skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

This content will become publicly available on May 28, 2020

Title: Electron extraction efficiency study for dual-phase xenon dark matter experiments

Abstract

Dual-phase xenon detectors are widely used in dark matter direct detection experiments, and have demonstrated the highest sensitivities to a variety of dark matter interactions. However, a key component of the dual-phase detector technology—the efficiency of charge extraction from liquid xenon into gas—has not been well characterized. We report a new measurement of the electron extraction efficiency (EEE) in a small xenon detector using two monoenergetic decay features of $$^{37}\mathrm{Ar}$$. By achieving stable operation at very high voltages, we measured the EEE values at the highest extraction electric field strength reported to date. For the first time, an apparent saturation of the EEE is observed over a large range of electric field; between 7.5 and $$10.4\text{ }\text{ }\mathrm{kV}/\mathrm{cm}$$ extraction field in the liquid xenon the EEE stays stable at the level of 1% $$(\mathrm{kV}/\mathrm{cm}{)}^{{-}1}$$. In the context of electron transport models developed for xenon, we discuss how the observed saturation may help calibrate this relative EEE measurement to the absolute EEE values. In addition, we present the implications of this result not only to current and future xenon-based dark matter searches, but also to xenon-based searches for coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scatters.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [3];  [1];  [1];  [3]
  1. Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics
  2. Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  3. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25); USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation (NA-20)
OSTI Identifier:
1524736
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1518507
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-758497
Journal ID: ISSN 2470-0010; 946651
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-07NA27344; NA0000979
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review D
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 99; Journal Issue: 10; Journal ID: ISSN 2470-0010
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; 74 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS; 72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; electric field effects; electron relaxation; field emission; particle dark matter; gas-liquid interfaces; weakly interacting massive particles; electron affinity; dark matter detectors; electroluminescence

Citation Formats

Xu, J., Pereverzev, S., Lenardo, B., Kingston, J., Naim, D., Bernstein, A., Kazkaz, K., and Tripathi, M. Electron extraction efficiency study for dual-phase xenon dark matter experiments. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.99.103024.
Xu, J., Pereverzev, S., Lenardo, B., Kingston, J., Naim, D., Bernstein, A., Kazkaz, K., & Tripathi, M. Electron extraction efficiency study for dual-phase xenon dark matter experiments. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.99.103024.
Xu, J., Pereverzev, S., Lenardo, B., Kingston, J., Naim, D., Bernstein, A., Kazkaz, K., and Tripathi, M. Tue . "Electron extraction efficiency study for dual-phase xenon dark matter experiments". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.99.103024.
@article{osti_1524736,
title = {Electron extraction efficiency study for dual-phase xenon dark matter experiments},
author = {Xu, J. and Pereverzev, S. and Lenardo, B. and Kingston, J. and Naim, D. and Bernstein, A. and Kazkaz, K. and Tripathi, M.},
abstractNote = {Dual-phase xenon detectors are widely used in dark matter direct detection experiments, and have demonstrated the highest sensitivities to a variety of dark matter interactions. However, a key component of the dual-phase detector technology—the efficiency of charge extraction from liquid xenon into gas—has not been well characterized. We report a new measurement of the electron extraction efficiency (EEE) in a small xenon detector using two monoenergetic decay features of $^{37}\mathrm{Ar}$. By achieving stable operation at very high voltages, we measured the EEE values at the highest extraction electric field strength reported to date. For the first time, an apparent saturation of the EEE is observed over a large range of electric field; between 7.5 and $10.4\text{ }\text{ }\mathrm{kV}/\mathrm{cm}$ extraction field in the liquid xenon the EEE stays stable at the level of 1% $(\mathrm{kV}/\mathrm{cm}{)}^{{-}1}$. In the context of electron transport models developed for xenon, we discuss how the observed saturation may help calibrate this relative EEE measurement to the absolute EEE values. In addition, we present the implications of this result not only to current and future xenon-based dark matter searches, but also to xenon-based searches for coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scatters.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.99.103024},
journal = {Physical Review D},
number = 10,
volume = 99,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {5}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
This content will become publicly available on May 28, 2020
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 1 work
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Dark Matter Search Results from a One Ton-Year Exposure of XENON1T
journal, September 2018


Results from a Search for Dark Matter in the Complete LUX Exposure
journal, January 2017


PandaX-II constraints on spin-dependent WIMP-nucleon effective interactions
journal, May 2019


Exclusion of leptophilic dark matter models using XENON100 electronic recoil data
journal, August 2015


