skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: The Rapid Reddening and Featureless Optical Spectra of the Optical Counterpart of GW170817, AT 2017gfo, during the First Four Days

Abstract

We present the spectroscopic evolution of AT 2017gfo, the optical counterpart of the first binary neutron star (BNS) merger detected by LIGO and Virgo, GW170817. While models have long predicted that a BNS merger could produce a kilonova (KN), we have not been able to definitively test these models until now. From one day to four days after the merger, we took five spectra of AT 2017gfo before it faded away, which was possible because it was at a distance of only 39.5 Mpc in the galaxy NGC 4993. The spectra evolve from blue (~6400 K) to red (~3500 K) over the three days we observed. Here, the spectra are relatively featureless—some weak features exist in our latest spectrum, but they are likely due to the host galaxy. However, a simple blackbody is not sufficient to explain our data: another source of luminosity or opacity is necessary. Predictions from simulations of KNe qualitatively match the observed spectroscopic evolution after two days past the merger, but underpredict the blue flux in our earliest spectrum. From our best-fit models, we infer that AT 2017gfo had an ejecta mass of $$0.03\,{M}_{\odot }$$, high ejecta velocities of 0.3c, and a low mass fraction ~10–4 of high-opacity lanthanides and actinides. One possible explanation for the early excess of blue flux is that the outer ejecta is lanthanide-poor, while the inner ejecta has a higher abundance of high-opacity material. With the discovery and follow-up of this unique transient, combining gravitational-wave and electromagnetic astronomy, we have arrived in the multi-messenger era.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [6];  [5];  [6]; ORCiD logo [6]; ORCiD logo [6];  [7];  [8];  [9]; ORCiD logo [10];  [11];  [12]
  1. Las Cumbres Observatroy, Goleta, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics
  2. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Astronomy and Theoretical Astrophysics Center; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Nuclear Science Division
  3. Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Columbia Astrophysics Lab.
  4. American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Astrophysics; Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom). Inst. of Astronomy
  5. South African Astronomical Observatory, Cape Town (South Africa)
  6. South African Astronomical Observatory, Cape Town (South Africa); Southern African Large Telescope Foundation, Cape Town (South Africa)
  7. Swinburne Univ. of Technology, Hawthorne, VIC (Australia). Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing; The Australian Research COuncil Centre of Excellence for All-Sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO) (Australia); The Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Graviational Wave Discovery (OzGrav) (Australia)
  8. Swinburne Univ. of Technology, Hawthorne, VIC (Australia). Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing; The Australian Research COuncil Centre of excellence for Gravitaitonal Wave Discovery (OzGrav) (Australia); Australian Astronomical Observatory, North Ryde, NSW (Australia)
  9. Swinburne Univ. of Technology, Hawthorne, VIC (Australia). Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing
  10. Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Yunnan Observatories; Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Center for Astronomical Mega-Science; Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Key Lab. for the Structure and Evolution of Celestial Objects
  11. Warsaw Univ. Astronomical Observatory, Warszaw (Poland)
  12. Las Cumbres Observatory, Goleta, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1524168
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0008067; SC0017616; SC0018297; AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal. Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 848; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-8213
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; binaries: close; gamma-ray burst: individual (GRB 170817A, GRB 130603B); gravitational waves; stars: neutron; stars: winds; outflows

