skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Climate-driven oscillation of phosphorus and iron limitation in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre

Abstract

The supply of nutrients is a fundamental regulator of ocean productivity and carbon sequestration. Nutrient sources, sinks, residence times, and elemental ratios vary over broad scales, including those resulting from climate-driven changes in upper water column stratification, advection, and the deposition of atmospheric dust. These changes can alter the proximate elemental control of ecosystem productivity with cascading ecological effects and impacts on carbon sequestration. Here, we report multidecadal observations revealing that the ecosystem in the eastern region of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG) oscillates on subdecadal scales between inorganic phosphorus (P i ) sufficiency and limitation, when P i concentration in surface waters decreases below 50–60 nmol⋅kg −1 . In situ observations and model simulations suggest that sea-level pressure changes over the northwest Pacific may induce basin-scale variations in the atmospheric transport and deposition of Asian dust-associated iron (Fe), causing the eastern portion of the NPSG ecosystem to shift between states of Fe and P i limitation. Our results highlight the critical need to include both atmospheric and ocean circulation variability when modeling the response of open ocean pelagic ecosystems under future climate change scenarios.

Authors:
ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23). Climate and Environmental Sciences Division; National Science Foundation (NSF); Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC); International Pacific Research Center (IPRC)
OSTI Identifier:
1525531
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1594091
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0006791; SC0006735; OCE-1260164; OCE-1357015; AGS-1049033
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Journal Volume: 116 Journal Issue: 26; Journal ID: ISSN 0027-8424
Publisher:
National Academy of Sciences
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; pelagic ecosystem; phosphorus limitation; atmospheric iron deposition; Pacific Decadal Oscillation; climate

Citation Formats

Letelier, Ricardo M., Björkman, Karin M., Church, Matthew J., Hamilton, Douglas S., Mahowald, Natalie M., Scanza, Rachel A., Schneider, Niklas, White, Angelicque E., and Karl, David M. Climate-driven oscillation of phosphorus and iron limitation in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1073/pnas.1900789116.
Letelier, Ricardo M., Björkman, Karin M., Church, Matthew J., Hamilton, Douglas S., Mahowald, Natalie M., Scanza, Rachel A., Schneider, Niklas, White, Angelicque E., & Karl, David M. Climate-driven oscillation of phosphorus and iron limitation in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. United States. doi:10.1073/pnas.1900789116.
Letelier, Ricardo M., Björkman, Karin M., Church, Matthew J., Hamilton, Douglas S., Mahowald, Natalie M., Scanza, Rachel A., Schneider, Niklas, White, Angelicque E., and Karl, David M. Mon . "Climate-driven oscillation of phosphorus and iron limitation in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre". United States. doi:10.1073/pnas.1900789116.
@article{osti_1525531,
title = {Climate-driven oscillation of phosphorus and iron limitation in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre},
author = {Letelier, Ricardo M. and Björkman, Karin M. and Church, Matthew J. and Hamilton, Douglas S. and Mahowald, Natalie M. and Scanza, Rachel A. and Schneider, Niklas and White, Angelicque E. and Karl, David M.},
abstractNote = {The supply of nutrients is a fundamental regulator of ocean productivity and carbon sequestration. Nutrient sources, sinks, residence times, and elemental ratios vary over broad scales, including those resulting from climate-driven changes in upper water column stratification, advection, and the deposition of atmospheric dust. These changes can alter the proximate elemental control of ecosystem productivity with cascading ecological effects and impacts on carbon sequestration. Here, we report multidecadal observations revealing that the ecosystem in the eastern region of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG) oscillates on subdecadal scales between inorganic phosphorus (P i ) sufficiency and limitation, when P i concentration in surface waters decreases below 50–60 nmol⋅kg −1 . In situ observations and model simulations suggest that sea-level pressure changes over the northwest Pacific may induce basin-scale variations in the atmospheric transport and deposition of Asian dust-associated iron (Fe), causing the eastern portion of the NPSG ecosystem to shift between states of Fe and P i limitation. Our results highlight the critical need to include both atmospheric and ocean circulation variability when modeling the response of open ocean pelagic ecosystems under future climate change scenarios.},
doi = {10.1073/pnas.1900789116},
journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
number = 26,
volume = 116,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {6}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1900789116

