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Title: Observation and characterization of a cosmic muon neutrino flux from the Northern Hemisphere using six years of IceCube Data

Abstract

The IceCube Collaboration has previously discovered a high-energy astrophysical neutrino flux using neutrino events with interaction vertices contained within the instrumented volume of the IceCube detector. We present a complementary measurement using charged current muon neutrino events where the interaction vertex can be outside this volume. As a consequence of the large muon range the effective area is significantly larger but the field of view is restricted to the Northern Hemisphere. IceCube data from 2009 through 2015 have been analyzed using a likelihood approach based on the reconstructed muon energy and zenith angle. At the highest neutrino energies between $$194\,\mathrm{TeV}$$ and $$7.8\,\mathrm{PeV}$$ a significant astrophysical contribution is observed, excluding a purely atmospheric origin of these events at $$5.6\sigma $$ significance. The data are well described by an isotropic, unbroken power-law flux with a normalization at $$100\,\mathrm{TeV}$$ neutrino energy of $$({0.90}_{-0.27}^{+0.30})\times {10}^{-18}\,{\mathrm{GeV}}^{-1}\,{\mathrm{cm}}^{-2}\,{{\rm{s}}}^{-1}\,{\mathrm{sr}}^{-1}$$ and a hard spectral index of $$\gamma =2.13\pm 0.13$$. The observed spectrum is harder in comparison to previous IceCube analyses with lower energy thresholds which may indicate a break in the astrophysical neutrino spectrum of unknown origin. The highest-energy event observed has a reconstructed muon energy of $$(4.5\pm 1.2)\,\mathrm{PeV}$$ which implies a probability of less than $$0.005 \% $$ for this event to be of atmospheric origin. Analyzing the arrival directions of all events with reconstructed muon energies above $$200\,\mathrm{TeV}$$ no correlation with known γ-ray sources was found. Using the high statistics of atmospheric neutrinos we report the current best constraints on a prompt atmospheric muon neutrino flux originating from charmed meson decays which is below 1.06 in units of the flux normalization of the model in Enberg et al.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5]; ORCiD logo [6];  [7];  [8];  [9];  [10];  [11];  [12];  [13];  [14];  [15];  [14];  [16];  [17];  [18];  [19] more »;  [20];  [21];  [22];  [23];  [24];  [25];  [3];  [26];  [27];  [28];  [22];  [15];  [25];  [3];  [7];  [29];  [21];  [30];  [31];  [32];  [6];  [33];  [3];  [32];  [34];  [33];  [25];  [35]; ORCiD logo [34];  [36];  [37];  [38];  [14];  [14];  [39];  [23];  [40];  [41];  [33];  [31];  [42];  [43]; ORCiD logo [35];  [33]; ORCiD logo [33];  [44];  [41];  [35];  [31];  [30];  [45];  [46];  [31];  [31];  [47];  [46];  [48]; ORCiD logo [42];  [35];  [49];  [35];  [25];  [19];  [7];  [7];  [31];  [3];  [25];  [29];  [42]; ORCiD logo [50];  [28];  [35];  [51];  [35];  [15]; ORCiD logo [3];  [52];  [33];  [42];  [51];  [35];  [15];  [43];  [32];  [35];  [53];  [15];  [15];  [35];  [44];  [5];  [54];  [25];  [54];  [41];  [1];  [25];  [54];  [2];  [55];  [46];  [2];  [7];  [30];  [56];  [3];  [57];  [30];  [35];  [14];  [2];  [37];  [58];  [35]; ORCiD logo [8];  [35];  [46];  [35];  [15];  [35];  [30];  [3];  [59];  [8];  [28];  [60];  [61];  [62];  [15];  [18];  [51];  [54];  [53];  [3];  [2];  [47];  [13];  [35];  [33];  [3];  [63];  [56];  [43];  [46];  [53];  [54];  [41];  [59];  [15];  [15];  [56];  [64];  [65];  [66];  [41];  [35];  [47];  [67];  [56];  [25];  [35];  [68];  [53];  [69];  [43];  [69];  [35];  [5];  [28];  [3];  [34];  [14];  [3];  [54];  [41];  [59];  [51];  [52];  [54];  [25];  [5];  [70];  [42];  [46];  [31];  [15];  [70];  [32];  [69];  [5];  [19];  [52];  [46];  [5];  [15];  [53];  [71];  [15];  [63];  [56];  [2];  [69];  [63];  [51];  [1];  [15];  [30];  [69];  [43];  [41];  [35];  [51];  [69];  [31]; ORCiD logo [72];  [3];  [15];  [69];  [25]; ORCiD logo [15];  [47];  [15];  [42];  [65];  [54];  [25];  [65];  [3];  [15];  [42];  [3];  [31];  [52];  [52];  [3];  [32];  [3];  [25]; ORCiD logo [73];  [32];  [74];  [28];  [47];  [75];  [3];  [46];  [42];  [70];  [35];  [33];  [35];  [76];  [2];  [32];  [3];  [35];  [33];  [43];  [35];  [3];  [2];  [15];  [77];  [43];  [7];  [1];  [15];  [35];  [51];  [46];  [35]; ORCiD logo [35];  [1];  [15];  [31];  [15];  [35];  [70];  [63]; ORCiD logo [7];  [51];  [51];  [19];  [35];  [49];  [59];  [3];  [17];  [78];  [7] « less
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  6. Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center
  7. Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Oskar Klein Centre and Dept. of Physics
  8. Friedrich-Alexander-Univ. Erlangen-Nurnberg, Erlangen (Germany). Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics
  9. Marquette Univ., Milwaukee, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics
  10. Pennsylvanie State Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Physics
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  56. Chiba Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics and Inst. for Global Prominent Research
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  59. Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
  60. Univ. de Mons (Belgium)
  61. Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Bartol Research Inst. and Dept. of Physics
  62. Humboldt Univ. of Berlin (Germany). Inst. fur Physik
  63. Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics
  64. Vrije Univ. Brussel, Brussels (Germany)
  65. Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics
  66. Vrije Univ. Brussel, Brussles (Belgium)
  67. Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Physics
  68. Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, Brussles (Belgium)
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
Contributing Org.:
Icecube Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1524218
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 833; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
astroparticle physics; methods: data analysis; neutrinos

Citation Formats

Aartsen, M. G., Abraham, K., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., Aguilar, J. A., Ahlers, M., Ahrens, M., Altmann, D., Andeen, K., Anderson, T., Ansseau, I., Anton, G., Archinger, M., Argüelles, C., Auffenberg, J., Axani, S., Bai, X., Barwick, S. W., Baum, V., Bay, R., Beatty, J. J., Tjus, J. Becker, Becker, K. -H., BenZvi, S., Berghaus, P., Berley, D., Bernardini, E., Bernhard, A., Besson, D. Z., Binder, G., Bindig, D., Bissok, M., Blaufuss, E., Blot, S., Bohm, C., Börner, M., Bos, F., Bose, D., Böser, S., Botner, O., Braun, J., Brayeur, L., Bretz, H. -P., Burgman, A., Carver, T., Casier, M., Cheung, E., Chirkin, D., Christov, A., Clark, K., Classen, L., Coenders, S., Collin, G. H., Conrad, J. M., Cowen, D. F., Cross, R., Day, M., André, J. P. A. M. de, Clercq, C. De, Rosendo, E. del