Citation Formats

McCully, Curtis, Hiramatsu, Daichi, Howell, D. Andrew, Hosseinzadeh, Griffin, Arcavi, Iair, Kasen, Daniel, Barnes, Jennifer, Shara, Michael M., Williams, Ted B., Väisänen, Petri, Potter, Stephen B., Romero-Colmenero, Encarni, Crawford, Steven M., Buckley, David A. H., Cooke, Jeffery, Andreoni, Igor, Pritchard, Tyler A., Mao, Jirong, Gromadzki, Mariusz, and Burke, Jamison. The Rapid Reddening and Featureless Optical Spectra of the Optical Counterpart of GW170817, AT 2017gfo, during the First Four Days. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa9111.
McCully, Curtis, Hiramatsu, Daichi, Howell, D. Andrew, Hosseinzadeh, Griffin, Arcavi, Iair, Kasen, Daniel, Barnes, Jennifer, Shara, Michael M., Williams, Ted B., Väisänen, Petri, Potter, Stephen B., Romero-Colmenero, Encarni, Crawford, Steven M., Buckley, David A. H., Cooke, Jeffery, Andreoni, Igor, Pritchard, Tyler A., Mao, Jirong, Gromadzki, Mariusz, & Burke, Jamison. The Rapid Reddening and Featureless Optical Spectra of the Optical Counterpart of GW170817, AT 2017gfo, during the First Four Days. United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa9111.
McCully, Curtis, Hiramatsu, Daichi, Howell, D. Andrew, Hosseinzadeh, Griffin, Arcavi, Iair, Kasen, Daniel, Barnes, Jennifer, Shara, Michael M., Williams, Ted B., Väisänen, Petri, Potter, Stephen B., Romero-Colmenero, Encarni, Crawford, Steven M., Buckley, David A. H., Cooke, Jeffery, Andreoni, Igor, Pritchard, Tyler A., Mao, Jirong, Gromadzki, Mariusz, and Burke, Jamison. Mon . "The Rapid Reddening and Featureless Optical Spectra of the Optical Counterpart of GW170817, AT 2017gfo, during the First Four Days". United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa9111. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1524168.
@article{osti_1524168,
title = {The Rapid Reddening and Featureless Optical Spectra of the Optical Counterpart of GW170817, AT 2017gfo, during the First Four Days},
author = {McCully, Curtis and Hiramatsu, Daichi and Howell, D. Andrew and Hosseinzadeh, Griffin and Arcavi, Iair and Kasen, Daniel and Barnes, Jennifer and Shara, Michael M. and Williams, Ted B. and Väisänen, Petri and Potter, Stephen B. and Romero-Colmenero, Encarni and Crawford, Steven M. and Buckley, David A. H. and Cooke, Jeffery and Andreoni, Igor and Pritchard, Tyler A. and Mao, Jirong and Gromadzki, Mariusz and Burke, Jamison},
abstractNote = {We present the spectroscopic evolution of AT 2017gfo, the optical counterpart of the first binary neutron star (BNS) merger detected by LIGO and Virgo, GW170817. While models have long predicted that a BNS merger could produce a kilonova (KN), we have not been able to definitively test these models until now. From one day to four days after the merger, we took five spectra of AT 2017gfo before it faded away, which was possible because it was at a distance of only 39.5 Mpc in the galaxy NGC 4993. The spectra evolve from blue (~6400 K) to red (~3500 K) over the three days we observed. Here, the spectra are relatively featureless—some weak features exist in our latest spectrum, but they are likely due to the host galaxy. However, a simple blackbody is not sufficient to explain our data: another source of luminosity or opacity is necessary. Predictions from simulations of KNe qualitatively match the observed spectroscopic evolution after two days past the merger, but underpredict the blue flux in our earliest spectrum. From our best-fit models, we infer that AT 2017gfo had an ejecta mass of $0.03\,{M}_{\odot }$, high ejecta velocities of 0.3c, and a low mass fraction ~10–4 of high-opacity lanthanides and actinides. One possible explanation for the early excess of blue flux is that the outer ejecta is lanthanide-poor, while the inner ejecta has a higher abundance of high-opacity material. With the discovery and follow-up of this unique transient, combining gravitational-wave and electromagnetic astronomy, we have arrived in the multi-messenger era.},
doi = {10.3847/2041-8213/aa9111},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal. Letters},
number = 2,
volume = 848,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {10}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 49 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Figures / Tables:

Table 1 Table 1: Spectroscopic Observation Log of the Optical Counterpart of GW170817, AT 2017gfo

