skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Effect of angular momentum alignment and strong magnetic fields on the formation of protostellar discs

Abstract

Star-forming molecular clouds are observed to be both highly magnetized and turbulent. Consequently, the formation of protostellar discs is largely dependent on the complex interaction between gravity, magnetic fields, and turbulence. Studies of non-turbulent protostellar disc formation with realistic magnetic fields have shown that these fields are efficient in removing angular momentum from the forming discs, preventing their formation. However, once turbulence is included, discs can form in even highly magnetized clouds, although the precise mechanism remains uncertain. In this work, we introduce several high-resolution simulations of turbulent, realistically magnetized, high-mass molecular clouds with both aligned and random turbulence to study the role that turbulence, misalignment, and magnetic fields have on the formation of protostellar discs. We reveal that when the turbulence is artificially aligned so that the angular momentum is parallel to the initial uniform field, no rotationally supported discs are formed, regardless of the initial turbulent energy. We conclude that turbulence and the associated misalignment between the angular momentum and the magnetic field are crucial in the formation of protostellar discs in the presence of realistic magnetic fields.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
  2. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  3. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1523824
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-07NA27344
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 473; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Publisher:
Royal Astronomical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; accretion; accretion discs; magnetic reconnection; MHD; turbulence; stars: formation

Citation Formats

Gray, William J., McKee, Christopher F., and Klein, Richard I. Effect of angular momentum alignment and strong magnetic fields on the formation of protostellar discs. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1093/mnras/stx2406.
Gray, William J., McKee, Christopher F., & Klein, Richard I. Effect of angular momentum alignment and strong magnetic fields on the formation of protostellar discs. United States. doi:10.1093/mnras/stx2406.
Gray, William J., McKee, Christopher F., and Klein, Richard I. Sat . "Effect of angular momentum alignment and strong magnetic fields on the formation of protostellar discs". United States. doi:10.1093/mnras/stx2406. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1523824.
@article{osti_1523824,
title = {Effect of angular momentum alignment and strong magnetic fields on the formation of protostellar discs},
author = {Gray, William J. and McKee, Christopher F. and Klein, Richard I.},
abstractNote = {Star-forming molecular clouds are observed to be both highly magnetized and turbulent. Consequently, the formation of protostellar discs is largely dependent on the complex interaction between gravity, magnetic fields, and turbulence. Studies of non-turbulent protostellar disc formation with realistic magnetic fields have shown that these fields are efficient in removing angular momentum from the forming discs, preventing their formation. However, once turbulence is included, discs can form in even highly magnetized clouds, although the precise mechanism remains uncertain. In this work, we introduce several high-resolution simulations of turbulent, realistically magnetized, high-mass molecular clouds with both aligned and random turbulence to study the role that turbulence, misalignment, and magnetic fields have on the formation of protostellar discs. We reveal that when the turbulence is artificially aligned so that the angular momentum is parallel to the initial uniform field, no rotationally supported discs are formed, regardless of the initial turbulent energy. We conclude that turbulence and the associated misalignment between the angular momentum and the magnetic field are crucial in the formation of protostellar discs in the presence of realistic magnetic fields.},
doi = {10.1093/mnras/stx2406},
journal = {Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
number = 2,
volume = 473,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {9}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 8 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Magnetic Fields in Interstellar Clouds from Zeeman Observations: Inference of Total Field Strengths by Bayesian Analysis
journal, November 2010


Modeling the Resolved disk Around the Class 0 Protostar L1527
journal, June 2013


Turbulent Molecular Cloud Cores: Rotational Properties
journal, November 2000

  • Burkert, Andreas; Bodenheimer, Peter
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 543, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/317122

The origin and formation of the circumstellar disc: The origin of circumstellar disc
journal, March 2011


On the role of Pseudodisk Warping and Reconnection in Protostellar disk Formation in Turbulent Magnetized Cores
journal, September 2014


Bridging the gap: disk formation in the Class 0 phase with ambipolar diffusion and Ohmic dissipation
journal, April 2012


