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Title: Fast lithium growth and short circuit induced by localized-temperature hotspots in lithium batteries

Abstract

Fast-charging and high-energy-density batteries pose significant safety concerns due to high rates of heat generation. Understanding how localized high temperatures affect the battery is critical but remains challenging, mainly due to the difficulty of probing battery internal temperature with high spatial resolution. Here we introduce a method to induce and sense localized high temperature inside a lithium battery using micro-Raman spectroscopy. We discover that temperature hotspots can induce significant lithium metal growth as compared to the surrounding lower temperature area due to the locally enhanced surface exchange current density. More importantly, localized high temperature can be one of the factors to cause battery internal shorting, which further elevates the temperature and increases the risk of thermal runaway. This work provides important insights on the effects of heterogeneous temperatures within batteries and aids the development of safer batteries, thermal management schemes, and diagnostic tools.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [3]
  1. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)
  2. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); ShanghaiTech Univ., Shanghai (China)
  3. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1528880
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 10; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE

Citation Formats

Zhu, Yangying, Xie, Jin, Pei, Allen, Liu, Bofei, Wu, Yecun, Lin, Dingchang, Li, Jun, Wang, Hansen, Chen, Hao, Xu, Jinwei, Yang, Ankun, Wu, Chun -Lan, Wang, Hongxia, Chen, Wei, and Cui, Yi. Fast lithium growth and short circuit induced by localized-temperature hotspots in lithium batteries. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1038/s41467-019-09924-1.
Zhu, Yangying, Xie, Jin, Pei, Allen, Liu, Bofei, Wu, Yecun, Lin, Dingchang, Li, Jun, Wang, Hansen, Chen, Hao, Xu, Jinwei, Yang, Ankun, Wu, Chun -Lan, Wang, Hongxia, Chen, Wei, & Cui, Yi. Fast lithium growth and short circuit induced by localized-temperature hotspots in lithium batteries. United States. doi:10.1038/s41467-019-09924-1.
Zhu, Yangying, Xie, Jin, Pei, Allen, Liu, Bofei, Wu, Yecun, Lin, Dingchang, Li, Jun, Wang, Hansen, Chen, Hao, Xu, Jinwei, Yang, Ankun, Wu, Chun -Lan, Wang, Hongxia, Chen, Wei, and Cui, Yi. Mon . "Fast lithium growth and short circuit induced by localized-temperature hotspots in lithium batteries". United States. doi:10.1038/s41467-019-09924-1. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1528880.
@article{osti_1528880,
title = {Fast lithium growth and short circuit induced by localized-temperature hotspots in lithium batteries},
author = {Zhu, Yangying and Xie, Jin and Pei, Allen and Liu, Bofei and Wu, Yecun and Lin, Dingchang and Li, Jun and Wang, Hansen and Chen, Hao and Xu, Jinwei and Yang, Ankun and Wu, Chun -Lan and Wang, Hongxia and Chen, Wei and Cui, Yi},
abstractNote = {Fast-charging and high-energy-density batteries pose significant safety concerns due to high rates of heat generation. Understanding how localized high temperatures affect the battery is critical but remains challenging, mainly due to the difficulty of probing battery internal temperature with high spatial resolution. Here we introduce a method to induce and sense localized high temperature inside a lithium battery using micro-Raman spectroscopy. We discover that temperature hotspots can induce significant lithium metal growth as compared to the surrounding lower temperature area due to the locally enhanced surface exchange current density. More importantly, localized high temperature can be one of the factors to cause battery internal shorting, which further elevates the temperature and increases the risk of thermal runaway. This work provides important insights on the effects of heterogeneous temperatures within batteries and aids the development of safer batteries, thermal management schemes, and diagnostic tools.},
doi = {10.1038/s41467-019-09924-1},
journal = {Nature Communications},
number = 1,
volume = 10,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {5}
}

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Works referenced in this record:

Challenges for Rechargeable Li Batteries
journal, February 2010

  • Goodenough, John B.; Kim, Youngsik
  • Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 22, Issue 3, p. 587-603
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Optical Constants of the Noble Metals
journal, December 1972