Pino, Dembinski, H., Ridder, S. De, Desiati, P., Vries, K. D. de, Wasseige, G. de, With, M. de, DeYoung, T., Díaz-Vélez, J. C., Lorenzo, V. di, Dujmovic, H., Dumm, J. P., Dunkman, M., Eberhardt, B., Ehrhardt, T., Eichmann, B., Eller, P., Euler, S., Evenson, P. A., Fahey, S., Fazely, A. R., Feintzeig, J., Felde, J., Filimonov, K., Finley, C., Flis, S., Fösig, C. -C., Franckowiak, A., Friedman, E., Fuchs, T., Gaisser, T. K., Gallagher, J., Gerhardt, L., Ghorbani, K., Giang, W., Gladstone, L., Glagla, M., Glüsenkamp, T., Goldschmidt, A., Golup, G., Gonzalez, J. G., Grant, D., Griffith, Z., Haack, C., Ismail, A. Haj, Hallgren, A., Halzen, F., Hansen, E., Hansmann, B., Hansmann, T., Hanson, K., Hebecker, D., Heereman, D., Helbing, K., Hellauer, R., Hickford, S., Hignight, J., Hill, G. C., Hoffman, K. D., Hoffmann, R., Holzapfel, K., Hoshina, K., Huang, F., Huber, M., Hultqvist, K., In, S., Ishihara, A., Jacobi, E., Japaridze, G. S., Jeong, M., Jero, K., Jones, B. J. P., Jurkovic, M., Kappes, A., Karg, T., Karle, A., Katz, U., Kauer, M., Keivani, A., Kelley, J. L., Kemp, J., Kheirandish, A., Kim, M., Kintscher, T., Kiryluk, J., Kittler, T., Klein, S. R., Kohnen, G., Koirala, R., Kolanoski, H., Konietz, R., Köpke, L., Kopper, C., Kopper, S., Koskinen, D. J., Kowalski, M., Krings, K., Kroll, M., Krückl, G., Krüger, C., Kunnen, J., Kunwar, S., Kurahashi, N., Kuwabara, T., Labare, M., Lanfranchi, J. L., Larson, M. J., Lauber, F., Lennarz, D., Lesiak-Bzdak, M., Leuermann, M., Leuner, J., Lu, L., Lünemann, J., Madsen, J., Maggi, G., Mahn, K. B. M., Mancina, S., Mandelartz, M., Maruyama, R., Mase, K., Maunu, R., McNally, F., Meagher, K., Medici, M., Meier, M., Meli, A., Menne, T., Merino, G., Meures, T., Miarecki, S., Mohrmann, L., Montaruli, T., Moulai, M., Nahnhauer, R., Naumann, U., Neer, G., Niederhausen, H., Nowicki, S. C., Nygren, D. R., Pollmann, A. Obertacke, Olivas, A., O’Murchadha, A., Palczewski, T., Pandya, H., Pankova, D. V., Peiffer, P., Penek, Ö., Pepper, J. A., Heros, C. Pérez de los, Pieloth, D., Pinat, E., Price, P. B., Przybylski, G. T., Quinnan, M., Raab, C., Rädel, L., Rameez, M., Rawlins, K., Reimann, R., Relethford, B., Relich, M., Resconi, E., Rhode, W., Richman, M., Riedel, B., Robertson, S., Rongen, M., Rott, C., Ruhe, T., Ryckbosch, D., Rysewyk, D., Sabbatini, L., Herrera, S. E. Sanchez, Sandrock, A., Sandroos, J., Sarkar, S., Satalecka, K., Schimp, M., Schlunder, P., Schmidt, T., Schoenen, S., Schöneberg, S., Schumacher, L., Seckel, D., Seunarine, S., Soldin, D., Song, M., Spiczak, G. M., Spiering, C., Stahlberg, M., Stanev, T., Stasik, A., Steuer, A., Stezelberger, T., Stokstad, R. G., Stößl, A., Ström, R., Strotjohann, N. L., Sullivan, G. W., Sutherland, M., Taavola, H., Taboada, I., Tatar, J., Tenholt, F., Ter-Antonyan, S., Terliuk, A., Tešić, G., Tilav, S., Toale, P. A., Tobin, M. N., Toscano, S., Tosi, D., Tselengidou, M., Turcati, A., Unger, E., Usner, M., Vandenbroucke, J., Eijndhoven, N. van, Vanheule, S., Rossem, M. van, Santen, J. van, Veenkamp, J., Vehring, M., Voge, M., Vraeghe, M., Walck, C., Wallace, A., Wallraff, M., Wandkowsky, N., Weaver, Ch., Weiss, M. J., Wendt, C., Westerhoff, S., Whelan, B. J., Wickmann, S., Wiebe, K., Wiebusch, C. H., Wille, L., Williams, D. R., Wills, L., Wolf, M., Wood, T. R., Woolsey, E., Woschnagg, K., Xu, D. L., Xu, X. W., Xu, Y., Yanez, J. P., Yodh, G., Yoshida, S., and Zoll, M. Observation and characterization of a cosmic muon neutrino flux from the Northern Hemisphere using six years of IceCube Data. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/833/1/3.
