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Title: Inertially confined fusion plasmas dominated by alpha-particle self-heating [Alpha-particle self-heating dominated inertially confined fusion plasmas]

Abstract

Alpha-particle self-heating, the process of deuterium–tritium fusion reaction products depositing their kinetic energy locally within a fusion reaction region and thus increasing the temperature in the reacting region, is essential for achieving ignition in a fusion system. Here, we report new inertial confinement fusion experiments where the alpha-particle heating of the plasma is dominant with the fusion yield produced exceeding the fusion yield from the work done on the fuel (pressure times volume change) by a factor of two or more. These experiments have achieved the highest yield (26 ± 0.5 kJ) and stagnation pressures ( ≍ 220 ± 40 Gbar) of any facility-based inertial confinement fusion experiments, although they are still short of the pressures required for ignition on the National Ignition Facility (~300–400 Gbar). Finally, these experiments put us in a new part of parameter space that has not been extensively studied so far because it lies between the no-alpha-particle-deposition regime and ignition.

Authors:
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  1. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  2. Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics
  3. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  4. General Atomics, La Jolla, CA (United States)
  5. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1524708
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-668412
Journal ID: ISSN 1745-2473; 790148
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-07NA27344
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 12; Journal Issue: 8; Journal ID: ISSN 1745-2473
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY

Citation Formats

Hurricane, O.  A., Callahan, D.  A., Casey, D.  T., Dewald, E.  L., Dittrich, T.  R., Döppner, T., Haan, S., Hinkel, D.  E., Berzak Hopkins, L.  F., Jones, O., Kritcher, A.  L., Le Pape, S., Ma, T., MacPhee, A.  G., Milovich, J.  L., Moody, J., Pak, A., Park, H. -S., Patel, P.  K., Ralph, J.  E., Robey, H.  F., Ross, J.  S., Salmonson, J.  D., Spears, B.  K., Springer, P.  T., Tommasini, R., Albert, F., Benedetti, L.  R., Bionta, R., Bond, E., Bradley, D.  K., Caggiano, J., Celliers, P.  M., Cerjan, C., Church, J.  A., Dylla-Spears, R., Edgell, D., Edwards, M.  J., Fittinghoff, D., Barrios Garcia, M.  A., Hamza, A., Hatarik, R., Herrmann, H., Hohenberger, M., Hoover, D., Kline, J.  L., Kyrala, G., Kozioziemski, B., Grim, G., Field, J.  E., Frenje, J., Izumi, N., Gatu Johnson, M., Khan, S.  F., Knauer, J., Kohut, T., Landen, O., Merrill, F., Michel, P., Moore, A., Nagel, S.  R., Nikroo, A., Parham, T., Rygg, R.  R., Sayre, D., Schneider, M., Shaughnessy, D., Strozzi, D., Town, R.  P.  J., Turnbull, D., Volegov, P., Wan, A., Widmann, K., Wilde, C., and Yeamans, C. Inertially confined fusion plasmas dominated by alpha-particle self-heating [Alpha-particle self-heating dominated inertially confined fusion plasmas]. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1038/NPHYS3720.
Hurricane, O.  A., Callahan, D.  A., Casey, D.  T., Dewald, E.  L., Dittrich, T.  R., Döppner, T., Haan, S., Hinkel, D.  E., Berzak Hopkins, L.  F., Jones, O., Kritcher, A.  L., Le Pape, S., Ma, T., MacPhee, A.  G., Milovich, J.  L., Moody, J., Pak, A., Park, H. -S., Patel, P.  K., Ralph, J.  E., Robey, H.  F., Ross, J.  S., Salmonson, J.  D., Spears, B.  K., Springer, P.  T., Tommasini, R., Albert, F., Benedetti, L.  R., Bionta, R., Bond, E., Bradley, D.  K., Caggiano, J., Celliers, P.  M., Cerjan, C., Church, J.  A., Dylla-Spears, R., Edgell, D., Edwards, M.  J., Fittinghoff, D., Barrios Garcia, M.  A., Hamza, A., Hatarik, R., Herrmann, H., Hohenberger, M., Hoover, D., Kline, J.  L., Kyrala, G., Kozioziemski, B., Grim, G., Field, J.  E., Frenje, J., Izumi, N., Gatu Johnson, M., Khan, S.  F., Knauer, J., Kohut, T., Landen, O., Merrill, F., Michel, P., Moore, A., Nagel, S.  R., Nikroo, A., Parham, T., Rygg, R.  R., Sayre, D., Schneider, M., Shaughnessy, D., Strozzi, D., Town, R.  P.  J., Turnbull, D., Volegov, P., Wan, A., Widmann, K., Wilde, C., & Yeamans, C. Inertially confined fusion plasmas dominated by alpha-particle self-heating [Alpha-particle self-heating dominated inertially confined fusion plasmas]. United States. doi:10.1038/NPHYS3720.
Hurricane, O.  A., Callahan, D.  A., Casey, D.  T., Dewald, E.  L., Dittrich, T.  R., Döppner, T., Haan, S., Hinkel, D.  E., Berzak Hopkins, L.  F., Jones, O., Kritcher, A.  L., Le Pape, S., Ma, T., MacPhee, A.  G., Milovich, J.  L., Moody, J., Pak, A., Park, H. -S., Patel, P.  K., Ralph, J.  E., Robey, H.  F., Ross, J.  S., Salmonson, J.  D., Spears, B.  K., Springer, P.  T., Tommasini, R., Albert, F., Benedetti, L.  R., Bionta, R., Bond, E., Bradley, D.  K., Caggiano, J., Celliers, P.  M., Cerjan, C., Church, J.  A., Dylla-Spears, R., Edgell, D., Edwards, M.  J., Fittinghoff, D., Barrios Garcia, M.  A., Hamza, A., Hatarik, R., Herrmann, H., Hohenberger, M., Hoover, D., Kline, J.  L., Kyrala, G., Kozioziemski, B., Grim, G., Field, J.  E., Frenje, J., Izumi, N., Gatu Johnson, M., Khan, S.  F., Knauer, J., Kohut, T., Landen, O., Merrill, F., Michel, P., Moore, A., Nagel, S.  R., Nikroo, A., Parham, T., Rygg, R.  R., Sayre, D., Schneider, M., Shaughnessy, D., Strozzi, D., Town, R.  P.  J., Turnbull, D., Volegov, P., Wan, A., Widmann, K., Wilde, C., and Yeamans, C. Mon . "Inertially confined fusion plasmas dominated by alpha-particle self-heating [Alpha-particle self-heating dominated inertially confined fusion plasmas]". United States. doi:10.1038/NPHYS3720. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1524708.
@article{osti_1524708,
title = {Inertially confined fusion plasmas dominated by alpha-particle self-heating [Alpha-particle self-heating dominated inertially confined fusion plasmas]},
author = {Hurricane, O.  A. and Callahan, D.  A. and Casey, D.  T. and Dewald, E.  L. and Dittrich, T.  R. and Döppner, T. and Haan, S. and Hinkel, D.  E. and Berzak Hopkins, L.  F. and Jones, O. and Kritcher, A.  L. and Le Pape, S. and Ma, T. and MacPhee, A.  G. and Milovich, J.  L. and Moody, J. and Pak, A. and Park, H. -S. and Patel, P.  K. and Ralph, J.  E. and Robey, H.  F. and Ross, J.  S. and Salmonson, J.  D. and Spears, B.  K. and Springer, P.  T. and Tommasini, R. and Albert, F. and Benedetti, L.  R. and Bionta, R. and Bond, E. and Bradley, D.  K. and Caggiano, J. and Celliers, P.  M. and Cerjan, C. and Church, J.  A. and Dylla-Spears, R. and Edgell, D. and Edwards, M.  J. and Fittinghoff, D. and Barrios Garcia, M.  A. and Hamza, A. and Hatarik, R. and Herrmann, H. and Hohenberger, M. and Hoover, D. and Kline, J.  L. and Kyrala, G. and Kozioziemski, B. and Grim, G. and Field, J.  E. and Frenje, J. and Izumi, N. and Gatu Johnson, M. and Khan, S.  F. and Knauer, J. and Kohut, T. and Landen, O. and Merrill, F. and Michel, P. and Moore, A. and Nagel, S.  R. and Nikroo, A. and Parham, T. and Rygg, R.  R. and Sayre, D. and Schneider, M. and Shaughnessy, D. and Strozzi, D. and Town, R.  P.  J. and Turnbull, D. and Volegov, P. and Wan, A. and Widmann, K. and Wilde, C. and Yeamans, C.},
abstractNote = {Alpha-particle self-heating, the process of deuterium–tritium fusion reaction products depositing their kinetic energy locally within a fusion reaction region and thus increasing the temperature in the reacting region, is essential for achieving ignition in a fusion system. Here, we report new inertial confinement fusion experiments where the alpha-particle heating of the plasma is dominant with the fusion yield produced exceeding the fusion yield from the work done on the fuel (pressure times volume change) by a factor of two or more. These experiments have achieved the highest yield (26 ± 0.5 kJ) and stagnation pressures ( ≍ 220 ± 40 Gbar) of any facility-based inertial confinement fusion experiments, although they are still short of the pressures required for ignition on the National Ignition Facility (~300–400 Gbar). Finally, these experiments put us in a new part of parameter space that has not been extensively studied so far because it lies between the no-alpha-particle-deposition regime and ignition.},
doi = {10.1038/NPHYS3720},
journal = {Nature Physics},
number = 8,
volume = 12,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {4}
}

