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Title: Probing Context-Dependent Errors in Quantum Processors

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1524120
Grant/Contract Number:  
NA0003525
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Physical Review X
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Physical Review X Journal Volume: 9 Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 2160-3308
Publisher:
American Physical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Rudinger, Kenneth, Proctor, Timothy, Langharst, Dylan, Sarovar, Mohan, Young, Kevin, and Blume-Kohout, Robin. Probing Context-Dependent Errors in Quantum Processors. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevX.9.021045.
Rudinger, Kenneth, Proctor, Timothy, Langharst, Dylan, Sarovar, Mohan, Young, Kevin, & Blume-Kohout, Robin. Probing Context-Dependent Errors in Quantum Processors. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevX.9.021045.
Rudinger, Kenneth, Proctor, Timothy, Langharst, Dylan, Sarovar, Mohan, Young, Kevin, and Blume-Kohout, Robin. Mon . "Probing Context-Dependent Errors in Quantum Processors". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevX.9.021045.
@article{osti_1524120,
title = {Probing Context-Dependent Errors in Quantum Processors},
author = {Rudinger, Kenneth and Proctor, Timothy and Langharst, Dylan and Sarovar, Mohan and Young, Kevin and Blume-Kohout, Robin},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevX.9.021045},
journal = {Physical Review X},
number = 2,
volume = 9,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {6}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
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DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevX.9.021045

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Works referenced in this record:

Machine-learning-assisted correction of correlated qubit errors in a topological code
journal, January 2018


Bounding quantum gate error rate based on reported average fidelity
journal, December 2015