Aartsen, M. G., Abraham, K., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., Aguilar, J. A., Ahlers, M., Ahrens, M., Altmann, D., Andeen, K., Anderson, T., Ansseau, I., Anton, G., Archinger, M., Argüelles, C., Auffenberg, J., Axani, S., Bai, X., Barwick, S. W., Baum, V., Bay, R., Beatty, J. J., Tjus, J. Becker, Becker, K. -H., BenZvi, S., Berghaus, P., Berley, D., Bernardini, E., Bernhard, A., Besson, D. Z., Binder, G., Bindig, D., Bissok, M., Blaufuss, E., Blot, S., Bohm, C., Börner, M., Bos, F., Bose, D., Böser, S., Botner, O., Braun, J., Brayeur, L., Bretz, H. -P., Burgman, A., Carver, T., Casier, M., Cheung, E., Chirkin, D., Christov, A., Clark, K., Classen, L., Coenders, S., Collin, G. H., Conrad, J. M., Cowen, D. F., Cross, R., Day, M., André, J. P. A. M. de, Clercq, C. De, Rosendo, E. del Pino, Dembinski, H., Ridder, S. De, Desiati, P., Vries, K. D. de, Wasseige, G. de, With, M. de, DeYoung, T., Díaz-Vélez, J. C., Lorenzo, V. di, Dujmovic, H., Dumm, J. P., Dunkman, M., Eberhardt, B., Ehrhardt, T., Eichmann, B., Eller, P., Euler, S., Evenson, P. A., Fahey, S., Fazely, A. R., Feintzeig, J., Felde, J., Filimonov, K., Finley, C., Flis, S., Fösig, C. -C., Franckowiak, A., Friedman, E., Fuchs, T., Gaisser, T. K., Gallagher, J., Gerhardt, L., Ghorbani, K., Giang, W., Gladstone, L., Glagla, M., Glüsenkamp, T., Goldschmidt, A., Golup, G., Gonzalez, J. G., Grant, D., Griffith, Z., Haack, C., Ismail, A. Haj, Hallgren, A., Halzen, F., Hansen, E., Hansmann, B., Hansmann, T., Hanson, K., Hebecker, D., Heereman, D., Helbing, K., Hellauer, R., Hickford, S., Hignight, J., Hill, G. C., Hoffman, K. D., Hoffmann, R., Holzapfel, K., Hoshina, K., Huang, F., Huber, M., Hultqvist, K., In, S., Ishihara, A., Jacobi, E., Japaridze, G. S., Jeong, M., Jero, K., Jones, B. J. P., Jurkovic, M., Kappes, A., Karg, T., Karle, A., Katz, U., Kauer, M., Keivani, A., Kelley, J. L., Kemp, J., Kheirandish, A., Kim, M., Kintscher, T., Kiryluk, J., Kittler, T., Klein, S. R., Kohnen, G., Koirala, R., Kolanoski, H., Konietz, R., Köpke, L., Kopper, C., Kopper, S., Koskinen, D. J., Kowalski, M., Krings, K., Kroll, M., Krückl, G., Krüger, C., Kunnen, J., Kunwar, S., Kurahashi, N., Kuwabara, T., Labare, M., Lanfranchi, J. L., Larson, M. J., Lauber, F., Lennarz, D., Lesiak-Bzdak, M., Leuermann, M., Leuner, J., Lu, L., Lünemann, J., Madsen, J., Maggi, G., Mahn, K. B. M., Mancina, S., Mandelartz, M., Maruyama, R., Mase, K., Maunu, R., McNally, F., Meagher, K., Medici, M., Meier, M., Meli, A., Menne, T., Merino, G., Meures, T., Miarecki, S., Mohrmann, L., Montaruli, T., Moulai, M., Nahnhauer, R., Naumann, U., Neer, G., Niederhausen, H., Nowicki, S. C., Nygren, D. R., Pollmann, A. Obertacke, Olivas, A., O’Murchadha, A., Palczewski, T., Pandya, H., Pankova, D. V., Peiffer, P., Penek, Ö., Pepper, J. A., Heros, C. Pérez de