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Figures / Tables:

Table 1 Table 1: Table of input and derived yield amplification metrics. Column 2 is laser energy absorbed (incident-backscatter) by the hohlraum (typically 10-15% of this is absorbed by the imploding capsule). The ablator mass (Column 3), mabl, is generally reduced to 5-10% of this value at peak implosion velocity. Column 4more » is the deuterium-tritium fuel mass loaded into the capsule. Column 5 shows the α-heating yield increase determined from the dynamic model (dm) while column 6 shows the same quantity calculated using the method of references.« less

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    • Zylstra, A. B.; Hurricane, O. A.
    • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 26, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.5101074

    Effects of thermal conductivity of liquid layer in NIF wetted foam experiments
    journal, September 2019

    • Dhakal, Tilak R.; Haines, Brian M.; Olson, Richard E.
    • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 26, Issue 9
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.5112768

    Three-dimensional simulations of turbulent mixing in spherical implosions
    journal, November 2019

    • El Rafei, M.; Flaig, M.; Youngs, D. L.
    • Physics of Fluids, Vol. 31, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.5113640

    Maintaining low-mode symmetry control with extended pulse shapes for lower-adiabat Bigfoot implosions on the National Ignition Facility
    journal, November 2019

    • Hohenberger, M.; Casey, D. T.; Thomas, C. A.
    • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 26, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.5121435

    Indirect drive ignition at the National Ignition Facility
    journal, October 2016


    Ultrafast dynamics of strongly correlated fermions—nonequilibrium Green functions and selfenergy approximations
    journal, December 2019

    • Schlünzen, N.; Hermanns, S.; Scharnke, M.
    • Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, Vol. 32, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1088/1361-648x/ab2d32

    Beyond alpha-heating: driving inertially confined fusion implosions toward a burning-plasma state on the National Ignition Facility
    journal, November 2018

    • Hurricane, O. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Springer, P. T.
    • Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, Vol. 61, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1088/1361-6587/aaed71

    Preliminary experiments on hohlraum-driven double-shell implosion at the ShenGuang-III laser facility
    journal, June 2018


    Burn regimes in the hydrodynamic scaling of perturbed inertial confinement fusion hotspots
    journal, June 2019


    Energy transfer between lasers in low-gas-fill-density hohlraums
    journal, November 2018


    Dynamics of supernova bounce in laboratory
    journal, March 2019


    Ab initio Exchange-Correlation Free Energy of the Uniform Electron Gas at Warm Dense Matter Conditions
    journal, September 2017


    Fusion Energy Output Greater than the Kinetic Energy of an Imploding Shell at the National Ignition Facility
    journal, June 2018


    Thermal Temperature Measurements of Inertial Fusion Implosions
    journal, August 2018


    Development of the real-time neutron activation diagnostic system for NIF
    conference, September 2017

    • Root, Jaben; Jedlovec, Donald R.; Edwards, Ellen R.
    • Target Diagnostics Physics and Engineering for Inertial Confinement Fusion VI
    • DOI: 10.1117/12.2274343

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