Search for annual and diurnal rate modulations in the LUX experiment
journal, September 2018


Two-phase emission detector for measuring coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering
journal, October 2004


Emission detectors
journal, January 1995

  • Bolozdynya, A.; Egorov, V.; Rodionov, B.
  • IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, Vol. 42, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1109/23.467913

Double phase (liquid/gas) xenon scintillation detector for WIMPs direct search
journal, October 2003


Signal yields of keV electronic recoils and their discrimination from nuclear recoils in liquid xenon
journal, May 2018


Absolute Scintillation Yields in Liquid Argon and Xenon for Various Particles
journal, March 2002

  • Doke, Tadayoshi; Hitachi, Akira; Kikuchi, Jun
  • Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 41, Issue Part 1, No. 3A
  • DOI: 10.1143/JJAP.41.1538

A Global Analysis of Light and Charge Yields in Liquid Xenon
journal, December 2015

  • Lenardo, Brian; Kazkaz, Kareem; Manalaysay, Aaron
  • IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, Vol. 62, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1109/TNS.2015.2481322

Search for Light Dark Matter in XENON10 Data
journal, July 2011


First Direct Detection Limits on Sub-GeV Dark Matter from XENON10
journal, July 2012


New constraints and prospects for sub-GeV dark matter scattering off electrons in xenon
journal, August 2017


Observation and applications of single-electron charge signals in the XENON100 experiment
journal, February 2014


Extraction efficiency of drifting electrons in a two-phase xenon time projection chamber
journal, January 2018


Single electron emission in two-phase xenon with application to the detection of coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering
journal, December 2011

  • Santos, E.; Edwards, B.; Chepel, V.
  • Journal of High Energy Physics, Vol. 2011, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1007/JHEP12(2011)115

Two distinct components of the delayed single electron noise in liquid xenon emission detectors
journal, February 2018


The density dependence of the quasi-free electron state in fluid xenon and krypton
journal, August 1982


Charge Transport in Solid and Liquid Ar, Kr, and Xe
journal, February 1968


Measurement of the drift velocity and transverse diffusion of electrons in liquid xenon with the EXO-200 detector
journal, February 2017


Momentum-Transfer Cross Sections for Slow Electrons in He, Ar, Kr, and Xe from Transport Coefficients
journal, December 1964


Theory of Hot Electrons in Gases, Liquids, and Solids
journal, June 1967


Hot electrons in non-polar liquids
journal, November 1981


Heating and diffusion of hot electrons in non-polar liquids
journal, February 1985


Ab initio electron scattering cross-sections and transport in liquid xenon
journal, August 2016


Excitonic luminescence in the drift of excess electrons through liquid and solid rare gases
journal, September 2001

  • Gordon, E. B.; Shestakov, A. F.
  • Low Temperature Physics, Vol. 27, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1414582

Observation of anticorrelation between scintillation and ionization for MeV gamma rays in liquid xenon
journal, July 2007


Calibration, event reconstruction, data analysis, and limit calculation for the LUX dark matter experiment
journal, May 2018


The XENON1T dark matter experiment
journal, December 2017


Calibration of a two-phase xenon time projection chamber with a 37 Ar source
journal, August 2017


Experimental study of ionization yield of liquid xenon for electron recoils in the energy range 2.8–80 keV
journal, November 2014


First demonstration of a sub-keV electron recoil energy threshold in a liquid argon ionization chamber
journal, November 2013

  • Sangiorgio, S.; Joshi, T. H.; Bernstein, A.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 728
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2013.06.061

L K -Capture Ratio and E L E K for Ar 37
journal, December 1960


Secondary scintillation yield in pure xenon
journal, May 2007


MiX: a position sensitive dual-phase liquid xenon detector
journal, October 2015


Low-energy ( < 10 keV ) electron ionization and recombination model for a liquid argon detector
journal, January 2015

  • Foxe, M.; Hagmann, C.; Jovanovic, I.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 771
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2014.10.055

Low-Mass Dark Matter Search with the DarkSide-50 Experiment
journal, August 2018


Observation of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering
journal, August 2017


Approximating the nonlinear density dependence of electron transport coefficients and scattering rates across the gas–liquid interface
journal, February 2018

  • Garland, N. A.; Boyle, G. J.; Cocks, D. G.
  • Plasma Sources Science and Technology, Vol. 27, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/1361-6595/aaaa0c

Observation of excimer luminescence from electron-excited liquid xenon
journal, October 2000

  • Schüssler, A. S.; Burghorn, J.; Wyder, P.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 77, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1320870