los, Pieloth, D., Pinat, E., Price, P. B., Przybylski, G. T., Quinnan, M., Raab, C., Rädel, L., Rameez, M., Rawlins, K., Reimann, R., Relethford, B., Relich, M., Resconi, E., Rhode, W., Richman, M., Riedel, B., Robertson, S., Rongen, M., Rott, C., Ruhe, T., Ryckbosch, D., Rysewyk, D., Sabbatini, L., Herrera, S. E. Sanchez, Sandrock, A., Sandroos, J., Sarkar, S., Satalecka, K., Schimp, M., Schlunder, P., Schmidt, T., Schoenen, S., Schöneberg, S., Schumacher, L., Seckel, D., Seunarine, S., Soldin, D., Song, M., Spiczak, G. M., Spiering, C., Stahlberg, M., Stanev, T., Stasik, A., Steuer, A., Stezelberger, T., Stokstad, R. G., Stößl, A., Ström, R., Strotjohann, N. L., Sullivan, G. W., Sutherland, M., Taavola, H., Taboada, I., Tatar, J., Tenholt, F., Ter-Antonyan, S., Terliuk, A., Tešić, G., Tilav, S., Toale, P. A., Tobin, M. N., Toscano, S., Tosi, D., Tselengidou, M., Turcati, A., Unger, E., Usner, M., Vandenbroucke, J., Eijndhoven, N. van, Vanheule, S., Rossem, M. van, Santen, J. van, Veenkamp, J., Vehring, M., Voge, M., Vraeghe, M., Walck, C., Wallace, A., Wallraff, M., Wandkowsky, N., Weaver, Ch., Weiss, M. J., Wendt, C., Westerhoff, S., Whelan, B. J., Wickmann, S., Wiebe, K., Wiebusch, C. H., Wille, L., Williams, D. R., Wills, L., Wolf, M., Wood, T. R., Woolsey, E., Woschnagg, K., Xu, D. L., Xu, X. W., Xu, Y., Yanez, J. P., Yodh, G., Yoshida, S., & Zoll, M. Observation and characterization of a cosmic muon neutrino flux from the Northern Hemisphere using six years of IceCube Data. United States. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/833/1/3.
Aartsen, M. G., Abraham, K., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., Aguilar, J. A., Ahlers, M., Ahrens, M., Altmann, D., Andeen, K., Anderson, T., Ansseau, I., Anton, G., Archinger, M., Argüelles, C., Auffenberg, J., Axani, S., Bai, X., Barwick, S. W., Baum, V., Bay, R., Beatty, J. J., Tjus, J. Becker, Becker, K. -H., BenZvi, S., Berghaus, P., Berley, D., Bernardini, E., Bernhard, A., Besson, D. Z., Binder, G., Bindig, D., Bissok, M., Blaufuss, E., Blot, S., Bohm, C., Börner, M., Bos, F., Bose, D., Böser, S., Botner, O., Braun, J., Brayeur, L., Bretz, H. -P., Burgman, A., Carver, T., Casier, M., Cheung, E., Chirkin, D., Christov, A., Clark, K., Classen, L., Coenders, S., Collin, G. H., Conrad, J. M., Cowen, D. F., Cross, R., Day, M., André, J. P. A. M. de, Clercq, C. De, Rosendo, E. del Pino, Dembinski, H., Ridder, S. De, Desiati, P., Vries, K. D. de, Wasseige, G. de, With, M. de, DeYoung, T., Díaz-Vélez, J. C., Lorenzo, V. di, Dujmovic, H., Dumm, J. P., Dunkman, M., Eberhardt, B., Ehrhardt, T., Eichmann, B., Eller, P., Euler, S., Evenson, P. A., Fahey, S., Fazely, A. R., Feintzeig, J., Felde, J., Filimonov, K., Finley, C., Flis, S., Fösig, C. -C., Franckowiak, A., Friedman, E., Fuchs, T., Gaisser, T. K., Gallagher, J., Gerhardt, L., Ghorbani, K., Giang, W., Gladstone, L., Glagla, M., Glüsenkamp, T., Goldschmidt, A., Golup, G., Gonzalez, J. G., Grant, D., Griffith, Z., Haack, C., Ismail, A. Haj, Hallgren, A., Halzen, F., Hansen, E., Hansmann, B., Hansmann, T., Hanson, K., Hebecker