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Kilonovae
journal, May 2017


r -PROCESS NUCLEOSYNTHESIS IN DYNAMICALLY EJECTED MATTER OF NEUTRON STAR MERGERS
journal, August 2011

  • Goriely, Stephane; Bauswein, Andreas; Janka, Hans-Thomas
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 738, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/738/2/L32

Advanced Virgo: a second-generation interferometric gravitational wave detector
journal, December 2014


Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network
journal, September 2013

  • Brown, T. M.; Baliber, N.; Bianco, F. B.
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 125, Issue 931
  • DOI: 10.1086/673168

Red or blue? A potential kilonova imprint of the delay until black hole formation following a neutron star merger
journal, May 2014

  • Metzger, Brian D.; Fernández, Rodrigo
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 441, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu802

OPACITIES AND SPECTRA OF THE r -PROCESS EJECTA FROM NEUTRON STAR MERGERS
journal, August 2013


The Discovery of the Electromagnetic Counterpart of GW170817: Kilonova AT 2017gfo/DLT17ck
journal, October 2017

  • Valenti, Stefano; Sand, David, J.; Yang, Sheng
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 848, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aa8edf

Gemini Spectroscopy of the Short-Hard Gamma-Ray Burst grb 130603b Afterglow and host Galaxy
journal, October 2013


Origin of the heavy elements in binary neutron-star mergers from a gravitational-wave event
journal, October 2017

  • Kasen, Daniel; Metzger, Brian; Barnes, Jennifer
  • Nature, Vol. 551, Issue 7678
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature24453

AN r -PROCESS KILONOVA ASSOCIATED WITH THE SHORT-HARD GRB 130603B
journal, August 2013


emcee : The MCMC Hammer
journal, March 2013

  • Foreman-Mackey, Daniel; Hogg, David W.; Lang, Dustin
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 125, Issue 925
  • DOI: 10.1086/670067

Completion and commissioning of the Southern African Large Telescope
conference, June 2006

  • Buckley, David A. H.; Swart, Gerhard P.; Meiring, Jacobus G.
  • SPIE Astronomical Telescopes + Instrumentation, SPIE Proceedings
  • DOI: 10.1117/12.673750

Flux calibration of medium-resolution spectra from 300 nm to 2500 nm: Model reference spectra and telluric correction
journal, August 2014


PySALT: the SALT science pipeline
conference, July 2010

  • Crawford, Steven M.; Still, Martin; Schellart, Pim
  • SPIE Astronomical Telescopes + Instrumentation, SPIE Proceedings
  • DOI: 10.1117/12.857000

Electromagnetic counterparts of compact object mergers powered by the radioactive decay of r-process nuclei: Transients from compact object mergers
journal, June 2010


Design of the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT)
conference, July 2000

  • Stobie, Robert; Meiring, Jacobus G.; Buckley, David A. H.
  • Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation, SPIE Proceedings
  • DOI: 10.1117/12.391525

Swope Supernova Survey 2017a (SSS17a), the optical counterpart to a gravitational wave source
journal, October 2017


Final Results from the Hubble Space Telescope Key Project to Measure the Hubble Constant
journal, May 2001

  • Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Gibson, Brad K.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 553, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/320638

Detectability of compact binary merger macronovae
journal, April 2017


Illuminating gravitational waves: A concordant picture of photons from a neutron star merger
journal, October 2017


Dynamical mass ejection from the merger of asymmetric binary neutron stars: Radiation-hydrodynamics study in general relativity
journal, June 2016


The relationship between infrared, optical, and ultraviolet extinction
journal, October 1989

  • Cardelli, Jason A.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Mathis, John S.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 345
  • DOI: 10.1086/167900

Astropy: A community Python package for astronomy
journal, September 2013


Prime Focus Imaging Spectrograph for the Southern African Large Telescope: optical design
conference, March 2003

  • Burgh, Eric B.; Nordsieck, Kenneth H.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.
  • Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation, SPIE Proceedings
  • DOI: 10.1117/12.460312

