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Title: Measurement of neutron production in atmospheric neutrino interactions at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

Abstract

Neutron production in giga electron volt–scale neutrino interactions is a poorly studied process. We have measured the neutron multiplicities in atmospheric neutrino interactions in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory experiment and compared them to the prediction of a Monte Carlo simulation using genie and a minimally modified version of GEANT4. We analyzed 837 days of exposure corresponding to Phase I, using pure heavy water, and Phase II, using a mixture of Cl in heavy water. Neutrons produced in atmospheric neutrino interactions were identified with an efficiency of 15.3% and 44.3%, for Phases I and II respectively. The neutron production is measured as a function of the visible energy of the neutrino interaction and, for charged current quasielastic interaction candidates, also as a function of the neutrino energy. This study is also performed by classifying the complete sample into two pairs of event categories: charged current quasielastic and non charged current quasielastic, and ν μ and ν e. Results show good overall agreement between data and Monte Carlo for both phases, with some small tension with a statistical significance below 2σ for some intermediate energies.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC). Nuclear Physics (NP) (SC-26); USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Nuclear Physics (NP) (SC-26)
Contributing Org.:
SNO Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1526777
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1544742; OSTI ID: 1561923; OSTI ID: 1570214
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-19-22948; arXiv:1904.01148; FERMILAB-PUB-19-515-ESH
Journal ID: ISSN 2470-0010; PRVDAQ
Grant/Contract Number:  
89233218CNA000001; AC02-05CH11231; AC02-07CH11359
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Physical Review D
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 99; Journal Issue: 11; Journal ID: ISSN 2470-0010
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
74 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS; 73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS; 72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS

Citation Formats

Aharmim, B., Ahmed, S. N., Anthony, A. E., Barros, N., Beier, E. W., Bellerive, A., Beltran, B., Bergevin, M., Biller, S. D., Bonventre, R., Boudjemline, K., Boulay, M. G., Cai, B., Callaghan, E. J., Caravaca, J., Chan, Y. D., Chauhan, D., Chen, M., Cleveland, B. T., Cox, G. A., Dai, X., Deng, H., Descamps, F. B., Detwiler, J. A., Doe, P. J., Doucas, G., Drouin, P. -L., Dunford, M., Elliott, S. R., Evans, H. C., Ewan, G. T., Farine, J., Fergani, H., Fleurot, F., Ford, R. J., Formaggio, J. A., Gagnon, N., Gilje, K., Goon, J. TM., Graham, K., Guillian, E., Habib, S., Hahn, R. L., Hallin, A. L., Hallman, E. D., Harvey, P. J., Hazama, R., Heintzelman, W. J., Heise, J., Helmer, R. L., Hime, A., Howard, C., Huang, M., Jagam, P., Jamieson, B., Jelley, N. A., Jerkins, M., Keeter, K. J., Klein, J. R., Kormos, L. L., Kos, M., Krüger, A., Kraus, C., Krauss, C. B., Kutter, T., Kyba, C. C. M., Land, B. J., Lange, R., Law, J., Lawson, I. T., Lesko, K. T., Leslie, J. R., Levine, I., Loach, J. C., MacLellan, R., Majerus, S., Mak, H. B., Maneira, J., Martin, R. D., Mastbaum, A., McCauley, N., McDonald, A. B., McGee, S. R., Miller, M. L., Monreal, B., Monroe, J., Nickel, B. G., Noble, A. J., O’Keeffe, H. M., Oblath, N. S., Okada, C. E., Ollerhead, R. W., Orebi Gann, G. D., Oser, S. M., Ott, R. A., Peeters, S. J. M., Poon, A. W. P., Prior, G., Reitzner, S. D., Rielage, K., Robertson, B. C., Robertson, R. G. H., Schwendener, M. H., Secrest, J. A., Seibert, S. R., Simard, O., Sinclair, D., Singh, J., Skensved, P., Smiley, M., Sonley, T. J., Stonehill, L. C., Tešić, G., Tolich, N., Tsui, T., Van Berg, R., VanDevender, B. A., Virtue, C. J., Wall, B. L., Waller, D., Wan Chan Tseung, H., Wark, D. L., Wendland, J., West, N., Wilkerson, J. F., Wilson, J. R., Winchester, T., Wright, A., Yeh, M., Zhang, F., and Zuber, K. Measurement of neutron production in atmospheric neutrino interactions at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.99.112007.
Aharmim, B., Ahmed, S. N., Anthony, A. E., Barros, N., Beier, E. W., Bellerive, A., Beltran, B., Bergevin, M., Biller, S. D., Bonventre, R., Boudjemline, K., Boulay, M. G., Cai, B., Callaghan, E. J., Caravaca, J., Chan, Y. D., Chauhan, D., Chen, M., Cleveland, B. T., Cox, G. A., Dai, X., Deng, H., Descamps, F. B., Detwiler, J. A., Doe, P. J., Doucas, G., Drouin, P. -L., Dunford, M., Elliott, S. R., Evans, H. C., Ewan, G. T., Farine, J., Fergani, H., Fleurot, F., Ford, R. J., Formaggio, J. A., Gagnon, N., Gilje, K., Goon, J. TM., Graham, K., Guillian, E., Habib, S., Hahn, R. L., Hallin, A. L., Hallman, E. D., Harvey, P. J., Hazama, R., Heintzelman, W. J., Heise, J., Helmer, R. L., Hime, A., Howard, C., Huang, M., Jagam, P., Jamieson, B., Jelley, N. A., Jerkins, M., Keeter, K. J., Klein, J. R., Kormos, L. L., Kos, M., Krüger, A., Kraus, C., Krauss, C. B., Kutter, T., Kyba, C. C. M., Land, B. J., Lange, R., Law, J., Lawson, I. T., Lesko, K. T., Leslie, J. R., Levine, I., Loach, J. C., MacLellan, R., Majerus, S., Mak, H. B., Maneira, J., Martin, R. D., Mastbaum, A., McCauley, N., McDonald, A. B., McGee, S. R., Miller, M. L., Monreal, B., Monroe, J., Nickel, B. G., Noble, A. J., O’Keeffe, H. M., Oblath, N. S., Okada, C. E., Ollerhead, R. W., Orebi Gann, G. D., Oser, S. M., Ott, R. A., Peeters, S. J. M., Poon, A. W. P., Prior, G., Reitzner, S. D., Rielage, K., Robertson, B. C., Robertson, R. G. H., Schwendener, M. H., Secrest, J. A., Seibert, S. R., Simard, O., Sinclair, D., Singh, J., Skensved, P., Smiley, M., Sonley, T. J., Stonehill, L. C., Tešić, G., Tolich, N., Tsui, T., Van Berg, R., VanDevender, B. A., Virtue, C. J., Wall, B. L., Waller, D., Wan Chan Tseung, H., Wark, D. L., Wendland, J., West, N., Wilkerson, J. F., Wilson, J. R., Winchester, T., Wright, A., Yeh, M., Zhang, F., & Zuber, K. Measurement of neutron production in atmospheric neutrino interactions at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.99.112007.
Aharmim, B., Ahmed, S. N., Anthony, A. E., Barros, N., Beier, E. W., Bellerive, A., Beltran, B., Bergevin, M., Biller, S. D., Bonventre, R., Boudjemline, K., Boulay, M. G., Cai, B., Callaghan, E. J., Caravaca, J., Chan, Y. D., Chauhan, D., Chen, M., Cleveland, B. T., Cox, G. A., Dai, X., Deng, H., Descamps, F. B., Detwiler, J. A., Doe, P. J., Doucas, G., Drouin, P. -L., Dunford, M., Elliott, S. R., Evans, H. C., Ewan, G. T., Farine, J., Fergani, H., Fleurot, F., Ford, R. J., Formaggio, J. A., Gagnon, N., Gilje, K., Goon, J. TM., Graham, K., Guillian, E., Habib, S., Hahn, R. L., Hallin, A. L., Hallman, E. D., Harvey, P. J., Hazama, R., Heintzelman, W. J., Heise, J., Helmer, R. L., Hime, A., Howard, C., Huang, M., Jagam, P., Jamieson, B., Jelley, N. A., Jerkins, M., Keeter, K. J., Klein, J. R., Kormos, L. L., Kos, M., Krüger, A., Kraus, C., Krauss, C. B., Kutter, T., Kyba, C. C. M., Land, B. J., Lange, R., Law, J., Lawson, I. T., Lesko, K. T., Leslie, J. R., Levine, I., Loach, J. C., MacLellan, R., Majerus, S., Mak, H. B., Maneira, J., Martin, R. D., Mastbaum, A., McCauley, N., McDonald, A. B., McGee, S. R., Miller, M. L., Monreal, B., Monroe, J., Nickel, B. G., Noble, A. J., O’Keeffe, H. M., Oblath, N. S., Okada, C. E., Ollerhead, R. W., Orebi