skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: A capacitance spectroscopy-based platform for realizing gate-defined electronic lattices

Abstract

Electrostatic confinement in semiconductors provides a flexible platform for the emulation of interacting electrons in a two-dimensional lattice, including in the presence of gauge fields. This combination offers the potential to realize a wide host of quantum phases. Capacitance spectroscopy demonstrates a technique that allows one to directly probe the density of states of such two-dimensional electron systems. Here, we present a measurement and fabrication scheme that builds on capacitance spectroscopy and allows for the independent control of density and periodic potential strength imposed on a two-dimensional electron gas. We characterize disorder levels and (in)homogeneity and develop and optimize different gating strategies at length scales where interactions are expected to be strong. A continuation of these ideas might see to fruition the emulation of interaction-driven Mott transitions or Hofstadter butterfly physics

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [2]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)
  2. Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)
  3. Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology (ETH), Zurich (Switzerland)
  4. Solid State Physics Laboratory, ETH Zürich, 8093 Zürich, Switzerland
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF); Netherlands Organization of Scientific Research (NWO)
OSTI Identifier:
1527168
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1474208
Grant/Contract Number:  
[SC0006671]
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Applied Physics
Additional Journal Information:
[ Journal Volume: 124; Journal Issue: 12]; Journal ID: ISSN 0021-8979
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS

Citation Formats

Hensgens, T., Mukhopadhyay, U., Barthelemy, P., Vermeulen, R. F. L., Schouten, R. N., Fallahi, S., Gardner, G. C., Reichl, C., Wegscheider, W., Manfra, M. J., and Vandersypen, L. M. K. A capacitance spectroscopy-based platform for realizing gate-defined electronic lattices. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1063/1.5046796.
Hensgens, T., Mukhopadhyay, U., Barthelemy, P., Vermeulen, R. F. L., Schouten, R. N., Fallahi, S., Gardner, G. C., Reichl, C., Wegscheider, W., Manfra, M. J., & Vandersypen, L. M. K. A capacitance spectroscopy-based platform for realizing gate-defined electronic lattices. United States. doi:10.1063/1.5046796.
Hensgens, T., Mukhopadhyay, U., Barthelemy, P., Vermeulen, R. F. L., Schouten, R. N., Fallahi, S., Gardner, G. C., Reichl, C., Wegscheider, W., Manfra, M. J., and Vandersypen, L. M. K. Thu . "A capacitance spectroscopy-based platform for realizing gate-defined electronic lattices". United States. doi:10.1063/1.5046796. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1527168.
@article{osti_1527168,
title = {A capacitance spectroscopy-based platform for realizing gate-defined electronic lattices},
author = {Hensgens, T. and Mukhopadhyay, U. and Barthelemy, P. and Vermeulen, R. F. L. and Schouten, R. N. and Fallahi, S. and Gardner, G. C. and Reichl, C. and Wegscheider, W. and Manfra, M. J. and Vandersypen, L. M. K.},
abstractNote = {Electrostatic confinement in semiconductors provides a flexible platform for the emulation of interacting electrons in a two-dimensional lattice, including in the presence of gauge fields. This combination offers the potential to realize a wide host of quantum phases. Capacitance spectroscopy demonstrates a technique that allows one to directly probe the density of states of such two-dimensional electron systems. Here, we present a measurement and fabrication scheme that builds on capacitance spectroscopy and allows for the independent control of density and periodic potential strength imposed on a two-dimensional electron gas. We characterize disorder levels and (in)homogeneity and develop and optimize different gating strategies at length scales where interactions are expected to be strong. A continuation of these ideas might see to fruition the emulation of interaction-driven Mott transitions or Hofstadter butterfly physics},
doi = {10.1063/1.5046796},
journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
number = [12],
volume = [124],
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {9}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Figures / Tables:

FIG. 1 FIG. 1: (a) Schematic diagram showing the various layers of the samples with a single global gate. (b) Bridge set-up for equilibrium capacitance measurements, where sinusoidal signals are applied by a waveform generator (WG) on both the sample back gate and on a reference capacitor of 45 pF. The relativemore » amplitude and phase difference between these two signals are adjusted to maintain a constant zero voltage at the bridge point (red dot), which is amplified in different stages and read out using a lock-in amplifier. The bridge point is connected to the grid gate when there is a grid gate present, and to the top gate otherwise. [(c) and (d)] Schematic diagrams of two different two-layer gate geometries, designed to impose a periodic potential on the 2DEG, comprising either of a deposited dielectric (c) or a dielectric obtained by oxidation of the first metallic layer (d). Dielectric spacer is depicted in red. The other colors are as in panel (a).« less

