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Title: Millicharged scalar fields, massive photons and the breaking of S U ( 3 ) C × U ( 1 ) EM

Abstract

Under the assumption that the current epoch of the Universe is not special, i.e., is not the final state of a long history of processes in particle physics, the cosmological fate of SU(3) C × U(1) EM is investigated. Spontaneous symmetry breaking of U(1) EM at the temperature of the Universe today is carried out. The charged scalar field Φ EM which breaks the symmetry is found to be ruled out for the charge of the electron, q = e. Scalar fields with millicharges are viable and limits on their masses and charges are found to be q ≲ 10 –3 e and m ΦEM ≲ 10 –5 eV. Furthermore, it is possible that U(1) EM has already been broken at temperatures higher than T = 2.7 K given the nonzero limits on the mass of the photon. A photon mass of m γ = 10 –18 eV, the current upper limit, is found to require a spontaneous symmetry breaking scalar mass of m ΦEM ~ 10 –13 eV with charge q = 10 –6e, well within the allowed parameter space of the model. Finally, the cosmological fate of the strong interaction is studied. SU(3) C is tested for complementaritymore » in which the confinement phase of QCD + colored scalars is equivalent to a spontaneously broken SU(3) gauge theory. If complementarity is not applicable, SU(3) C has multiple symmetry breaking paths with various final symmetry structures. The stability of the colored vacuum at finite temperature in this scenario is nonperturbative and a definitive statement on the fate of SU(3) C is left open. Cosmological implications for the metastability of the vacua—electromagnetic, color, and electroweak—are discussed.« less

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1526414
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515; P200A150121
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review D
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 99; Journal Issue: 7; Journal ID: ISSN 2470-0010
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; 79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS

Citation Formats

West, Jennifer Rittenhouse. Millicharged scalar fields, massive photons and the breaking of SU(3)C×U(1)EM. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1103/physrevd.99.073009.
West, Jennifer Rittenhouse. Millicharged scalar fields, massive photons and the breaking of SU(3)C×U(1)EM. United States. doi:10.1103/physrevd.99.073009.
West, Jennifer Rittenhouse. Tue . "Millicharged scalar fields, massive photons and the breaking of SU(3)C×U(1)EM". United States. doi:10.1103/physrevd.99.073009. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1526414.
@article{osti_1526414,
title = {Millicharged scalar fields, massive photons and the breaking of SU(3)C×U(1)EM},
author = {West, Jennifer Rittenhouse},
abstractNote = {Under the assumption that the current epoch of the Universe is not special, i.e., is not the final state of a long history of processes in particle physics, the cosmological fate of SU(3)C × U(1)EM is investigated. Spontaneous symmetry breaking of U(1)EM at the temperature of the Universe today is carried out. The charged scalar field ΦEM which breaks the symmetry is found to be ruled out for the charge of the electron, q = e. Scalar fields with millicharges are viable and limits on their masses and charges are found to be q ≲ 10 –3 e and mΦEM ≲ 10–5 eV. Furthermore, it is possible that U(1)EM has already been broken at temperatures higher than T = 2.7 K given the nonzero limits on the mass of the photon. A photon mass of mγ = 10–18 eV, the current upper limit, is found to require a spontaneous symmetry breaking scalar mass of mΦEM ~ 10–13 eV with charge q = 10–6e, well within the allowed parameter space of the model. Finally, the cosmological fate of the strong interaction is studied. SU(3)C is tested for complementarity in which the confinement phase of QCD + colored scalars is equivalent to a spontaneously broken SU(3) gauge theory. If complementarity is not applicable, SU(3)C has multiple symmetry breaking paths with various final symmetry structures. The stability of the colored vacuum at finite temperature in this scenario is nonperturbative and a definitive statement on the fate of SU(3)C is left open. Cosmological implications for the metastability of the vacua—electromagnetic, color, and electroweak—are discussed.},
doi = {10.1103/physrevd.99.073009},
journal = {Physical Review D},
number = 7,
volume = 99,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {4}
}

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