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Effect of iron Nutrition on the Marine Cyanobacterium Synechococcus Grown on Different n Sources and Irradiances1
journal, April 1997


Diagnostic Model and Analysis of the Surface Currents in the Tropical Pacific Ocean
journal, October 2002


Geographical distribution and sources of phosphorus in atmospheric aerosol over the North Pacific Ocean: PHOSPHORUS OVER PACIFIC
journal, February 2010

  • Furutani, Hiroshi; Meguro, Ai; Iguchi, Hidenori
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 37, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1029/2009GL041367

Emerging patterns of marine nitrogen fixation
journal, June 2011

  • Sohm, Jill A.; Webb, Eric A.; Capone, Douglas G.
  • Nature Reviews Microbiology, Vol. 9, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1038/nrmicro2594

Geochemistry of atmospheric aerosols generated from lava-seawater interactions: LAVA-GENERATED MARINE AEROSOLS
journal, May 2002

  • Sansone, Francis J.; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia R.; Resing, Joseph A.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 29, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1029/2001GL013882

Nutrient gradients in the western North Atlantic Ocean: Relationship to microbial community structure and comparison to patterns in the Pacific Ocean
journal, November 2001

  • Cavender-Bares, Kent K.; Karl, David M.; Chisholm, Sallie W.
  • Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, Vol. 48, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1016/S0967-0637(01)00027-9

Phosphate Depletion in the Western North Atlantic Ocean
journal, August 2000


Effects of African dust deposition on phytoplankton in the western tropical Atlantic Ocean off Barbados: Dust Deposition and Phytoplankton Growth
journal, May 2016

  • Chien, Chia-Te; Mackey, Katherine R. M.; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 30, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015GB005334

Dissolved and particulate Fe in the western and central North Pacific: Results from the 2002 IOC cruise: FE IN THE NORTH PACIFIC
journal, October 2005

  • Brown, Matthew T.; Landing, William M.; Measures, Chris I.
  • Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, Vol. 6, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1029/2004GC000893

Modeling the global emission, transport and deposition of trace elements associated with mineral dust
journal, January 2015


Nitrogen fixation-enhanced carbon sequestration in low nitrate, low chlorophyll seascapes
journal, July 2008

  • Karl, Dm; Letelier, Rm
  • Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 364
  • DOI: 10.3354/meps07547

Western Pacific atmospheric nutrient deposition fluxes, their impact on surface ocean productivity
journal, July 2014

  • Martino, M.; Hamilton, D.; Baker, A. R.
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 28, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013GB004794

Evidence linking Arctic amplification to extreme weather in mid-latitudes: ARCTIC LINKS TO MID-LATITUDE WEATHER
journal, March 2012

  • Francis, Jennifer A.; Vavrus, Stephen J.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 39, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051000

Luxury uptake, iron storage and ferritin abundance in Prochlorococcus marinus (Synechococcales) strain MED4
journal, July 2015

  • Shire, David M.; Kustka, Adam B.
  • Phycologia, Vol. 54, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.2216/14-109.1

Microbially Mediated Transformations of Phosphorus in the Sea: New Views of an Old Cycle
journal, January 2014


Combustion iron distribution and deposition: COMBUSTION IRON
journal, February 2008

  • Luo, Chao; Mahowald, N.; Bond, T.
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 22, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1029/2007GB002964

Diversity trumps acidification: Lack of evidence for carbon dioxide enhancement of Trichodesmium community nitrogen or carbon fixation at Station ALOHA
journal, April 2014

  • Gradoville, Mary R.; White, Angelicque E.; Böttjer, Daniela
  • Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 59, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.4319/lo.2014.59.3.0645

A simple nutrient-dependence mechanism for predicting the stoichiometry of marine ecosystems
journal, June 2015

  • Galbraith, Eric D.; Martiny, Adam C.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 112, Issue 27
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1423917112

Forcing of Low-Frequency Ocean Variability in the Northeast Pacific
journal, March 2009

  • Chhak, Kettyah C.; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Schneider, Niklas
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 22, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1175/2008JCLI2639.1

The North Pacific Oscillation
journal, January 1981


Iron requirements for dinitrogen- and ammonium-supported growth in cultures of Trichodesmium (IMS 101): Comparison with nitrogen fixation rates and iron: carbon ratios of field populations
journal, September 2003