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line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Greenbaum, Daniel; Dutton, Zachary</span> </li> <li> Quantum Science and Technology, Vol. 3, Issue 1</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1088/2058-9565/aa9a06" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1088/2058-9565/aa9a06<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div><div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.85.052313" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Optimized pulses for the control of uncertain qubits<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2012-05-01">May 2012</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Grace, Matthew D.; Dominy, Jason M.; Witzel, Wayne M.</span> </li> <li> Physical Review A, Vol. 85, Issue 5</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.85.052313" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1103/PhysRevA.85.052313<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div></div> <div class="pagination-container small"> <a class="pure-button prev page" href="#" rel="prev"><span class="fa fa-angle-left"></span></a><ul class="pagination d-inline-block" style="padding-left:.2em;"></ul><a class="pure-button next page" href="#" rel="next"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 order-sm-3"> <ul class="nav nav-stacked"> <li class="active"><a href="" class="reference-type-filter tab-nav" data-tab="biblio-references" data-filter="type" data-pattern="*"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> All References</a></li> <li class="small" style="margin-left:.75em; 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float:none;">[ × clear filter / sort ]</a> </div> </form> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section id="biblio-related" class="tab-content tab-content-sec " data-tab="biblio"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-9 order-sm-9"> <section id="biblio-similar" class="tab-content tab-content-sec active" data-tab="related"> <div class="padding"> <p class="lead text-muted" style="font-size: 18px; margin-top:0px;">Similar records in OSTI.GOV collections:</p> <aside> <ul class="item-list" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/ItemList" style="padding-left:0; list-style-type: none;"> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="0" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/pages/biblio/1543289-python-gst-implementation-pygsti" itemprop="url">Python GST Implementation (PyGSTi) v. 0.9</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Software</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Nielsen, Erik</span> ; <span class="author">Blume-Kohout, Robin J</span> ; <span class="author">Rudinger, Kenneth M</span> ; <span class="author">...</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"></span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">PyGSTi is a Python package for modeling and characterizing noise (errors) in small quantum information processors. In addition to being a basic framework for describing quantum circuits and noise models, it implements mainstream quantum characterization, verification, and validation (QCVV) protocols such as Gate Set Tomography (GST), Randomized Benchmarking (RB), Robust Phase Estimation, and Idle Tomography. It also implements prototype protocols used for timeseries analysis and crosstalk detection, all of which have the goal of better understanding the noise found in existing as-built experimental devices. The central protocol of pyGSTi (from where it derives its name) is Gate Set Tomography. GST<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> is a theory and protocol for simultaneously estimating the state preparation, gate operations, and measurement effects of a physical system of one or many quantum bits (qubits). These estimates are based entirely on the statistics of experimental measurements, and their interpretation and analysis can provide a detailed understanding of the types of errors/imperfections in the physical system. In this way, GST provides not only a means of certifying the “goodness” of qubits but also a means of debugging (i.e. improving) them. The other protocols follow this similar pattern in that they use statistical inference and analysis of experimental data to estimate one or more properties of the noise in a device.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.11578/dc.20190722.2" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1543289" data-product-type="Software" data-product-subtype="" >10.11578/dc.20190722.2</a></span></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc fulltext-link " href="/pages/servlets/purl/1543289" title="Link to document media" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-ostiid="1543289" data-product-type="Software" data-product-subtype="" >View Software</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="1" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/pages/biblio/1421860-exchange-correlation-approximations-reduced-density-matrix-functional-theory-finite-temperature-capturing-magnetic-phase-transitions-homogeneous-electron-gas" itemprop="url">Exchange-correlation approximations for reduced-density-matrix-functional theory at finite temperature: Capturing magnetic phase transitions in the homogeneous electron gas</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Baldsiefen, Tim</span> ; <span class="author">Cangi, Attila</span> ; <span class="author">Eich, F. G.</span> ; <span class="author">...</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Physical Review A</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">Here, we derive an intrinsically temperature-dependent approximation to the correlation grand potential for many-electron systems in thermodynamical equilibrium in the context of finite-temperature reduced-density-matrix-functional theory (FT-RDMFT). We demonstrate its accuracy by calculating the magnetic phase diagram of the homogeneous electron gas. We compare it to known limits from highly accurate quantum Monte Carlo calculations as well as to phase diagrams obtained within existing exchange-correlation approximations from density functional theory and zero-temperature RDMFT.</div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <span class="fa fa-book text-muted" aria-hidden="true"></span> Cited by 2<div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.96.062508" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1421860" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >10.1103/PhysRevA.96.062508</a></span></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc fulltext-link " href="/pages/servlets/purl/1421860" title="Link to document media" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-ostiid="1421860" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >Full Text Available</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="2" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/pages/biblio/1411616-distortion-digital-image-correlation-dic-displacements-strains-from-heat-waves" itemprop="url">Distortion of Digital Image Correlation (DIC) Displacements and Strains from Heat Waves</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Jones, E. M. C.</span> ; <span class="author">Reu, P. L.</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Experimental Mechanics</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">“Heat waves” is a colloquial term used to describe convective currents in air formed when different objects in an area are at different temperatures. In the context of Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and other optical-based image processing techniques, imaging an object of interest through heat waves can significantly distort the apparent location and shape of the object. We present that there are many potential heat sources in DIC experiments, including but not limited to lights, cameras, hot ovens, and sunlight, yet error caused by heat waves is often overlooked. This paper first briefly presents three practical situations in which heat<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> waves contributed significant error to DIC measurements to motivate the investigation of heat waves in more detail. Then the theoretical background of how light is refracted through heat waves is presented, and the effects of heat waves on displacements and strains computed from DIC are characterized in detail. Finally, different filtering methods are investigated to reduce the displacement and strain errors caused by imaging through heat waves. The overarching conclusions from this work are that errors caused by heat waves are significantly higher than typical noise floors for DIC measurements, and that the errors are difficult to filter because the temporal and spatial frequencies of the errors are in the same range as those of typical signals of interest. In conclusion, eliminating or mitigating the effects of heat sources in a DIC experiment is the best solution to minimizing errors caused by heat waves.