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Title: Requirements for Enabling Extreme Fast Charging of High Energy Density Li-Ion Cells while Avoiding Lithium Plating

Abstract

To improve electric vehicle market acceptance, the charge time of their batteries should be reduced to 10-15 minutes. However, achieving 4C to 6C charge rates with today's batteries is only possible for cells with thin electrodes coming at the expense of low energy density and high battery manufacturing cost. Here, an electrochemical model is validated versus high rate charge data for cells with several loadings. The model elucidates that the main limitations for high energy density cells are poor electrolyte transport resulting in salt depletion within the anode and Li plating at the graphite/separator interface. Next, the model is used to understand what future electrode and electrolyte properties can help enable 4C and 6C charging. Ideally, future electrolytes would be identified with 2X conductivity, 3-4X diffusivity, and transference number of 0.5-0.6. Alternatively charging at elevated temperatures enhances electrolyte transport by 1.5X conductivity and 2-3X diffusivity with a negligible effect on transference number. Another effective strategy to enable 4C and 6C charging is reducing electrode tortuosity. Conversely, increasing electrode porosity and negative/positive ratio are ineffective strategies to improve fast charge capability.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [2];  [2]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  2. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
OSTI Identifier:
1525766
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5400-73365
Journal ID: ISSN 0013-4651
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of the Electrochemical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 166; Journal Issue: 8; Journal ID: ISSN 0013-4651
Publisher:
The Electrochemical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; batteries; lithium batteries; electrolyte transport; extreme fast charging; Li-ion batteries

Citation Formats

Colclasure, Andrew M., Dunlop, Alison R., Trask, Stephen E., Polzin, Bryant J., Jansen, Andrew N., and Smith, Kandler A. Requirements for Enabling Extreme Fast Charging of High Energy Density Li-Ion Cells while Avoiding Lithium Plating. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1149/2.0451908jes.
Colclasure, Andrew M., Dunlop, Alison R., Trask, Stephen E., Polzin, Bryant J., Jansen, Andrew N., & Smith, Kandler A. Requirements for Enabling Extreme Fast Charging of High Energy Density Li-Ion Cells while Avoiding Lithium Plating. United States. doi:10.1149/2.0451908jes.
Colclasure, Andrew M., Dunlop, Alison R., Trask, Stephen E., Polzin, Bryant J., Jansen, Andrew N., and Smith, Kandler A. Mon . "Requirements for Enabling Extreme Fast Charging of High Energy Density Li-Ion Cells while Avoiding Lithium Plating". United States. doi:10.1149/2.0451908jes.
@article{osti_1525766,
title = {Requirements for Enabling Extreme Fast Charging of High Energy Density Li-Ion Cells while Avoiding Lithium Plating},
author = {Colclasure, Andrew M. and Dunlop, Alison R. and Trask, Stephen E. and Polzin, Bryant J. and Jansen, Andrew N. and Smith, Kandler A.},
abstractNote = {To improve electric vehicle market acceptance, the charge time of their batteries should be reduced to 10-15 minutes. However, achieving 4C to 6C charge rates with today's batteries is only possible for cells with thin electrodes coming at the expense of low energy density and high battery manufacturing cost. Here, an electrochemical model is validated versus high rate charge data for cells with several loadings. The model elucidates that the main limitations for high energy density cells are poor electrolyte transport resulting in salt depletion within the anode and Li plating at the graphite/separator interface. Next, the model is used to understand what future electrode and electrolyte properties can help enable 4C and 6C charging. Ideally, future electrolytes would be identified with 2X conductivity, 3-4X diffusivity, and transference number of 0.5-0.6. Alternatively charging at elevated temperatures enhances electrolyte transport by 1.5X conductivity and 2-3X diffusivity with a negligible effect on transference number. Another effective strategy to enable 4C and 6C charging is reducing electrode tortuosity. Conversely, increasing electrode porosity and negative/positive ratio are ineffective strategies to improve fast charge capability.},
doi = {10.1149/2.0451908jes},
journal = {Journal of the Electrochemical Society},
number = 8,
volume = 166,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {4}
}

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