Ambipolar diffusion in low-mass star formation: I. General comparison with the ideal magnetohydrodynamic case
journal, February 2016


Equilibria and evolutions of magnetized, rotating, isothermal clouds. II - The extreme case: Nonrotating clouds
journal, December 1988

  • Tomisaka, Kohji; Ikeuchi, Satoru; Nakamura, Takashi
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 335
  • DOI: 10.1086/166923

Massive star formation in 100,000 years from turbulent and pressurized molecular clouds
journal, March 2002

  • McKee, Christopher F.; Tan, Jonathan C.
  • Nature, Vol. 416, Issue 6876
  • DOI: 10.1038/416059a

Magnetized interstellar molecular clouds – I. Comparison between simulations and Zeeman observations
journal, July 2015

  • Li, Pak Shing; McKee, Christopher F.; Klein, Richard I.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 452, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv1437

Accretion and magnetic field morphology around Class 0 stage protostellar discs
journal, November 2014

  • Seifried, D.; Banerjee, R.; Pudritz, R. E.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 446, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu2282

THEORY OF ACCRETION DISKS II: Application to Observed Systems
journal, September 1996


Equations and Algorithms for Mixed‐frame Flux‐limited Diffusion Radiation Hydrodynamics
journal, September 2007

  • Krumholz, Mark R.; Klein, Richard I.; McKee, Christopher F.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 667, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/520791

The role of Turbulent Magnetic Reconnection in the Formation of Rotationally Supported Protostellar Disks
journal, February 2012

  • Santos-Lima, R.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.; Lazarian, A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 747, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/747/1/21

Radiation Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Protostellar Collapse: Nonideal Magnetohydrodynamic Effects and Early Formation of Circumstellar Disks
journal, March 2015


Magnetic Field Structure and Stochastic Reconnection in a Partially Ionized Gas
journal, March 2004

  • Lazarian, A.; Vishniac, Ethan T.; Cho, Jungyeon
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 603, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/381383

Protostellar disk formation and transport of angular momentum during magnetized core collapse
journal, July 2012


Outflows and mass accretion in collapsing dense cores with misaligned rotation axis and magnetic field: Outflows and mass accretion from dense cores
journal, September 2010


Radiatively Efficient Magnetized Bondi Accretion
journal, December 2011

  • Cunningham, Andrew J.; McKee, Christopher F.; Klein, Richard I.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 744, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/744/2/185

Numerical Tests of fast Reconnection in Weakly Stochastic Magnetic Fields
journal, June 2009


A Rotating disk in the hh 111 Protostellar System
journal, October 2011


A Stable, Accurate Methodology for high mach Number, Strong Magnetic Field mhd Turbulence with Adaptive mesh Refinement: Resolution and Refinement Studies
journal, January 2012


CN Zeeman measurements in star formation regions
journal, May 2008


A Keplerian Circumbinary disk Around the Protostellar System L1551 ne
journal, July 2012


The Millennium Arecibo 21 Centimeter Absorption‐Line Survey. IV. Statistics of Magnetic Field, Column Density, and Turbulence
journal, May 2005

  • Heiles, Carl; Troland, T. H.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 624, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/428896

Theory of Star Formation
journal, September 2007


The Early History of Protostellar Disks, Outflows, and Binary Stars
journal, October 2009


Metallicity and the Universality of the Initial mass Function
journal, June 2011

  • Myers, Andrew T.; Krumholz, Mark R.; Klein, Richard I.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 735, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/735/1/49

Dense Gas and Star Formation: Characteristics of Cloud Cores Associated with Water Masers
journal, February 1997

  • Plume, Rene; Jaffe, D. T.; Evans II, Neal J.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 476, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/303654

The turbulent origin of spin–orbit misalignment in planetary systems
journal, May 2015

  • Fielding, Drummond B.; McKee, Christopher F.; Socrates, Aristotle
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 450, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv836