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Energy gaps of the two-dimensional electron gas explored with equilibrium tunneling spectroscopy
journal, August 1993


Collective Coulomb blockade in an array of quantum dots: A Mott-Hubbard approach
journal, May 1994


Gate-Defined Quantum Dots in Intrinsic Silicon
journal, July 2007

  • Angus, Susan J.; Ferguson, Andrew J.; Dzurak, Andrew S.
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 7, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl070949k

Automated capacitance bridge
journal, January 1988

  • Cavicchi, R. E.; Silsbee, R. H.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 59, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1140002

Hierarchy of Hofstadter states and replica quantum Hall ferromagnetism in graphene superlattices
journal, June 2014

  • Yu, G. L.; Gorbachev, R. V.; Tu, J. S.
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 10, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys2979

Evidence of Hofstadter's Fractal Energy Spectrum in the Quantized Hall Conductance
journal, January 2001


Single-electron capacitance spectroscopy of discrete quantum levels
journal, May 1992


Hofstadter’s butterfly and the fractal quantum Hall effect in moiré superlattices
journal, May 2013


Photonic Floquet topological insulators
journal, April 2013

  • Rechtsman, Mikael C.; Zeuner, Julia M.; Plotnik, Yonatan
  • Nature, Vol. 496, Issue 7444
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature12066

Cloning of Dirac fermions in graphene superlattices
journal, May 2013

  • Ponomarenko, L. A.; Gorbachev, R. V.; Yu, G. L.
  • Nature, Vol. 497, Issue 7451
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature12187

Sharp tunnelling resonance from the vibrations of an electronic Wigner crystal
journal, December 2016

  • Jang, Joonho; Hunt, Benjamin M.; Pfeiffer, Loren N.
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 13, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys3979

Metal-insulator transitions
journal, October 1998

  • Imada, Masatoshi; Fujimori, Atsushi; Tokura, Yoshinori
  • Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol. 70, Issue 4, p. 1039-1263
  • DOI: 10.1103/RevModPhys.70.1039

Two-Dimensional Mott-Hubbard Electrons in an Artificial Honeycomb Lattice
journal, June 2011


Theory of magnetotransport in two-dimensional electron systems subjected to weak two-dimensional superlattice potentials
journal, November 1992


Fractal Energy Spectrum of a Polariton Gas in a Fibonacci Quasiperiodic Potential
journal, April 2014


Quantum Dot Systems: a versatile platform for quantum simulations
journal, September 2013

  • Barthelemy, Pierre; Vandersypen, Lieven M. K.
  • Annalen der Physik, Vol. 525, Issue 10-11
  • DOI: 10.1002/andp.201300124

Massive Dirac Fermions and Hofstadter Butterfly in a van der Waals Heterostructure
journal, May 2013


Magnetotransport through an antidot lattice in GaAs- Al x Ga 1 x As heterostructures
journal, June 1990


Detection of a Landau Band-Coupling-Induced Rearrangement of the Hofstadter Butterfly
journal, June 2004


Quantum simulation of Fermi-Hubbard models in semiconductor quantum-dot arrays
journal, August 2008


Goals and opportunities in quantum simulation
journal, April 2012

  • Cirac, J. Ignacio; Zoller, Peter
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 8, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys2275

Energy levels and wave functions of Bloch electrons in rational and irrational magnetic fields
journal, September 1976


Theory of Oscillatory g Factor in an MOS Inversion Layer under Strong Magnetic Fields
journal, October 1974

  • Ando, Tsuneya; Uemura, Yasutada
  • Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, Vol. 37, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1143/JPSJ.37.1044

High-resolution spectroscopy of two-dimensional electron systems
journal, July 2007

  • Dial, O. E.; Ashoori, R. C.; Pfeiffer, L. N.
  • Nature, Vol. 448, Issue 7150
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature05982

    Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.