skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Direct imaging of ultrafast lattice dynamics

Abstract

Under rapid high-temperature, high-pressure loading, lattices exhibit complex elastic-inelastic responses. The dynamics of these responses are challenging to measure experimentally because of high sample density and extremely small relevant spatial and temporal scales. In this work, we use an x-ray free-electron laser providing simultaneous in situ direct imaging and x-ray diffraction to spatially resolve lattice dynamics of silicon under high–strain rate conditions. We present the first imaging of a new intermediate elastic feature modulating compression along the axis of applied stress, and we identify the structure, compression, and density behind each observed wave. The ultrafast probe x-rays enabled time-resolved characterization of the intermediate elastic feature, which is leveraged to constrain kinetic inhibition of the phase transformation between 2 and 4 ns. These results not only address long-standing questions about the response of silicon under extreme environments but also demonstrate the potential for ultrafast direct measurements to illuminate new lattice dynamics.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [5];  [6]; ORCiD logo [7]; ORCiD logo [8];  [3]; ORCiD logo [3];  [9]; ORCiD logo [3];  [3]
  1. Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
  2. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  3. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  4. Univ. of York (United Kingdom)
  5. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  6. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Univ. of Hamburg (Germany)
  7. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
  8. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
  9. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22). Materials Sciences & Engineering Division; USDOE Office of Science (SC), Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) (SC-24); German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF)
OSTI Identifier:
1527344
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515; 05K13OD2; SF00515
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Science Advances
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 5; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 2375-2548
Publisher:
AAAS
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION

Citation Formats

Brown, S. Brennan, Gleason, A. E., Galtier, E., Higginbotham, A., Arnold, B., Fry, A., Granados, E., Hashim, A., Schroer, C. G., Schropp, A., Seiboth, F., Tavella, F., Xing, Z., Mao, W., Lee, H. J., and Nagler, B. Direct imaging of ultrafast lattice dynamics. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aau8044.
Brown, S. Brennan, Gleason, A. E., Galtier, E., Higginbotham, A., Arnold, B., Fry, A., Granados, E., Hashim, A., Schroer, C. G., Schropp, A., Seiboth, F., Tavella, F., Xing, Z., Mao, W., Lee, H. J., & Nagler, B. Direct imaging of ultrafast lattice dynamics. United States. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aau8044.
Brown, S. Brennan, Gleason, A. E., Galtier, E., Higginbotham, A., Arnold, B., Fry, A., Granados, E., Hashim, A., Schroer, C. G., Schropp, A., Seiboth, F., Tavella, F., Xing, Z., Mao, W., Lee, H. J., and Nagler, B. Fri . "Direct imaging of ultrafast lattice dynamics". United States. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aau8044. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1527344.
@article{osti_1527344,
title = {Direct imaging of ultrafast lattice dynamics},
author = {Brown, S. Brennan and Gleason, A. E. and Galtier, E. and Higginbotham, A. and Arnold, B. and Fry, A. and Granados, E. and Hashim, A. and Schroer, C. G. and Schropp, A. and Seiboth, F. and Tavella, F. and Xing, Z. and Mao, W. and Lee, H. J. and Nagler, B.},
abstractNote = {Under rapid high-temperature, high-pressure loading, lattices exhibit complex elastic-inelastic responses. The dynamics of these responses are challenging to measure experimentally because of high sample density and extremely small relevant spatial and temporal scales. In this work, we use an x-ray free-electron laser providing simultaneous in situ direct imaging and x-ray diffraction to spatially resolve lattice dynamics of silicon under high–strain rate conditions. We present the first imaging of a new intermediate elastic feature modulating compression along the axis of applied stress, and we identify the structure, compression, and density behind each observed wave. The ultrafast probe x-rays enabled time-resolved characterization of the intermediate elastic feature, which is leveraged to constrain kinetic inhibition of the phase transformation between 2 and 4 ns. These results not only address long-standing questions about the response of silicon under extreme environments but also demonstrate the potential for ultrafast direct measurements to illuminate new lattice dynamics.},
doi = {10.1126/sciadv.aau8044},
journal = {Science Advances},
number = 3,
volume = 5,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {3}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Figures / Tables:

Fig. 1 Fig. 1: Experimental configuration of optical drive laser and probe x-ray free-electron laser. X-ray diffraction captured the lattice response of shocked silicon, showing dynamics of high-pressure phases and melt. X-ray phase-contrast imaging provided direct snapshots of shock propagation in the target and revealed elastic features. These simultaneous, ultrafast measurements allowedmore » resolution of silicon crystalline phases, compression, and density before and after multiple shock features. Upper inset: Unshocked target construction with the shock direction (direction of applied stress) perpendicular (transverse) to the imaging x-ray axis. FLI, Finger Lakes Instrumentation; FEL, free-electron laser.« less

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Axial Yield Strengths and Two Successive Phase Transition Stresses for Crystalline Silicon
journal, April 1971

