skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: High-Frequency Nonlinear Response of Superconducting Cavity-Grade Nb  Surfaces

Abstract

Nb Superconducting Radio-Frequency (SRF) cavities are observed to break down and lose their high-$Q$ superconducting properties at accelerating gradients below the limits imposed by theory. The microscopic origins of SRF cavity breakdown are still a matter of some debate. To investigate these microscopic issues temperature and power dependent local third harmonic response was measured on bulk Nb and Nb thin film samples using a novel near-field magnetic microwave microscope between 2.9K-10K and 2GHz-6GHz. Both periodic and non-periodic response as a function of applied RF field amplitude are observed. We attribute these features to extrinsic and intrinsic nonlinear responses of the sample. The RF-current-biased Resistively Shunted Junction (RSJ) model can account for the periodic response and fits very well to the data using reasonable parameters. The non-periodic response is consistent with vortex semi-loops penetrating into the bulk of the sample once sufficiently high RF magnetic field is applied, and the data can be fit to a Time-Dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL) model of this process. The fact that these responses are measured on a wide variety of Nb samples suggests that we have captured the generic nonlinear response of air-exposed Nb surfaces.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [3];  [5];  [6];  [4];  [3];  [6];  [6];  [1]
  1. Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)
  2. Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)
  3. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)
  4. European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)
  5. Lancaster Univ., Lancaster (United Kingdom)
  6. STFC Daresbury Lab, Warrington (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Nuclear Physics (NP) (SC-26)
OSTI Identifier:
1526098
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1526478
Report Number(s):
JLAB-ACC-19-2917; DOE/OR/23177-4709
Journal ID: ISSN 2331-7019; PRAHB2
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0017931; SC0009962; AC05-06OR23177
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Physical Review Applied
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 11; Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 2331-7019
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Oripov, Bakhrom, Bieler, Thomas, Ciovati, Gianluigi, Calatroni, Sergio, Dhakal, Pashupati, Junginger, Tobias, Malyshev, Oleg B., Terenziani, Giovanni, Valente-Feliciano, Anne -Marie, Valizadeh, Reza, Wilde, Stuart, and Anlage, Steven M. High-Frequency Nonlinear Response of Superconducting Cavity-Grade Nb  Surfaces. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevApplied.11.064030.
Oripov, Bakhrom, Bieler, Thomas, Ciovati, Gianluigi, Calatroni, Sergio, Dhakal, Pashupati, Junginger, Tobias, Malyshev, Oleg B., Terenziani, Giovanni, Valente-Feliciano, Anne -Marie, Valizadeh, Reza, Wilde, Stuart, & Anlage, Steven M. High-Frequency Nonlinear Response of Superconducting Cavity-Grade Nb  Surfaces. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevApplied.11.064030.
Oripov, Bakhrom, Bieler, Thomas, Ciovati, Gianluigi, Calatroni, Sergio, Dhakal, Pashupati, Junginger, Tobias, Malyshev, Oleg B., Terenziani, Giovanni, Valente-Feliciano, Anne -Marie, Valizadeh, Reza, Wilde, Stuart, and Anlage, Steven M. Thu . "High-Frequency Nonlinear Response of Superconducting Cavity-Grade Nb  Surfaces". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevApplied.11.064030.
@article{osti_1526098,
title = {High-Frequency Nonlinear Response of Superconducting Cavity-Grade Nb  Surfaces},
author = {Oripov, Bakhrom and Bieler, Thomas and Ciovati, Gianluigi and Calatroni, Sergio and Dhakal, Pashupati and Junginger, Tobias and Malyshev, Oleg B. and Terenziani, Giovanni and Valente-Feliciano, Anne -Marie and Valizadeh, Reza and Wilde, Stuart and Anlage, Steven M.},
abstractNote = {Nb Superconducting Radio-Frequency (SRF) cavities are observed to break down and lose their high-$Q$ superconducting properties at accelerating gradients below the limits imposed by theory. The microscopic origins of SRF cavity breakdown are still a matter of some debate. To investigate these microscopic issues temperature and power dependent local third harmonic response was measured on bulk Nb and Nb thin film samples using a novel near-field magnetic microwave microscope between 2.9K-10K and 2GHz-6GHz. Both periodic and non-periodic response as a function of applied RF field amplitude are observed. We attribute these features to extrinsic and intrinsic nonlinear responses of the sample. The RF-current-biased Resistively Shunted Junction (RSJ) model can account for the periodic response and fits very well to the data using reasonable parameters. The non-periodic response is consistent with vortex semi-loops penetrating into the bulk of the sample once sufficiently high RF magnetic field is applied, and the data can be fit to a Time-Dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL) model of this process. The fact that these responses are measured on a wide variety of Nb samples suggests that we have captured the generic nonlinear response of air-exposed Nb surfaces.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevApplied.11.064030},
journal = {Physical Review Applied},
number = 6,
volume = 11,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {6}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevApplied.11.064030

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Intermodulation Distortion and Nonlinearity in ${\rm MgB}_{2}$: Experiment and Theory
journal, June 2007

  • Oates, D. E.; Agassi, Y. D.; Moeckly, B. H.
  • IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 17, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1109/TASC.2007.899004

Enhancement of rf breakdown field of superconductors by multilayer coating
journal, January 2006


Theory of RF superconductivity for resonant cavities
journal, January 2017


Microwave nonlinearities of an isolated long Y Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7 δ bicrystal grain boundary
journal, July 2005


Characterization of etch pits found on a large-grain bulk niobium superconducting radio-frequency resonant cavity
journal, December 2010