, D., Heereman, D., Helbing, K., Hellauer, R., Hickford, S., Hignight, J., Hill, G. C., Hoffman, K. D., Hoffmann, R., Holzapfel, K., Hoshina, K., Huang, F., Huber, M., Hultqvist, K., In, S., Ishihara, A., Jacobi, E., Japaridze, G. S., Jeong, M., Jero, K., Jones, B. J. P., Jurkovic, M., Kappes, A., Karg, T., Karle, A., Katz, U., Kauer, M., Keivani, A., Kelley, J. L., Kemp, J., Kheirandish, A., Kim, M., Kintscher, T., Kiryluk, J., Kittler, T., Klein, S. R., Kohnen, G., Koirala, R., Kolanoski, H., Konietz, R., Köpke, L., Kopper, C., Kopper, S., Koskinen, D. J., Kowalski, M., Krings, K., Kroll, M., Krückl, G., Krüger, C., Kunnen, J., Kunwar, S., Kurahashi, N., Kuwabara, T., Labare, M., Lanfranchi, J. L., Larson, M. J., Lauber, F., Lennarz, D., Lesiak-Bzdak, M., Leuermann, M., Leuner, J., Lu, L., Lünemann, J., Madsen, J., Maggi, G., Mahn, K. B. M., Mancina, S., Mandelartz, M., Maruyama, R., Mase, K., Maunu, R., McNally, F., Meagher, K., Medici, M., Meier, M., Meli, A., Menne, T., Merino, G., Meures, T., Miarecki, S., Mohrmann, L., Montaruli, T., Moulai, M., Nahnhauer, R., Naumann, U., Neer, G., Niederhausen, H., Nowicki, S. C., Nygren, D. R., Pollmann, A. Obertacke, Olivas, A., O’Murchadha, A., Palczewski, T., Pandya, H., Pankova, D. V., Peiffer, P., Penek, Ö., Pepper, J. A., Heros, C. Pérez de los, Pieloth, D., Pinat, E., Price, P. B., Przybylski, G. T., Quinnan, M., Raab, C., Rädel, L., Rameez, M., Rawlins, K., Reimann, R., Relethford, B., Relich, M., Resconi, E., Rhode, W., Richman, M., Riedel, B., Robertson, S., Rongen, M., Rott, C., Ruhe, T., Ryckbosch, D., Rysewyk, D., Sabbatini, L., Herrera, S. E. Sanchez, Sandrock, A., Sandroos, J., Sarkar, S., Satalecka, K., Schimp, M., Schlunder, P., Schmidt, T., Schoenen, S., Schöneberg, S., Schumacher, L., Seckel, D., Seunarine, S., Soldin, D., Song, M., Spiczak, G. M., Spiering, C., Stahlberg, M., Stanev, T., Stasik, A., Steuer, A., Stezelberger, T., Stokstad, R. G., Stößl, A., Ström, R., Strotjohann, N. L., Sullivan, G. W., Sutherland, M., Taavola, H., Taboada, I., Tatar, J., Tenholt, F., Ter-Antonyan, S., Terliuk, A., Tešić, G., Tilav, S., Toale, P. A., Tobin, M. N., Toscano, S., Tosi, D., Tselengidou, M., Turcati, A., Unger, E., Usner, M., Vandenbroucke, J., Eijndhoven, N. van, Vanheule, S., Rossem, M. van, Santen, J. van, Veenkamp, J., Vehring, M., Voge, M., Vraeghe, M., Walck, C., Wallace, A., Wallraff, M., Wandkowsky, N., Weaver, Ch., Weiss, M. J., Wendt, C., Westerhoff, S., Whelan, B. J., Wickmann, S., Wiebe, K., Wiebusch, C. H., Wille, L., Williams, D. R., Wills, L., Wolf, M., Wood, T. R., Woolsey, E., Woschnagg, K., Xu, D. L., Xu, X. W., Xu, Y., Yanez, J. P., Yodh, G., Yoshida, S., and Zoll, M. Thu . "Observation and characterization of a cosmic muon neutrino flux from the Northern Hemisphere using six years of IceCube Data". United States. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/833/1/3. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1524218.