  • Gust, W. H.; Royce, E. B.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 42, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1660465

Phase transition lowering in dynamically compressed silicon
journal, September 2018


In situ X-ray diffraction measurement of shock-wave-driven twinning and lattice dynamics
journal, October 2017

  • Wehrenberg, C. E.; McGonegle, D.; Bolme, C.
  • Nature, Vol. 550, Issue 7677
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature24061

Molecular dynamics simulations of shock-compressed single-crystal silicon
journal, February 2014


New high-pressure phase of Si
journal, April 1993


Ultrafast X-Ray Diffraction Studies of the Phase Transitions and Equation of State of Scandium Shock Compressed to 82 GPa
journal, January 2017


Real-Time Examination of Atomistic Mechanisms during Shock-Induced Structural Transformation in Silicon
journal, July 2016


The phase-contrast imaging instrument at the matter in extreme conditions endstation at LCLS
journal, October 2016

  • Nagler, Bob; Schropp, Andreas; Galtier, Eric C.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 87, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4963906

Ultrafast visualization of crystallization and grain growth in shock-compressed SiO2
journal, September 2015

  • Gleason, A. E.; Bolme, C. A.; Lee, H. J.
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms9191

VESTA 3 for three-dimensional visualization of crystal, volumetric and morphology data
journal, October 2011


Reduction of Shear Strength and Phase-Transition in Shock-Loaded Silicon
journal, June 1982

  • Goto, Tsuneaki; Sato, Toshiyuki; Syono, Yasuhiko
  • Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 21, Issue Part 2, No. 6
  • DOI: 10.1143/JJAP.21.L369

Amorphization and nanocrystallization of silicon under shock compression
journal, January 2016


Imaging Shock Waves in Diamond with Both High Temporal and Spatial Resolution at an XFEL
journal, June 2015

  • Schropp, Andreas; Hoppe, Robert; Meier, Vivienne
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 5, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep11089

DIOPTAS : a program for reduction of two-dimensional X-ray diffraction data and data exploration
journal, May 2015


Femtosecond Visualization of Lattice Dynamics in Shock-Compressed Matter
journal, October 2013


Ultrashort shock waves in nickel induced by femtosecond laser pulses
journal, February 2013


Computer simulation of local order in condensed phases of silicon
journal, April 1985


X-ray diffraction and continuum measurements in silicon crystals shocked below the elastic limit
journal, January 2007

  • Turneaure, Stefan J.; Gupta, Y. M.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 90, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2436638

Shock launching in silicon studied with use of pulsed x-ray diffraction
journal, June 1987


Orientation and rate dependence in high strain-rate compression of single-crystal silicon
journal, December 2012


Real-time x-ray diffraction at the impact surface of shocked crystals
journal, January 2012

  • Turneaure, Stefan J.; Gupta, Y. M.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 111, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3674276

Single Hit Energy-resolved Laue Diffraction
journal, May 2015

  • Patel, Shamim; Suggit, Matthew J.; Stubley, Paul G.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 86, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4921774

Quenching of High-Pressure Phases of Silicon Using Femtosecond Laser-driven Shock Wave
journal, January 2008

  • Tsujino, Masashi; Sano, Tomokazu; Ozaki, Norimasa
  • The Review of Laser Engineering, Vol. 36, Issue APLS
  • DOI: 10.2184/lsj.36.1218

First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser
journal, August 2010


Crystal data for high-pressure phases of silicon
journal, October 1986


Pressure-Induced Structural Change of Liquid Silicon
journal, June 2002


Time-resolved diffraction of shock-released SiO2 and diaplectic glass formation
journal, November 2017


Melting temperature of diamond at ultrahigh pressure
journal, November 2009

  • Eggert, J. H.; Hicks, D. G.; Celliers, P. M.
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys1438

X-Ray Interactions: Photoabsorption, Scattering, Transmission, and Reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92
journal, July 1993

  • Henke, B. L.; Gullikson, E. M.; Davis, J. C.
  • Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, Vol. 54, Issue 2, p. 181-342
  • DOI: 10.1006/adnd.1993.1013

Inelastic response of silicon to shock compression
journal, April 2016

  • Higginbotham, A.; Stubley, P. G.; Comley, A. J.
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep24211

Shock drive capabilities of a 30-Joule laser at the matter in extreme conditions hutch of the Linac Coherent Light Source
journal, October 2017

  • Brown, Shaughnessy Brennan; Hashim, Akel; Gleason, Arianna
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 88, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4997756

Inelastic deformation and phase transformation of shock compressed silicon single crystals
journal, November 2007

  • Turneaure, Stefan J.; Gupta, Y. M.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 91, Issue 20
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2814067

Measurement of Third‐Order Moduli of Silicon and Germanium
journal, November 1964

  • McSkimin, H. J.; Andreatch, P.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 35, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1713214

High-pressure chemistry of hydrocarbons relevant to planetary interiors and inertial confinement fusion
journal, May 2018