On the internal structure of starless cores: I. Physical conditions and the distribution of CO, CS, N
journal, February 2004


The Fragmentation of Magnetized, Massive Star-Forming Cores with Radiative Feedback
journal, March 2013

  • Myers, Andrew T.; McKee, Christopher F.; Cunningham, Andrew J.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 766, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/766/2/97

Turbulence and star formation in molecular clouds
journal, April 1981


Does Magnetic-Field-Rotation Misalignment Solve the Magnetic Braking Catastrophe in Protostellar disk Formation?
journal, August 2013


The formation of Population III stars in gas accretion stage: effects of magnetic fields
journal, September 2013

  • Machida, Masahiro N.; Doi, Kentaro
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 435, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt1524

Circumstellar Disks and Outflows in Turbulent Molecular Cloud Cores: Possible Formation Mechanism for Misaligned Systems
journal, April 2017

  • Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Machida, Masahiro N.; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 839, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aa6a1c

Can non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics solve the magnetic braking catastrophe?
journal, January 2016

  • Wurster, James; Price, Daniel J.; Bate, Matthew R.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 457, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw013

The star Formation rate of Turbulent Magnetized Clouds: Comparing Theory, Simulations, and Observations
journal, December 2012


A Radiation Hydrodynamic Model for Protostellar Collapse. II. The Second Collapse and the Birth of a Protostar
journal, March 2000

  • Masunaga, Hirohiko; Inutsuka, Shu‐ichiro
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 531, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/308439

Supersonic turbulence, filamentary accretion and the rapid assembly of massive stars and discs
journal, November 2006

  • Banerjee, Robi; Pudritz, Ralph E.; Anderson, Dave W.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 373, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2006.11089.x

Molecular line study of the very young protostar IRAM 04191 in Taurus: infall, rotation, and outflow
journal, October 2002


Angular Momentum Evolution of Young Stars and Disks
journal, September 1995


Magnetic processes in a collapsing dense core: I. Accretion and ejection
journal, October 2007


Conditions for circumstellar disc formation: effects of initial cloud configuration and sink treatment
journal, January 2014

  • Machida, Masahiro N.; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Matsumoto, Tomoaki
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 438, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt2343

Interferometric multi-wavelength (sub)millimeter continuum study of the young high-mass protocluster IRAS 05358+3543
journal, April 2007


Properties of dense cores in clustered massive star-forming regions at high angular resolution
journal, May 2013

  • Sánchez-Monge, Álvaro; Palau, Aina; Fontani, Francesco
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 432, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt679

Magnetic Braking and Protostellar disk Formation: Ambipolar Diffusion
journal, May 2009


Turbulence in Molecular Clouds
journal, July 1995

  • Dubinski, John; Narayan, Ramesh; Phillips, T. G.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 448
  • DOI: 10.1086/175954

Collapse of Magnetized Singular Isothermal Toroids. II. Rotation and Magnetic Braking
journal, December 2003

  • Allen, Anthony; Li, Zhi‐Yun; Shu, Frank H.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 599, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/379243

Non-Ideal mhd Effects and Magnetic Braking Catastrophe in Protostellar disk Formation
journal, August 2011


Collapse and fragmentation of rotating magnetized clouds - II. Binary formation and fragmentation of first cores
journal, September 2005

  • Machida, Masahiro N.; Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Hanawa, Tomoyuki
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 362, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2005.09327.x

Disc formation in turbulent massive cores: circumventing the magnetic braking catastrophe: Disc formation in turbulent massive cores
journal, April 2012

  • Seifried, D.; Banerjee, R.; Pudritz, R. E.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters, Vol. 423, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-3933.2012.01253.x

Zoom-in Simulations of Protoplanetary Disks Starting from GMC Scales
journal, August 2017

  • Kuffmeier, Michael; Haugbølle, Troels; Nordlund, Åke
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 846, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aa7c64