@article{osti_1524218,
title = {Observation and characterization of a cosmic muon neutrino flux from the Northern Hemisphere using six years of IceCube Data},
author = {Aartsen, M. G. and Abraham, K. and Ackermann, M. and Adams, J. and Aguilar, J. A. and Ahlers, M. and Ahrens, M. and Altmann, D. and Andeen, K. and Anderson, T. and Ansseau, I. and Anton, G. and Archinger, M. and Argüelles, C. and Auffenberg, J. and Axani, S. and Bai, X. and Barwick, S. W. and Baum, V. and Bay, R. and Beatty, J. J. and Tjus, J. Becker and Becker, K. -H. and BenZvi, S. and Berghaus, P. and Berley, D. and Bernardini, E. and Bernhard, A. and Besson, D. Z. and Binder, G. and Bindig, D. and Bissok, M. and Blaufuss, E. and Blot, S. and Bohm, C. and Börner, M. and Bos, F. and Bose, D. and Böser, S. and Botner, O. and Braun, J. and Brayeur, L. and Bretz, H. -P. and Burgman, A. and Carver, T. and Casier, M. and Cheung, E. and Chirkin, D. and Christov, A. and Clark, K. and Classen, L. and Coenders, S. and Collin, G. H. and Conrad, J. M. and Cowen, D. F. and Cross, R. and Day, M. and André, J. P. A. M. de and Clercq, C. De and Rosendo, E. del Pino and Dembinski, H. and Ridder, S. De and Desiati, P. and Vries, K. D. de and Wasseige, G. de and With, M. de and DeYoung, T. and Díaz-Vélez, J. C. and Lorenzo, V. di and Dujmovic, H. and Dumm, J. P. and Dunkman, M. and Eberhardt, B. and Ehrhardt, T. and Eichmann, B. and Eller, P. and Euler, S. and Evenson, P. A. and Fahey, S. and Fazely, A. R. and Feintzeig, J. and Felde, J. and Filimonov, K. and Finley, C. and Flis, S. and Fösig, C. -C. and Franckowiak, A. and Friedman, E. and Fuchs, T. and Gaisser, T. K. and Gallagher, J. and Gerhardt, L. and Ghorbani, K. and Giang, W. and Gladstone, L. and Glagla, M. and Glüsenkamp, T. and Goldschmidt, A. and Golup, G. and Gonzalez, J. G. and Grant, D. and Griffith, Z. and Haack, C. and Ismail, A. Haj and Hallgren, A. and Halzen, F. and Hansen, E. and Hansmann, B. and Hansmann, T. and Hanson, K. and Hebecker, D. and Heereman, D. and Helbing, K. and Hellauer, R. and Hickford, S. and Hignight, J. and Hill, G. C. and Hoffman, K. D. and Hoffmann, R. and Holzapfel, K. and Hoshina, K. and Huang, F. and Huber, M. and Hultqvist, K. and In, S. and Ishihara, A. and Jacobi, E. and Japaridze, G. S. and Jeong, M. and Jero, K. and Jones, B. J. P. and Jurkovic, M. and Kappes, A. and Karg, T. and Karle, A. and Katz, U. and Kauer, M. and Keivani, A. and Kelley, J. L. and Kemp, J. and Kheirandish, A. and Kim, M. and Kintscher, T. and Kiryluk, J. and Kittler, T. and Klein, S. R. and Kohnen, G. and Koirala, R. and Kolanoski, H. and Konietz, R. and Köpke, L. and Kopper, C. and Kopper, S. and Koskinen, D. J. and Kowalski, M. and Krings, K. and Kroll, M. and Krückl, G. and Krüger, C. and Kunnen, J. and Kunwar, S. and Kurahashi, N. and Kuwabara, T. and Labare, M. and Lanfranchi, J. L. and Larson, M. J. and Lauber, F. and Lennarz, D. and Lesiak-Bzdak, M. and Leuermann, M. and Leuner, J. and Lu, L. and Lünemann, J. and Madsen, J. and Maggi, G. and Mahn, K. B. M. and Mancina, S. and Mandelartz, M. and Maruyama, R. and Mase, K. and Maunu, R. and McNally, F. and Meagher, K. and Medici, M. and Meier, M. and Meli, A. and Menne, T. and Merino, G. and Meures, T. and Miarecki, S. and Mohrmann, L. and Montaruli, T. and Moulai, M. and Nahnhauer, R. and Naumann, U. and Neer, G. and Niederhausen, H. and Nowicki, S. C. and Nygren, D. R. and Pollmann, A. Obertacke and Olivas, A. and O’Murchadha, A. and Palczewski, T. and Pandya, H. and Pankova, D. V. and Peiffer, P. and Penek, Ö. and Pepper, J. A. and Heros, C. Pérez de los and Pieloth, D. and Pinat, E. and Price, P. B. and Przybylski, G. T. and Quinnan, M. and Raab, C. and Rädel, L. and Rameez, M. and Rawlins, K. and