  • Zhao, Xin; Ciovati, G.; Bieler, T. R.
  • Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams, Vol. 13, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.13.124701

A low energy muon spin rotation and point contact tunneling study of niobium films prepared for superconducting cavities
journal, November 2017

  • Junginger, Tobias; Calatroni, S.; Sublet, A.
  • Superconductor Science and Technology, Vol. 30, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1088/1361-6668/aa8926

On the oxidation and on the superconductivity of niobium
journal, May 1987

  • Halbritter, J.
  • Applied Physics A Solids and Surfaces, Vol. 43, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00615201

Atomic-scale chemical analyses of niobium oxide/niobium interfaces via atom-probe tomography
journal, September 2008

  • Yoon, Kevin E.; Seidman, David N.; Antoine, Claire
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 93, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2987483

Routine characterization of 3D profiles of SRF cavity defects using replica techniques
journal, December 2010


Understanding Quality Factor Degradation in Superconducting Niobium Cavities at Low Microwave Field Amplitudes
journal, December 2017


Nonlinear Meissner effect in unconventional superconductors
journal, June 1995


Niobium oxides and niobates physical properties: Review and prospects
journal, July 2016


Magnetic field enhancement at a pit on the surface of a superconducting accelerating cavity
journal, July 2015

  • Kubo, Takayuki
  • Progress of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Vol. 2015, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1093/ptep/ptv088

Magnetic Flux Lines in Complex Geometry Type-II Superconductors Studied by the Time Dependent Ginzburg-Landau Equation
journal, August 2010

  • Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Pedersen, Niels Falsig
  • Acta Applicandae Mathematicae, Vol. 115, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10440-010-9580-8

On-wafer measurements of nonlinear effects in high temperature superconductors
journal, March 2001

  • Booth, J. C.; Vale, L. R.; Ono, R. H.
  • IEEE Transactions on Appiled Superconductivity, Vol. 11, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1109/77.919610

Nonlinear microwave impedance of short and long Josephson junctions
journal, April 1999


Numerical Simulation of Vortex Dynamics in Type-II Superconductors
journal, February 1996

  • Gropp, William D.; Kaper, Hans G.; Leaf, Gary K.
  • Journal of Computational Physics, Vol. 123, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1006/jcph.1996.0022

Physical and mechanical metallurgy of high purity Nb for accelerator cavities
journal, March 2010

  • Bieler, T. R.; Wright, N. T.; Pourboghrat, F.
  • Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams, Vol. 13, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.13.031002

Possible microscopic origin of large broadening parameter in point Andreev reflection spectroscopy
journal, August 2010

  • Sheet, Goutam; Chandrasekhar, Venkat
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 97, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3479927

Nanoscale Electrodynamic Response of Nb Superconductors
journal, June 2013

  • Tamin Tai, ; Ghamsari, B. G.; Anlage, S. M.
  • IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 23, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1109/TASC.2012.2227651

Nanoscale nonlinear radio frequency properties of bulk Nb: Origins of extrinsic nonlinear effects
journal, October 2015


Transport in superconducting niobium films for radio frequency applications
journal, April 2005

  • Halbritter, J.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 97, Issue 8, Article No. 083904
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1874292

Near-field microwave magnetic nanoscopy of superconducting radio frequency cavity materials
journal, June 2014

  • Tai, Tamin; Ghamsari, Behnood G.; Bieler, Thomas R.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 104, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4881880

dc magnetometry of niobium thin film superconductors deposited using high power impulse magnetron sputtering
journal, July 2018


Design of a high speed, high resolution thermometry system for 1.5 GHz superconducting radio frequency cavities
journal, November 1994

  • Knobloch, Jens; Muller, Henry; Padamsee, Hasan
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 65, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1144532

Advances in the purification of niobium by solid state gettering with titanium
journal, January 1996


Dynamics of vortex nucleation by rapid thermal quench
journal, March 2001


Development of high resolution camera for observations of superconducting cavities
journal, September 2008

  • Iwashita, Yoshihisa; Tajima, Yujiro; Hayano, Hitoshi
  • Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams, Vol. 11, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.11.093501

Microwave response and surface impedance of weak links
journal, December 1997


Multiscale mechanisms of SRF breakdown
journal, July 2006


Phase-sensitive harmonic measurements of microwave nonlinearities in cuprate thin films
journal, October 2009


Doping-dependent nonlinear Meissner effect and spontaneous currents in high- T c superconductors
journal, January 2005


Nonlinear dynamics of Josephson vortices in a film screen under dc and ac magnetic fields
journal, November 2014


Ginzburg-Landau theory for superconductors
journal, February 1973


Overview of Nonlinearity in HTS: What Learned and Prospects for Improvement
journal, January 2007


Tunneling study of cavity grade Nb: Possible magnetic scattering at the surface
journal, May 2008

  • Proslier, T.; Zasadzinski, J. F.; Cooley, L.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 92, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2913764

Superconducting TESLA cavities
journal, September 2000

  • Aune, B.; Bandelmann, R.; Bloess, D.
  • Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams, Vol. 3, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.3.092001

Nonlinear microwave absorption in weak-link Josephson junctions
journal, December 1996


Observation of individual Josephson vortices in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 δ bicrystal grain-boundary junctions
journal, June 2000


Effect of low temperature baking in nitrogen on the performance of a niobium superconducting radio frequency cavity
journal, March 2018


Nonlinear Near-Field Microwave Microscope for RF Defect Localization in Superconductors
journal, June 2011

  • Tai, Tamin; Xi, X. X.; Zhuang, C. G.
  • IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 21, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1109/TASC.2010.2096531