  • Kustka, Adam B.; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A.; Carpenter, Edward J.
  • Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 48, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.4319/lo.2003.48.5.1869

Light driven seasonal patterns of chlorophyll and nitrate in the lower euphotic zone of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre
journal, March 2004

  • Letelier, Ricardo M.; Karl, David M.; Abbott, Mark R.
  • Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 49, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.4319/lo.2004.49.2.0508

A Simulated Climatology of Asian Dust Aerosol and Its Trans-Pacific Transport. Part II: Interannual Variability and Climate Connections
journal, January 2006

  • Gong, S. L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhao, T. L.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 19, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI3606.1

Modeling dust as component minerals in the Community Atmosphere Model: development of framework and impact on radiative forcing
journal, January 2015

  • Scanza, R. A.; Mahowald, N.; Ghan, S.
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 15, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-15-537-2015

Meteorological analysis of long range transport of mineral aerosols over the North Pacific
journal, June 1989

  • Merrill, John T.; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Bleck, Rainer
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 94, Issue D6
  • DOI: 10.1029/JD094iD06p08584

Marine phytoplankton and the changing ocean iron cycle
journal, November 2016


Nutrient dynamics in the deep blue sea
journal, September 2002


Anthropogenic combustion iron as a complex climate forcer
journal, April 2018


Hawaiian imprint on dissolved Nd and Ra isotopes and rare earth elements in the central North Pacific: Local survey and seasonal variability
journal, September 2016

  • Fröllje, Henning; Pahnke, Katharina; Schnetger, Bernhard
  • Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 189
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.gca.2016.06.001

Dust deposition to the surface waters of the western and central North Pacific inferred from surface water dissolved aluminum concentrations: PACIFIC DUST DEPOSITION
journal, September 2005

  • Measures, C. I.; Brown, M. T.; Vink, S.
  • Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, Vol. 6, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1029/2005GC000922

Variations in Synechococcus cell quotas of phosphorus, sulfur, manganese, iron, nickel, and zinc within mesoscale eddies in the Sargasso Sea
journal, December 2009

  • Twining, Benjamin S.; Nuñez-Milland, Daliangelis; Vogt, Stefan
  • Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 55, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.4319/lo.2010.55.2.0492

Ecological nitrogen-to-phosphorus stoichiometry at station ALOHA
journal, January 2001

  • Karl, David M.; Björkman, Karin M.; Dore, John E.
  • Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, Vol. 48, Issue 8-9
  • DOI: 10.1016/S0967-0645(00)00152-1

The Forcing of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation
journal, November 2005

  • Schneider, Niklas; Cornuelle, Bruce D.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 18, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI3527.1

Phosphonate metabolism by Trichodesmium IMS101 and the production of greenhouse gases
journal, July 2010

  • Beversdorf, L. J.; White, A. E.; Björkman, K. M.
  • Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 55, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.4319/lo.2010.55.4.1768

Interactions between changing pCO2, N2 fixation, and Fe limitation in the marine unicellular cyanobacterium Crocosphaera
journal, November 2008

  • Fu, Fei-Xue; Mulholland, Margaret R.; Garcia, Nathan S.
  • Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 53, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.4319/lo.2008.53.6.2472

Improved dust representation in the Community Atmosphere Model
journal, July 2014

  • Albani, S.; Mahowald, N. M.; Perry, A. T.
  • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 6, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013MS000279

The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system
journal, April 2011

  • Dee, D. P.; Uppala, S. M.; Simmons, A. J.
  • Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 137, Issue 656
  • DOI: 10.1002/qj.828

Technical note: A 23-year record of twice-weekly aerosol composition measurements at Mauna Loa Observatory
journal, December 2013


The 2018 rift eruption and summit collapse of Kīlauea Volcano
journal, December 2018


Ocean nutrient ratios governed by plankton biogeography
journal, September 2010


Smoothing and Differentiation of Data by Simplified Least Squares Procedures.
journal, July 1964

  • Savitzky, Abraham.; Golay, M. J. E.
  • Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 36, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1021/ac60214a047

Causes for Large-Scale Hydrographic Changes at the Hawaii Ocean Time Series Station
journal, September 2008

  • Stammer, D.; Park, S.; Köhl, A.
  • Journal of Physical Oceanography, Vol. 38, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1175/2008JPO3751.1