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <span class="fa fa-book text-muted" aria-hidden="true"></span> Cited by 3<div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s11340-017-0354-3" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1411616" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >10.1007/s11340-017-0354-3</a></span></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc fulltext-link " href="/pages/servlets/purl/1411616" title="Link to document media" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-ostiid="1411616" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >Full Text Available</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="3" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/pages/biblio/1544805-direct-randomized-benchmarking-multiqubit-devices" itemprop="url">Direct Randomized Benchmarking for Multiqubit Devices</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Proctor, Timothy J.</span> ; <span class="author">Carignan-Dugas, Arnaud</span> ; <span class="author">Rudinger, Kenneth</span> ; <span class="author">...</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Physical Review Letters</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">Benchmarking methods that can be adapted to multiqubit systems are essential for assessing the overall or “holistic” performance of nascent quantum processors. The current industry standard is Clifford randomized benchmarking (RB), which measures a single error rate that quantifies overall performance. But, scaling Clifford RB to many qubits is surprisingly hard. It has only been performed on one, two, and three qubits as of this writing. This reflects a fundamental inefficiency in Clifford RB: the n-qubit Clifford gates at its core have to be compiled into large circuits over the one- and two-qubit gates native to a device. As n<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> grows, the quality of these Clifford gates quickly degrades, making Clifford RB impractical at relatively low n. In this Letter, we propose a direct RB protocol that mostly avoids compiling. Instead, it uses random circuits over the native gates in a device, which are seeded by an initial layer of Clifford-like randomization. We demonstrate this protocol experimentally on two to five qubits using the publicly available ibmqx5. We believe this to be the greatest number of qubits holistically benchmarked, and this was achieved on a freely available device without any special tuning up. Our protocol retains the simplicity and convenient properties of Clifford RB: it estimates an error rate from an exponential decay. But, it can be extended to processors with more qubits—we present simulations on 10+ qubits—and it reports a more directly informative and flexible error rate than the one reported by Clifford RB. Here, we show how to use this flexibility to measure separate error rates for distinct sets of gates, and we use this method to estimate the average error rate of a set of cnot gates.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.030503" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1544805" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.030503</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="4" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/pages/biblio/22493214-quantum-mechanical-calculation-electric-fields-vibrational-stark-shifts-active-site-human-aldose-reductase" itemprop="url">Quantum mechanical calculation of electric fields and vibrational Stark shifts at active site of human aldose reductase</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Wang, Xianwei</span> ; <span class="author">State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, Institute of Theoretical and Computational Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062</span> ; <span class="author">Zhang, John Z. H.</span> ; <span class="author">...</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Journal of Chemical Physics</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">Recent advance in biophysics has made it possible to directly measure site-specific electric field at internal sites of proteins using molecular probes with C = O or C≡N groups in the context of vibrational Stark effect. These measurements directly probe changes of electric field at specific protein sites due to, e.g., mutation and are very useful in protein design. Computational simulation of the Stark effect based on force fields such as AMBER and OPLS, while providing good insight, shows large errors in comparison to experimental measurement due to inherent difficulties associated with point charge based representation of force fields. In<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> this study, quantum mechanical calculation of protein’s internal electrostatic properties and vibrational Stark shifts was carried out by using electrostatically embedded generalized molecular fractionation with conjugate caps method. Quantum calculated change of mutation-induced electric field and vibrational Stark shift is reported at the internal probing site of enzyme human aldose reductase. The quantum result is in much better agreement with experimental data than those predicted by force fields, underscoring the deficiency of traditional point charge models describing intra-protein electrostatic properties.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4935176" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="22493214" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AC" >10.1063/1.4935176</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> </ul> </aside> </div> </section> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 order-sm-3"> <ul class="nav nav-stacked"> <li class="active"><a class="tab-nav disabled" data-tab="related" style="color: #636c72 !important; opacity: 1;"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> Similar Records</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </section> </div></div> </div> </div> </section> <footer class="" style="background-color:#f9f9f9; /* padding-top: 0.5rem; */"> <div class="footer-minor"> <div class="container"> <hr class="footer-separator" /> <div class="text-center" style="margin-top:1.25rem;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal"> <ul class="pure-menu-list" id="footer-org-menu"> <li class="pure-menu-item"> <a href="https://energy.gov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"> <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAP///wAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" class="sprite sprite-footer-us-doe-min" alt="U.S. Department of Energy" /> </a> </li> <li class="pure-menu-item"> <a href="https://www.energy.gov/science/office-science" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"> <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAP///wAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" class="sprite sprite-footer-office-of-science-min" alt="Office of Science" /> </a> </li> <li class="pure-menu-item"> <a href="/"> <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAP///wAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" class="sprite sprite-footer-osti-min" alt="Office of Scientific and Technical Information" /> </a> </li> </ul> </div> </div> <div class="text-center small" style="margin-top:0.5em;margin-bottom:2.0rem;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="/disclaim" class="pure-menu-link"><span class="fa fa-institution"></span> Website Policies <span class="hidden-xs">/ Important Links</span></a></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="/pages/contact" class="pure-menu-link"><span class="fa fa-comments-o"></span> Contact Us</a></li> <li class="d-block d-md-none"></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="https://www.facebook.com/ostigov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="pure-menu-link social"><span class="fa fa-facebook" style=""></span></a></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="https://twitter.com/OSTIgov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="pure-menu-link social"><span class="fa fa-twitter" style=""></span></a></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="https://www.youtube.com/user/ostigov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="pure-menu-link social"><span class="fa fa-youtube-play" style=""></span></a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> </div> </footer> <link href="/pages/css/pages.fonts.200113.2012.css" rel="stylesheet"> <script src="/pages/js/pages.200113.2012.js"></script><noscript></noscript> <script defer src="/pages/js/pages.biblio.200113.2012.js"></script><noscript></noscript> <script defer src="/pages/js/lity.js"></script><noscript></noscript><script async type="text/javascript" src="/pages/js/Universal-Federated-Analytics-Min.js?agency=DOE" id="_fed_an_ua_tag"></script><noscript></noscript></body> <!-- DOE PAGES v.200113.2012 --> </html>