Reconnection in a Weakly Stochastic Field
journal, June 1999

  • Lazarian, A.; Vishniac, Ethan T.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 517, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/307233

A Sub-Arcsecond Survey Toward Class 0 Protostars in Perseus: Searching for Signatures of Protostellar Disks
journal, May 2015


Disk Formation in Magnetized Clouds Enabled by the hall Effect
journal, May 2011


Turbulence-induced disc formation in strongly magnetized cloud cores
journal, May 2013

  • Seifried, D.; Banerjee, R.; Pudritz, R. E.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 432, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt682

Dense Cores in Dark Clouds. XIV. N 2 H + (1–0) Maps of Dense Cloud Cores
journal, June 2002

  • Caselli, Paola; Benson, Priscilla J.; Myers, Philip C.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 572, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/340195

Grand-design Spiral Arms in a Young Forming Circumstellar Disk
journal, January 2017


Disc formation in turbulent cloud cores: is magnetic flux loss necessary to stop the magnetic braking catastrophe or not?
journal, January 2013

  • Santos-Lima, R.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.; Lazarian, A.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 429, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sts597

An analytic column density profile to fit prestellar cores
journal, May 2009


Comparing the statistics of interstellar turbulence in simulations and observations: Solenoidal versus compressive turbulence forcing
journal, March 2010


Diffusion of Magnetic Field and Removal of Magnetic flux from Clouds via Turbulent Reconnection
journal, April 2010

  • Santos-Lima, R.; Lazarian, A.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 714, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/714/1/442

LARGE-SCALE KINEMATICS, ASTROCHEMISTRY, AND MAGNETIC FIELD STUDIES OF MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS THROUGH HC 3 N, HNC, AND C 2 H MAPPINGS
journal, December 2011


Disk formation during collapse of magnetized protostellar cores
journal, September 2009


Bimodality of Circumstellar disk Evolution Induced by the hall Current
journal, September 2015


Disc-like magneto-gravitational equilibria
journal, January 1985

  • Mestel, L.; Ray, T. P.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 212, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/212.2.275

Pressure-confined clumps in magnetized molecular clouds
journal, August 1992

  • Bertoldi, Frank; McKee, Christopher F.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 395
  • DOI: 10.1086/171638

Magnetically Self-Regulated Formation of Early Protoplanetary Disks
journal, October 2016

  • Hennebelle, Patrick; Commerçon, Benoît; Chabrier, Gilles
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 830, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8205/830/1/L8

Note on the collapse of magnetic interstellar clouds
journal, November 1976

  • Mouschovias, T. Ch.; Spitzer, L. , Jr.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 210
  • DOI: 10.1086/154835

yt: A MULTI-CODE ANALYSIS TOOLKIT FOR ASTROPHYSICAL SIMULATION DATA
journal, December 2010

  • Turk, Matthew J.; Smith, Britton D.; Oishi, Jeffrey S.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 192, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/192/1/9

Numerical Calculations of the Dynamics of a Collapsing Proto-Star*
journal, August 1969


Magnetic fields during the early stages of massive star formation - I. Accretion and disc evolution: Magnetic fields in massive star formation
journal, September 2011


On the magnetic flux problem in star formation: The magnetic flux problem in star formation
journal, March 2012


The Rotating Outflow, Envelope, and disk of the Class-0/I Protostar [Bhb2007]#11 in the pipe Nebula
journal, June 2013


Magnetic Braking and Protostellar Disk Formation: The Ideal MHD Limit
journal, July 2008

  • Mellon, Richard R.; Li, Zhi‐Yun
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 681, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/587542

The Formation of Massive Stars from Turbulent Cores
journal, March 2003

  • McKee, Christopher F.; Tan, Jonathan C.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 585, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/346149

Protoplanetary Disks and Their Evolution
journal, September 2011


Star formation with 3-D adaptive mesh refinement: the collapse and fragmentation of molecular clouds
journal, September 1999


The impact of magnetic fields on single and binary star formation
journal, May 2007