North Pacific Gyre Oscillation Synchronizes Climate Fluctuations in the Eastern and Western Boundary Systems
journal, October 2009

  • Ceballos, Lina I.; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Hoyos, Carlos D.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 22, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1175/2009JCLI2848.1

Decadal-Scale Climate and Ecosystem Interactions in the North Pacific Ocean
journal, January 2004


The Community Earth System Model: A Framework for Collaborative Research
journal, September 2013

  • Hurrell, James W.; Holland, M. M.; Gent, P. R.
  • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 94, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00121.1

Increasing anthropogenic nitrogen in the North Pacific Ocean
journal, November 2014


A Pacific Interdecadal Climate Oscillation with Impacts on Salmon Production
journal, June 1997


ENSO-Forced Variability of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation
journal, December 2003


Daily to decadal variability of size-fractionated iron and iron-binding ligands at the Hawaii Ocean Time-series Station ALOHA
journal, December 2015

  • Fitzsimmons, Jessica N.; Hayes, Christopher T.; Al-Subiai, Sherain N.
  • Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 171
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.gca.2015.08.012

Subtropical ocean ecosystem structure changes forced by North Pacific climate variations
journal, July 2009

  • Bidigare, R. R.; Chai, F.; Landry, M. R.
  • Journal of Plankton Research, Vol. 31, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1093/plankt/fbp064

Atmospheric Iron Deposition: Global Distribution, Variability, and Human Perturbations
journal, January 2009


Phosphate availability and the ultimate control of new nitrogen input by nitrogen fixation in the tropical Pacific Ocean
journal, January 2008


Ecosystem Structure and Dynamics in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre: New Views of an Old Ocean
journal, March 2017


Dispersion Modelling of the Kilauea Plume
journal, July 2003

  • Hollingshead, Annette T.; Businger, Steven; Draxler, Roland
  • Boundary-Layer Meteorology, Vol. 108, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1023/A:1023086823088

Nitrogen-fixation strategies and Fe requirements in cyanobacteria
journal, September 2007

  • Berman-Frank, Ilana; Quigg, Antonietta; Finkel, Zoe V.
  • Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 52, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.4319/lo.2007.52.5.2260

Addition of inorganic or organic phosphorus enhances nitrogen and carbon fixation in the ­oligotrophic North Pacific
journal, June 2011

  • Watkins-Brandt, Ks; Letelier, Rm; Spitz, Yh
  • Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 432
  • DOI: 10.3354/meps09147

Nitrogen fixation rates and controls at Stn ALOHA
journal, August 2008

  • Grabowski, Mnw; Church, Mj; Karl, Dm
  • Aquatic Microbial Ecology, Vol. 52
  • DOI: 10.3354/ame01209

Mechanisms of increased Trichodesmium fitness under iron and phosphorus co-limitation in the present and future ocean
journal, June 2016

  • Walworth, Nathan G.; Fu, Fei-Xue; Webb, Eric A.
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 7, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms12081

Microbial Group Specific Uptake Kinetics of Inorganic Phosphate and Adenosine-5′-Triphosphate (ATP) in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre
journal, January 2012


Long-term changes in plankton community structure and productivity in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre: The domain shift hypothesis
journal, January 2001

  • Karl, D. M.; Bidigare, R. R.; Letelier, R. M.
  • Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, Vol. 48, Issue 8-9
  • DOI: 10.1016/S0967-0645(00)00149-1

Elemental composition of marine Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus : Implications for the ecological stoichiometry of the sea
journal, September 2003


A Simulated Climatology of Asian Dust Aerosol and Its Trans-Pacific Transport. Part I: Mean Climate and Validation
journal, January 2006

  • Zhao, T. L.; Gong, S. L.; Zhang, X. Y.
  • Journal of Climate, Vol. 19, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1175/JCLI3605.1

Interannual-decadal variability of wintertime mixed layer depths in the North Pacific detected by an ensemble of ocean syntheses
journal, August 2015


Iron, phosphorus, and nitrogen supply ratios define the biogeography of nitrogen fixation
journal, October 2013

  • Ward, Ben A.; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Moore, C. Mark
  • Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 58, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.4319/lo.2013.58.6.2059

Nutrient and salinity decadal variations in the central and eastern North Pacific
journal, January 2009

  • Di Lorenzo, E.; Fiechter, J.; Schneider, N.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 36, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1029/2009GL038261