GW170817: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Neutron Star Inspiral
journal, October 2017


Spectroscopy of the short-hard GRB 130603B: The host galaxy and environment of a compact object merger⋆
journal, March 2014


Progenitor Models of the Electromagnetic Transient Associated with the Short Gamma ray Burst 130603b
journal, November 2013


The Macronova in GRB 050709 and the GRB-macronova connection
journal, September 2016

  • Jin, Zhi-Ping; Hotokezaka, Kenta; Li, Xiang
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 7, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms12898

Transient Events from Neutron Star Mergers
journal, November 1998

  • Li, Li-Xin; Paczyński, Bohdan
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 507, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/311680

Effect of a high Opacity on the Light Curves of Radioactively Powered Transients from Compact Object Mergers
journal, August 2013


Short-Duration Gamma-Ray Bursts
journal, August 2014


An Ordinary Short Gamma-Ray Burst with Extraordinary Implications: Fermi -GBM Detection of GRB 170817A
journal, October 2017


WISeREP—An Interactive Supernova Data Repository
journal, July 2012

  • Yaron, Ofer; Gal-Yam, Avishay
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 124, Issue 917
  • DOI: 10.1086/666656

Advanced LIGO
journal, March 2015


Grb 080503: Implications of a Naked Short Gamma-Ray Burst Dominated by Extended Emission
journal, April 2009


Radioactivity and Thermalization in the Ejecta of Compact Object Mergers and Their Impact on Kilonova Light Curves
journal, September 2016


A possible macronova in the late afterglow of the long–short burst GRB 060614
journal, June 2015

  • Yang, Bin; Jin, Zhi-Ping; Li, Xiang
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms8323

Optical emission from a kilonova following a gravitational-wave-detected neutron-star merger
journal, October 2017

  • Arcavi, Iair; Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Howell, D. Andrew
  • Nature, Vol. 551, Issue 7678
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature24291

Dynamics, nucleosynthesis, and kilonova signature of black hole—neutron star merger ejecta
journal, July 2017

  • Fernández, Rodrigo; Foucart, Francois; Kasen, Daniel
  • Classical and Quantum Gravity, Vol. 34, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1088/1361-6382/aa7a77

Kilonova light curves from the disc wind outflows of compact object mergers
journal, April 2015

  • Kasen, Daniel; Fernández, Rodrigo; Metzger, Brian D.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 450, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv721

Dynamical mass ejection from black hole-neutron star binaries
journal, August 2015


Time‐dependent Monte Carlo Radiative Transfer Calculations for Three‐dimensional Supernova Spectra, Light Curves, and Polarization
journal, November 2006

  • Kasen, Daniel; Thomas, R. C.; Nugent, P.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 651, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/506190

A ‘kilonova’ associated with the short-duration γ-ray burst GRB 130603B
journal, August 2013

  • Tanvir, N. R.; Levan, A. J.; Fruchter, A. S.
  • Nature, Vol. 500, Issue 7464
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature12505

Measuring Reddening with Sloan Digital sky Survey Stellar Spectra and Recalibrating sfd
journal, August 2011


Kilonova/Macronova Emission from Compact Binary Mergers
journal, January 2016


The X-ray counterpart to the gravitational-wave event GW170817
journal, October 2017


r-PROCESS LANTHANIDE PRODUCTION AND HEATING RATES IN KILONOVAE
journal, December 2015


The tidal disruption of neutron stars by black holes in close binaries
journal, November 1976

  • Lattimer, J. M.; Schramm, D. N.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 210
  • DOI: 10.1086/154860

Systematics of Dynamical mass Ejection, Nucleosynthesis, and Radioactively Powered Electromagnetic Signals from Neutron-Star Mergers
journal, July 2013


The first month of evolution of the slow-rising Type IIP SN 2013ej in M74
journal, December 2013

  • Valenti, S.; Sand, D.; Pastorello, A.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters, Vol. 438, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnrasl/slt171