Turbulent reconnection and its implications
journal, May 2015

  • Lazarian, A.; Eyink, G.; Vishniac, E.
  • Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 373, Issue 2041
  • DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2014.0144

Dense cores in dark clouds. VIII - Velocity gradients
journal, April 1993

  • Goodman, A. A.; Benson, P. J.; Fuller, G. A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 406
  • DOI: 10.1086/172465

Magnetic Fields in Dark Cloud Cores: Arecibo OH Zeeman Observations
journal, June 2008

  • Troland, Thomas H.; Crutcher, Richard M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 680, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/587546

Radiation-Hydrodynamic Simulations of Massive star Formation with Protostellar Outflows
journal, October 2011

  • Cunningham, Andrew J.; Klein, Richard I.; Krumholz, Mark R.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 740, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/740/2/107

Gravitational Collapse of Magnetized Clouds. I. Ideal Magnetohydrodynamic Accretion Flow
journal, August 2006

  • Galli, Daniele; Lizano, Susana; Shu, Frank H.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 647, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/505257

Embedding Lagrangian Sink Particles in Eulerian Grids
journal, August 2004

  • Krumholz, Mark R.; McKee, Christopher F.; Klein, Richard I.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 611, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/421935

Coherence in Dense Cores. II. The Transition to Coherence
journal, September 1998

  • Goodman, Alyssa A.; Barranco, Joseph A.; Wilner, David J.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 504, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/306045

PROSAC: a submillimeter array survey of low-mass protostars: II. The mass evolution of envelopes, disks, and stars from the Class 0 through I stages
journal, September 2009


Coherent Dense Cores. I. NH 3 Observations
journal, September 1998

  • Barranco, Joseph A.; Goodman, Alyssa A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 504, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/306044

Magnetic Fields in Molecular Clouds
journal, September 2012


Toward understanding the formation of multiple systems: A pilot IRAM-PdBI survey of Class 0 objects
journal, March 2010


Bondi-Hoyle Accretion in an Isothermal Magnetized Plasma
journal, February 2014

  • Lee, Aaron T.; Cunningham, Andrew J.; McKee, Christopher F.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 783, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/783/1/50

The influence of turbulence during magnetized core collapse and its consequences on low-mass star formation
journal, May 2013


Magnetic braking of an aligned rotator during star formation - an exact, time-dependent solution
journal, April 1980

  • Mouschovias, T. Ch.; Paleologou, E. V.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 237
  • DOI: 10.1086/157936

Physical properties of dense cores in Orion B9
journal, November 2010


A ∼0.2-solar-mass protostar with a Keplerian disk in the very young L1527 IRS system
journal, December 2012

  • Tobin, John J.; Hartmann, Lee; Chiang, Hsin-Fang
  • Nature, Vol. 492, Issue 7427
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature11610

Averting the magnetic braking catastrophe on small scales: disk formation due to Ohmic dissipation
journal, October 2010


Effects of Ohmic and ambipolar diffusion on formation and evolution of first cores, protostars, and circumstellar discs
journal, July 2015

  • Tsukamoto, Y.; Iwasaki, K.; Okuzumi, S.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 452, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv1290

Protostellar disc formation enabled by removal of small dust grains
journal, May 2016

  • Zhao, Bo; Caselli, Paola; Li, Zhi-Yun
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 460, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw1124

Protostellar Accretion Flows Destabilized by Magnetic flux Redistribution
journal, September 2012


Unveiling the Evolutionary Sequence from Infalling Envelopes to Keplerian Disks Around Low-Mass Protostars
journal, July 2013

  • Yen, Hsi-Wei; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Ohashi, Nagayoshi
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 772, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/772/1/22

Magnetic Fields in Early Protostellar disk Formation
journal, March 2016

  • González-Casanova, Diego F.; Lazarian, Alexander; Santos-Lima, Reinaldo
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 819, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/0004-637X/819/2/96

Disk Formation Enabled by Enhanced Resistivity
journal, June 2010