Temporal variability in dissolved phosphorus concentrations in the subtropical North Pacific Ocean
journal, February 1997


The biogeochemical cycle of iron in the ocean
journal, September 2010

  • Boyd, P. W.; Ellwood, M. J.
  • Nature Geoscience, Vol. 3, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1038/ngeo964

Iron availability, cellular iron quotas, and nitrogen fixation in Trichodesmium
journal, August 2001

  • Berman-Frank, Ilana; Cullen, Jay T.; Shaked, Yeala
  • Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 46, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.4319/lo.2001.46.6.1249

Nutrient budgets in the subtropical ocean gyres dominated by lateral transport
journal, October 2016

  • Letscher, Robert T.; Primeau, François; Moore, J. Keith
  • Nature Geoscience, Vol. 9, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1038/ngeo2812

Atmospheric transport of iron and its deposition in the ocean
journal, December 1991


Ecosystem changes in the North Pacific subtropical gyre attributed to the 1991–92 El Niño
journal, January 1995

  • Karl, D. M.; Letelier, R.; Hebel, D.
  • Nature, Vol. 373, Issue 6511
  • DOI: 10.1038/373230a0

Sinking fluxes of minor and trace elements in the North Pacific Ocean measured during the VERTIGO program
journal, July 2008

  • Lamborg, C. H.; Buesseler, K. O.; Lam, P. J.
  • Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, Vol. 55, Issue 14-15
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.04.012

North Pacific Gyre Oscillation links ocean climate and ecosystem change
journal, January 2008

  • Di Lorenzo, E.; Schneider, N.; Cobb, K. M.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 35, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1029/2007GL032838

Metal quotas of plankton in the equatorial Pacific Ocean
journal, February 2011

  • Twining, Benjamin S.; Baines, Stephen B.; Bozard, James B.
  • Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, Vol. 58, Issue 3-4
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2010.08.018

Northeast Pacific iron distributions in relation to phytoplankton productivity
journal, February 1988

  • Martin, John H.; Michael Gordon, R.
  • Deep Sea Research Part A. Oceanographic Research Papers, Vol. 35, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1016/0198-0149(88)90035-0

Atmospheric processing of iron in mineral and combustion aerosols: development of an intermediate-complexity mechanism suitable for Earth system models
journal, January 2018

  • Scanza, Rachel A.; Hamilton, Douglas S.; Perez Garcia-Pando, Carlos
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 18, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-18-14175-2018

Local stratification control of marine productivity in the subtropical North Pacific
journal, January 2010

  • Dave, Apurva C.; Lozier, M. Susan
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 115, Issue C12
  • DOI: 10.1029/2010JC006507

Sensitivity of the interannual variability of mineral aerosol simulations to meteorological forcing dataset
journal, January 2017

  • Smith, Molly B.; Mahowald, Natalie M.; Albani, Samuel
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 17, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.5194/acp-17-3253-2017

The trace element geochemistry of marine biogenic particulate matter
journal, January 1984


Surface ocean-lower atmosphere interactions in the Northeast Pacific Ocean Gyre: Aerosols, iron, and the ecosystem response: AEROSOLS AND IRON IN THE NORTHEAST PACIFIC OCEAN
journal, June 2003

  • Johnson, Kenneth S.; Elrod, Virginia A.; Fitzwater, Steve E.
  • Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 17, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1029/2002GB002004

The Unique Biogeochemical Signature of the Marine Diazotroph Trichodesmium
journal, January 2012


Scale-dependent carbon:nitrogen:phosphorus seston stoichiometry in marine and freshwaters
journal, May 2008

  • Sterner, Robert W.; Andersen, Tom; Elser, James J.
  • Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 53, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.4319/lo.2008.53.3.1169

Iron, manganese, and lead at Hawaii Ocean Time-series station ALOHA: Temporal variability and an intermediate water hydrothermal plume
journal, February 2005

  • Boyle, Edward A.; Bergquist, Bridget A.; Kayser, Richard A.
  • Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 69, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.gca.2004.07.034

Processes and patterns of oceanic nutrient limitation
journal, March 2013

  • Moore, C. M.; Mills, M. M.; Arrigo, K. R.
  • Nature Geoscience, Vol. 6, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1038/ngeo1765

The elemental stoichiometry and composition of an iron-limited diatom
journal, July 2005