Black-hole-neutron-star collisions
journal, September 1974

  • Lattimer, J. M.; Schramm, D. N.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 192
  • DOI: 10.1086/181612

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Gravitational waveforms from spectral Einstein code simulations: Neutron star-neutron star and low-mass black hole-neutron star binaries
    journal, February 2019


    Observable features of GW170817 kilonova afterglow
    journal, June 2019

    • Kathirgamaraju, Adithan; Giannios, Dimitrios; Beniamini, Paz
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 487, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz1564

    Observable features of GW170817 kilonova afterglow
    journal, June 2019

    • Kathirgamaraju, Adithan; Giannios, Dimitrios; Beniamini, Paz
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 487, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz1564

    Gravitational waveforms from spectral Einstein code simulations: Neutron star-neutron star and low-mass black hole-neutron star binaries
    journal, February 2019


    GW170817 --the first observed neutron star merger and its kilonova: Implications for the astrophysical site of the r-process
    journal, November 2019


    Prospects for observing and localizing gravitational-wave transients with Advanced LIGO, Advanced Virgo and KAGRA
    journal, April 2018


    Kilonovae
    journal, December 2019


    Follow Up of GW170817 and Its Electromagnetic Counterpart by Australian-Led Observing Programmes
    journal, January 2017

    • Andreoni, I.; Ackley, K.; Cooke, J.
    • Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia, Vol. 34
    • DOI: 10.1017/pasa.2017.65

    Optical emission from a kilonova following a gravitational-wave-detected neutron-star merger
    journal, October 2017

    • Arcavi, Iair; Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Howell, D. Andrew
    • Nature, Vol. 551, Issue 7678
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature24291

    Identification of strontium in the merger of two neutron stars
    journal, October 2019


    Interpreting GRB170817A as a giant flare from a jet-less double neutron star merger
    journal, November 2018


    On-axis view of GRB 170817A
    journal, July 2019


    Web application for galaxy-targeted follow-up of electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational wave sources
    journal, January 2020


    2900 Square Degree Search for the Optical Counterpart of Short Gamma-Ray Burst GRB 180523B with the Zwicky Transient Facility
    journal, February 2019

    • Coughlin, Michael W.; Ahumada, Tomás; Cenko, S. Bradley
    • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 131, Issue 998
    • DOI: 10.1088/1538-3873/aaff99

    A Strategy for LSST to Unveil a Population of Kilonovae without Gravitational-wave Triggers
    journal, May 2019

    • Andreoni, Igor; Anand, Shreya; Bianco, Federica B.
    • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 131, Issue 1000
    • DOI: 10.1088/1538-3873/ab1531

    Prospects of the local Hubble parameter measurement using gravitational waves from double neutron stars
    journal, January 2018

    • Seto, Naoki; Kyutoku, Koutarou
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 475, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty090

    Late-time evolution of afterglows from off-axis neutron star mergers
    journal, August 2018

    • Lamb, Gavin P.; Mandel, Ilya; Resmi, Lekshmi
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 481, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty2196

    The fast, luminous ultraviolet transient AT2018cow: extreme supernova, or disruption of a star by an intermediate-mass black hole?
    journal, December 2018

    • Perley, Daniel A.; Mazzali, Paolo A.; Yan, Lin
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 484, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty3420

    Implications of the radio and X-ray emission that followed GW170817
    journal, April 2018

    • Nakar, Ehud; Piran, Tsvi
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 478, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty952

    Detectability of neutron star merger afterglows
    journal, July 2019

    • Gottlieb, Ore; Nakar, Ehud; Piran, Tsvi
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 488, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz1906

    Optimizing multitelescope observations of gravitational-wave counterparts
    journal, September 2019

    • Coughlin, Michael W.; Antier, Sarah; Corre, David
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 489, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz2485