Gann, G. D., Oser, S. M., Ott, R. A., Peeters, S. J. M., Poon, A. W. P., Prior, G., Reitzner, S. D., Rielage, K., Robertson, B. C., Robertson, R. G. H., Schwendener, M. H., Secrest, J. A., Seibert, S. R., Simard, O., Sinclair, D., Singh, J., Skensved, P., Smiley, M., Sonley, T. J., Stonehill, L. C., Tešić, G., Tolich, N., Tsui, T., Van Berg, R., VanDevender, B. A., Virtue, C. J., Wall, B. L., Waller, D., Wan Chan Tseung, H., Wark, D. L., Wendland, J., West, N., Wilkerson, J. F., Wilson, J. R., Winchester, T., Wright, A., Yeh, M., Zhang, F., and Zuber, K. Tue . "Measurement of neutron production in atmospheric neutrino interactions at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.99.112007.
@article{osti_1526777,
title = {Measurement of neutron production in atmospheric neutrino interactions at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory},
author = {Aharmim, B. and Ahmed, S. N. and Anthony, A. E. and Barros, N. and Beier, E. W. and Bellerive, A. and Beltran, B. and Bergevin, M. and Biller, S. D. and Bonventre, R. and Boudjemline, K. and Boulay, M. G. and Cai, B. and Callaghan, E. J. and Caravaca, J. and Chan, Y. D. and Chauhan, D. and Chen, M. and Cleveland, B. T. and Cox, G. A. and Dai, X. and Deng, H. and Descamps, F. B. and Detwiler, J. A. and Doe, P. J. and Doucas, G. and Drouin, P. -L. and Dunford, M. and Elliott, S. R. and Evans, H. C. and Ewan, G. T. and Farine, J. and Fergani, H. and Fleurot, F. and Ford, R. J. and Formaggio, J. A. and Gagnon, N. and Gilje, K. and Goon, J. TM. and Graham, K. and Guillian, E. and Habib, S. and Hahn, R. L. and Hallin, A. L. and Hallman, E. D. and Harvey, P. J. and Hazama, R. and Heintzelman, W. J. and Heise, J. and Helmer, R. L. and Hime, A. and Howard, C. and Huang, M. and Jagam, P. and Jamieson, B. and Jelley, N. A. and Jerkins, M. and Keeter, K. J. and Klein, J. R. and Kormos, L. L. and Kos, M. and Krüger, A. and Kraus, C. and Krauss, C. B. and Kutter, T. and Kyba, C. C. M. and Land, B. J. and Lange, R. and Law, J. and Lawson, I. T. and Lesko, K. T. and Leslie, J. R. and Levine, I. and Loach, J. C. and MacLellan, R. and Majerus, S. and Mak, H. B. and Maneira, J. and Martin, R. D. and Mastbaum, A. and McCauley, N. and McDonald, A. B. and McGee, S. R. and Miller, M. L. and Monreal, B. and Monroe, J. and Nickel, B. G. and Noble, A. J. and O’Keeffe, H. M. and Oblath, N. S. and Okada, C. E. and Ollerhead, R. W. and Orebi Gann, G. D. and Oser, S. M. and Ott, R. A. and Peeters, S. J. M. and Poon, A. W. P. and Prior, G. and Reitzner, S. D. and Rielage, K. and Robertson, B. C. and Robertson, R. G. H. and Schwendener, M. H. and Secrest, J. A. and Seibert, S. R. and Simard, O. and Sinclair, D. and Singh, J. and Skensved, P. and Smiley, M. and Sonley, T. J. and Stonehill, L. C. and Tešić, G. and Tolich, N. and Tsui, T. and Van Berg, R. and VanDevender, B. A. and Virtue, C. J. and Wall, B. L. and Waller, D. and Wan Chan Tseung, H. and Wark, D. L. and Wendland, J. and West, N. and Wilkerson, J. F. and Wilson, J. R. and Winchester, T. and Wright, A. and Yeh, M. and Zhang, F. and Zuber, K.},
abstractNote = {Neutron production in giga electron volt–scale neutrino interactions is a poorly studied process. We have measured the neutron multiplicities in atmospheric neutrino interactions in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory experiment and compared them to the prediction of a Monte Carlo simulation using genie and a minimally modified version of GEANT4. We analyzed 837 days of exposure corresponding to Phase I, using pure heavy water, and Phase II, using a mixture of Cl in heavy water. Neutrons produced in atmospheric neutrino interactions were identified with an efficiency of 15.3% and 44.3%, for Phases I and II respectively. The neutron production is measured as a function of the visible energy of the neutrino interaction and, for charged current quasielastic interaction candidates, also as a function of the neutrino energy. This study is also performed by classifying the complete sample into two pairs of event categories: charged current quasielastic and non charged current quasielastic, and νμ and νe. Results show good overall agreement between data and Monte Carlo for both phases, with some small tension with a statistical significance below 2σ for some intermediate energies.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.99.112007},
journal = {Physical Review D},
number = 11,
volume = 99,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {6}
}

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DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.99.112007

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