  • Kraus, D.; Hartley, N. J.; Frydrych, S.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 25, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.5017908

Anomalous Elastic Response of Silicon to Uniaxial Shock Compression on Nanosecond Time Scales
journal, March 2001


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Measurement of Third‐Order Moduli of Silicon and Germanium
    journal, November 1964

    • McSkimin, H. J.; Andreatch, P.
    • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 35, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.1713214

    Direct imaging of ultrafast lattice dynamics
    text, January 2019

    • Brown, S. Brennan; Gleason, A. E.; Galtier, Eric
    • Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Hamburg
    • DOI: 10.3204/pubdb-2019-01847

    DIOPTAS : a program for reduction of two-dimensional X-ray diffraction data and data exploration
    journal, May 2015


    Time-resolved diffraction of shock-released SiO2 and diaplectic glass formation
    journal, November 2017


    Quenching of High-Pressure Phases of Silicon Using Femtosecond Laser-driven Shock Wave
    journal, January 2008

    • Tsujino, Masashi; Sano, Tomokazu; Ozaki, Norimasa
    • The Review of Laser Engineering, Vol. 36, Issue APLS
    • DOI: 10.2184/lsj.36.1218

    First lasing and operation of an ångstrom-wavelength free-electron laser
    journal, August 2010


    Real-time x-ray diffraction at the impact surface of shocked crystals
    journal, January 2012

    • Turneaure, Stefan J.; Gupta, Y. M.
    • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 111, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.3674276

    Single Hit Energy-resolved Laue Diffraction
    journal, May 2015

    • Patel, Shamim; Suggit, Matthew J.; Stubley, Paul G.
    • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 86, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.4921774

    Inelastic response of silicon to shock compression
    journal, April 2016

    • Higginbotham, A.; Stubley, P. G.; Comley, A. J.
    • Scientific Reports, Vol. 6, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/srep24211

    Ultrafast visualization of crystallization and grain growth in shock-compressed SiO2
    journal, September 2015

    • Gleason, A. E.; Bolme, C. A.; Lee, H. J.
    • Nature Communications, Vol. 6, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms9191

    Axial Yield Strengths and Two Successive Phase Transition Stresses for Crystalline Silicon
    journal, April 1971

    • Gust, W. H.; Royce, E. B.
    • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 42, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.1660465

    High-pressure chemistry of hydrocarbons relevant to planetary interiors and inertial confinement fusion
    journal, May 2018

    • Kraus, D.; Hartley, N. J.; Frydrych, S.
    • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 25, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.5017908

    Inelastic deformation and phase transformation of shock compressed silicon single crystals
    journal, November 2007

    • Turneaure, Stefan J.; Gupta, Y. M.
    • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 91, Issue 20
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.2814067

    Femtosecond Visualization of Lattice Dynamics in Shock-Compressed Matter
    journal, October 2013


    The phase-contrast imaging instrument at the matter in extreme conditions endstation at LCLS
    journal, October 2016

    • Nagler, Bob; Schropp, Andreas; Galtier, Eric C.
    • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 87, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.4963906

    Melting temperature of diamond at ultrahigh pressure
    journal, November 2009

    • Eggert, J. H.; Hicks, D. G.; Celliers, P. M.
    • Nature Physics, Vol. 6, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/nphys1438

    Amorphization and nanocrystallization of silicon under shock compression
    journal, January 2016


    Shock drive capabilities of a 30-Joule laser at the matter in extreme conditions hutch of the Linac Coherent Light Source
    journal, October 2017

    • Brown, Shaughnessy Brennan; Hashim, Akel; Gleason, Arianna
    • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 88, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.4997756

    In situ X-ray diffraction measurement of shock-wave-driven twinning and lattice dynamics
    journal, October 2017

    • Wehrenberg, C. E.; McGonegle, D.; Bolme, C.
    • Nature, Vol. 550, Issue 7677
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature24061

    The Matter in Extreme Conditions instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source
    journal, April 2015

    • Nagler, Bob; Arnold, Brice; Bouchard, Gary
    • Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, Vol. 22, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1107/s1600577515004865

    Phase transition lowering in dynamically compressed silicon
    journal, September 2018


    X-ray diffraction and continuum measurements in silicon crystals shocked below the elastic limit
    journal, January 2007

    • Turneaure, Stefan J.; Gupta, Y. M.
    • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 90, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.2436638

    X-Ray Interactions: Photoabsorption, Scattering, Transmission, and Reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92
    journal, July 1993

    • Henke, B. L.; Gullikson, E. M.; Davis, J. C.
    • Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, Vol. 54, Issue 2, p. 181-342
    • DOI: 10.1006/adnd.1993.1013

    Imaging Shock Waves in Diamond with Both High Temporal and Spatial Resolution at an XFEL
    journal, June 2015

    • Schropp, Andreas; Hoppe, Robert; Meier, Vivienne
    • Scientific Reports, Vol. 5, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/srep11089

      Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.