    A comparison between SALT/SAAO observations and kilonova models for AT 2017gfo: the first electromagnetic counterpart of a gravitational wave transient − GW170817
    journal, December 2017

    • Buckley, David A. H.; Andreoni, Igor; Barway, Sudhanshu
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters, Vol. 474, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnrasl/slx196

    Distinguishing the nature of comparable-mass neutron star binary systems with multimessenger observations: GW170817 case study
    journal, September 2019


    Modeling GW170817 based on numerical relativity and its implications
    journal, December 2017


    Remnant baryon mass in neutron star-black hole mergers: Predictions for binary neutron star mimickers and rapidly spinning black holes
    journal, October 2018


    Properties of the Binary Neutron Star Merger GW170817
    journal, January 2019


    A Magnetar Origin for the Kilonova Ejecta in GW170817
    journal, March 2018

    • Metzger, Brian D.; Thompson, Todd A.; Quataert, Eliot
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 856, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aab095

    Shock Acceleration of Electrons and Synchrotron Emission from the Dynamical Ejecta of Neutron Star Mergers
    journal, May 2018

    • Lee, Shiu-Hang; Maeda, Keiichi; Kawanaka, Norita
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 858, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aabaea

    Three-dimensional GRMHD Simulations of Neutrino-cooled Accretion Disks from Neutron Star Mergers
    journal, May 2018


    Is the Macronova in GW170817 Powered by the Central Engine?
    journal, July 2018

    • Matsumoto, Tatsuya; Ioka, Kunihito; Kisaka, Shota
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 861, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aac4a8

    From γ to Radio: The Electromagnetic Counterpart of GW170817
    journal, October 2018


    Scattered Short Gamma-Ray Bursts as Electromagnetic Counterparts to Gravitational Waves and Implications of GW170817 and GRB 170817A
    journal, October 2018

    • Kisaka, Shota; Ioka, Kunihito; Kashiyama, Kazumi
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 867, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aae30a

    Radioactive Gamma-Ray Emissions from Neutron Star Mergers
    journal, February 2019


    Radioactive Heating and Late Time Kilonova Light Curves
    journal, May 2019


    Optimal Search Strategy for Finding Transients in Large-sky Error Regions under Realistic Constraints
    journal, May 2019


    The Lanthanide Fraction Distribution in Metal-poor Stars: A Test of Neutron Star Mergers as the Dominant r -process Site
    journal, August 2019

    • Ji, Alexander P.; Drout, Maria R.; Hansen, Terese T.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 882, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab3291

    Line Expansion Opacity in Relativistically Expanding Media
    journal, December 2019


    Diversity of Kilonova Light Curves
    journal, February 2020

    • Kawaguchi, Kyohei; Shibata, Masaru; Tanaka, Masaomi
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 889, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab61f6

    Extended Calculations of Energy Levels and Transition Rates of Nd ii-iv Ions for Application to Neutron Star Mergers
    journal, February 2019

    • Gaigalas, Gediminas; Kato, Daiji; Rynkun, Pavel
    • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 240, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/aaf9b8

    Optical Follow-up of Gravitational-wave Events with Las Cumbres Observatory
    journal, October 2017

    • Arcavi, Iair; McCully, Curtis; Hosseinzadeh, Griffin
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 848, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aa910f

    Estimating the Contribution of Dynamical Ejecta in the Kilonova Associated with GW170817
    journal, December 2017


    Improved Constraints on H 0 from a Combined Analysis of Gravitational-wave and Electromagnetic Emission from GW170817
    journal, December 2017


    Brightening X-Ray Emission from GW170817/GRB 170817A: Further Evidence for an Outflow
    journal, January 2018

    • Ruan, John J.; Nynka, Melania; Haggard, Daryl
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 853, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aaa4f3

    Fading of the X-Ray Afterglow of Neutron Star Merger GW170817/GRB 170817A at 260 Days
    journal, July 2018

    • Nynka, Melania; Ruan, John J.; Haggard, Daryl
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 862, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aad32d

      Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.