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Title: Multimodal X-ray imaging of grain-level properties and performance in a polycrystalline solar cell

Abstract

The factors limiting the performance of alternative polycrystalline solar cells as compared with their single-crystal counterparts are not fully understood, but are thought to originate from structural and chemical heterogeneities at various length scales. Here, it is demonstrated that multimodal focused nanobeam X-ray microscopy can be used to reveal multiple aspects of the problem in a single measurement by mapping chemical makeup, lattice structure and charge collection efficiency simultaneously in a working solar cell. This approach was applied to micrometre-sized individual grains in a Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 polycrystalline film packaged in a working device. It was found that, near grain boundaries, collection efficiency is increased, and that in these regions the lattice parameter of the material is expanded. These observations are discussed in terms of possible physical models and future experiments.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [2];  [4];  [4];  [5]
  1. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
  2. Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)
  3. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  4. Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)
  5. Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); National Science Foundation (NSF); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22). Materials Sciences & Engineering Division; USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Solar Energy Technologies Office (EE-4S)
OSTI Identifier:
1514703
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1545346; OSTI ID: 1574176
Report Number(s):
BNL-211688-2019-JAAM
Journal ID: ISSN 1600-5775; JSYRES
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0012704; AC02-06CH11357; EE0008163
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Synchrotron Radiation (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation (Online); Journal Volume: 26; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 1600-5775
Publisher:
International Union of Crystallography
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; solar cell materials; scanning nanodiffraction; X-ray-beam-induced current; multimodal characterization

Citation Formats

Ulvestad, A., Hruszkewycz, S. O., Holt, M. V., Hill, M. O., Calvo-Almazán, I., Maddali, S., Huang, Xiaojing, Yan, H., Nazaretski, E., Chu, Y. S., Lauhon, L. J., Rodkey, N., Bertoni, M. I., and Stuckelberger, M. E. Multimodal X-ray imaging of grain-level properties and performance in a polycrystalline solar cell. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1107/S1600577519003606.
Ulvestad, A., Hruszkewycz, S. O., Holt, M. V., Hill, M. O., Calvo-Almazán, I., Maddali, S., Huang, Xiaojing, Yan, H., Nazaretski, E., Chu, Y. S., Lauhon, L. J., Rodkey, N., Bertoni, M. I., & Stuckelberger, M. E. Multimodal X-ray imaging of grain-level properties and performance in a polycrystalline solar cell. United States. doi:10.1107/S1600577519003606.
Ulvestad, A., Hruszkewycz, S. O., Holt, M. V., Hill, M. O., Calvo-Almazán, I., Maddali, S., Huang, Xiaojing, Yan, H., Nazaretski, E., Chu, Y. S., Lauhon, L. J., Rodkey, N., Bertoni, M. I., and Stuckelberger, M. E. Tue . "Multimodal X-ray imaging of grain-level properties and performance in a polycrystalline solar cell". United States. doi:10.1107/S1600577519003606. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1514703.
@article{osti_1514703,
title = {Multimodal X-ray imaging of grain-level properties and performance in a polycrystalline solar cell},
author = {Ulvestad, A. and Hruszkewycz, S. O. and Holt, M. V. and Hill, M. O. and Calvo-Almazán, I. and Maddali, S. and Huang, Xiaojing and Yan, H. and Nazaretski, E. and Chu, Y. S. and Lauhon, L. J. and Rodkey, N. and Bertoni, M. I. and Stuckelberger, M. E.},
abstractNote = {The factors limiting the performance of alternative polycrystalline solar cells as compared with their single-crystal counterparts are not fully understood, but are thought to originate from structural and chemical heterogeneities at various length scales. Here, it is demonstrated that multimodal focused nanobeam X-ray microscopy can be used to reveal multiple aspects of the problem in a single measurement by mapping chemical makeup, lattice structure and charge collection efficiency simultaneously in a working solar cell. This approach was applied to micrometre-sized individual grains in a Cu(In,Ga)Se2 polycrystalline film packaged in a working device. It was found that, near grain boundaries, collection efficiency is increased, and that in these regions the lattice parameter of the material is expanded. These observations are discussed in terms of possible physical models and future experiments.},
doi = {10.1107/S1600577519003606},
journal = {Journal of Synchrotron Radiation (Online)},
number = 4,
volume = 26,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {5}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
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Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 4 works
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Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: A schematic of the experimental setup. Panel (a) shows the integration of an optical chopper and lock-in amplifier into the X-ray beamline that enables position-resolved XBIC and XBIV measurements. Panel (b) shows more details of the sample–beam interaction area: a PV device containing an active layer of polycrystallinemore » CIGS between top and bottom electrodes was illuminated with a nanofocused X-ray beam. The orientation of the beam was such that a 112 Bragg peak could be observed from grains that were favorably oriented. Raster scans of the sample were performed by displacing the sample in the plane of the film in ~100 nm steps. During the raster scan simultaneous measurements were performed of the local Bragg diffraction, the emitted X-ray fluorescence spectrum, and either the XBIC or XBIV. To measure 3D Bragg peak information, raster scans were repeated at different incident angles by varying the sample angle (along the θ rotation axis in the figure).« less

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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    High resolution tip-tilt positioning system for a next generation MLL-based x-ray microscope
    journal, November 2017

    • Xu, Weihe; Schlossberger, Noah; Xu, Wei
    • Measurement Science and Technology, Vol. 28, Issue 12
    • DOI: 10.1088/1361-6501/aa8916

    Terawatt-scale photovoltaics: Trajectories and challenges
    journal, April 2017


    Multimodal X-ray imaging of grain-level properties and performance in a polycrystalline solar cell
    text, January 2019

    • Ulvestad, A.; Hruszkewycz, S. O.; Holt, M. V.
    • Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Hamburg
    • DOI: 10.3204/pubdb-2019-02309

    What limits the efficiency of chalcopyrite solar cells?
    journal, June 2011


    High-resolution three-dimensional structural microscopy by single-angle Bragg ptychography
    journal, November 2016

    • Hruszkewycz, S. O.; Allain, M.; Holt, M. V.
    • Nature Materials, Vol. 16, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1038/nmat4798

    Solar cell efficiency tables (version 52)
    journal, June 2018

    • Green, Martin A.; Hishikawa, Yoshihiro; Dunlop, Ewan D.
    • Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, Vol. 26, Issue 7
    • DOI: 10.1002/pip.3040

    Engineering solar cells based on correlative X-ray microscopy
    journal, May 2017

    • Stuckelberger, Michael; West, Bradley; Nietzold, Tara
    • Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 32, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1557/jmr.2017.108

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    journal, March 2018


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    Grain engineering: How nanoscale inhomogeneities can control charge collection in solar cells
    journal, February 2017


    Energy payback time and carbon footprint of commercial photovoltaic systems
    journal, December 2013


      Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.