Reimann, R. and Relethford, B. and Relich, M. and Resconi, E. and Rhode, W. and Richman, M. and Riedel, B. and Robertson, S. and Rongen, M. and Rott, C. and Ruhe, T. and Ryckbosch, D. and Rysewyk, D. and Sabbatini, L. and Herrera, S. E. Sanchez and Sandrock, A. and Sandroos, J. and Sarkar, S. and Satalecka, K. and Schimp, M. and Schlunder, P. and Schmidt, T. and Schoenen, S. and Schöneberg, S. and Schumacher, L. and Seckel, D. and Seunarine, S. and Soldin, D. and Song, M. and Spiczak, G. M. and Spiering, C. and Stahlberg, M. and Stanev, T. and Stasik, A. and Steuer, A. and Stezelberger, T. and Stokstad, R. G. and Stößl, A. and Ström, R. and Strotjohann, N. L. and Sullivan, G. W. and Sutherland, M. and Taavola, H. and Taboada, I. and Tatar, J. and Tenholt, F. and Ter-Antonyan, S. and Terliuk, A. and Tešić, G. and Tilav, S. and Toale, P. A. and Tobin, M. N. and Toscano, S. and Tosi, D. and Tselengidou, M. and Turcati, A. and Unger, E. and Usner, M. and Vandenbroucke, J. and Eijndhoven, N. van and Vanheule, S. and Rossem, M. van and Santen, J. van and Veenkamp, J. and Vehring, M. and Voge, M. and Vraeghe, M. and Walck, C. and Wallace, A. and Wallraff, M. and Wandkowsky, N. and Weaver, Ch. and Weiss, M. J. and Wendt, C. and Westerhoff, S. and Whelan, B. J. and Wickmann, S. and Wiebe, K. and Wiebusch, C. H. and Wille, L. and Williams, D. R. and Wills, L. and Wolf, M. and Wood, T. R. and Woolsey, E. and Woschnagg, K. and Xu, D. L. and Xu, X. W. and Xu, Y. and Yanez, J. P. and Yodh, G. and Yoshida, S. and Zoll, M.},
abstractNote = {The IceCube Collaboration has previously discovered a high-energy astrophysical neutrino flux using neutrino events with interaction vertices contained within the instrumented volume of the IceCube detector. We present a complementary measurement using charged current muon neutrino events where the interaction vertex can be outside this volume. As a consequence of the large muon range the effective area is significantly larger but the field of view is restricted to the Northern Hemisphere. IceCube data from 2009 through 2015 have been analyzed using a likelihood approach based on the reconstructed muon energy and zenith angle. At the highest neutrino energies between $194\,\mathrm{TeV}$ and $7.8\,\mathrm{PeV}$ a significant astrophysical contribution is observed, excluding a purely atmospheric origin of these events at $5.6\sigma $ significance. The data are well described by an isotropic, unbroken power-law flux with a normalization at $100\,\mathrm{TeV}$ neutrino energy of $({0.90}_{-0.27}^{+0.30})\times {10}^{-18}\,{\mathrm{GeV}}^{-1}\,{\mathrm{cm}}^{-2}\,{{\rm{s}}}^{-1}\,{\mathrm{sr}}^{-1}$ and a hard spectral index of $\gamma =2.13\pm 0.13$. The observed spectrum is harder in comparison to previous IceCube analyses with lower energy thresholds which may indicate a break in the astrophysical neutrino spectrum of unknown origin. The highest-energy event observed has a reconstructed muon energy of $(4.5\pm 1.2)\,\mathrm{PeV}$ which implies a probability of less than $0.005 \% $ for this event to be of atmospheric origin. Analyzing the arrival directions of all events with reconstructed muon energies above $200\,\mathrm{TeV}$ no correlation with known γ-ray sources was found. Using the high statistics of atmospheric neutrinos we report the current best constraints on a prompt atmospheric muon neutrino flux originating from charmed meson decays which is below 1.06 in units of the flux normalization of the model in Enberg et al.},
doi = {10.3847/0004-637X/833/1/3},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
number = 1,
volume = 833,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {12}
}

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