang, Peipei, Zhong, Ruidan, Schneeloch, John, Yang, Shengyuan A., Yang, Kun, Lee, Patrick A., Gu, Genda, Qiao, Zhenhua, & Zhang, Liyuan. Three-dimensional quantum Hall effect and metal–insulator transition in ZrTe5. United States. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1180-9
Tang, Fangdong, Ren, Yafei, Wang, Peipei, Zhong, Ruidan, Schneeloch, John, Yang, Shengyuan A., Yang, Kun, Lee, Patrick A., Gu, Genda, Qiao, Zhenhua, and Zhang, Liyuan. Wed . "Three-dimensional quantum Hall effect and metal–insulator transition in ZrTe5". United States. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1180-9. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1529075.
@article{osti_1529075,
title = {Three-dimensional quantum Hall effect and metal–insulator transition in ZrTe5},
author = {Tang, Fangdong and Ren, Yafei and Wang, Peipei and Zhong, Ruidan and Schneeloch, John and Yang, Shengyuan A. and Yang, Kun and Lee, Patrick A. and Gu, Genda and Qiao, Zhenhua and Zhang, Liyuan},
abstractNote = {The discovery of the quantum Hall effect (QHE)1,2 in two-dimensional electronic systems has given topology a central role in condensed matter physics. Although the possibility of generalizing the QHE to three-dimensional (3D) electronic systems3,4 was proposed decades ago, it has not been demonstrated experimentally. Here we report the experimental realization of the 3D QHE in bulk zirconium pentatelluride (ZrTe5) crystals. We perform low-temperature electric-transport measurements on bulk ZrTe5 crystals under a magnetic field and achieve the extreme quantum limit, where only the lowest Landau level is occupied, at relatively low magnetic fields. In this regime, we observe a dissipationless longitudinal resistivity close to zero, accompanied by a well-developed Hall resistivity plateau proportional to half of the Fermi wavelength along the field direction. This response is the signature of the 3D QHE and strongly suggests a Fermi surface instability driven by enhanced interaction effects in the extreme quantum limit. By further increasing the magnetic field, both the longitudinal and Hall resistivity increase considerably and display a metal–insulator transition, which represents another magnetic-field-driven quantum phase transition. Our findings provide experimental evidence of the 3D QHE and a promising platform for further exploration of exotic quantum phases and transitions in 3D systems.},
doi = {10.1038/s41586-019-1180-9},
journal = {Nature (London)},
number = 7757,
volume = 569,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {5}
}

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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Thermal Conductivity of HfTe 5 : A Critical Revisit
    journal, November 2019

    • Feng, Tianli; Wu, Xuewang; Yang, Xiaolong
    • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 30, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201907286

    Unraveling the topology of ZrTe 5 by changing temperature
    journal, December 2019


    Fast and controlled growth of two-dimensional layered ZrTe 3 nanoribbons by chemical vapor deposition
    journal, January 2019

    • Yu, Xu; Wen, Xiaokun; Zhang, Wenfeng
    • CrystEngComm, Vol. 21, Issue 37
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9ce00793h

    Rational Design Principles of the Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect in Superlatticelike Magnetic Topological Insulators
    journal, August 2019


    Ground-state atlas of a three-dimensional semimetal in the quantum limit
    journal, October 2019


    Anisotropic Landau level splitting and Lifshitz transition induced magnetoresistance enhancement in ZrTe 5 crystals
    journal, September 2019


    Zeeman-splitting-induced topological nodal structure and anomalous Hall conductivity in ZrTe 5
    journal, January 2020


    Signatures of Sixfold Degenerate Exotic Fermions in a Superconducting Metal PdSb 2
    journal, February 2020


    Magnetically controllable topological quantum phase transitions in the antiferromagnetic topological insulator MnBi 2 Te 4
    journal, September 2019


    Dirac electron behavior and NMR evidence for topological band inversion in ZrTe 5
    journal, October 2019


    Hot carrier dynamics and phonon anharmonicity of ZrTe 5 revealed with femtosecond transient optical spectroscopy
    journal, January 2020