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Title: Nitrate removal from water using electrostatic regeneration of functionalized adsorbent

Abstract

Nitrate is an important pollutant in drinking water worldwide, and a number of methods exist for its removal from water including ion exchange and reverse osmosis. However, these approaches suffer from a variety of disadvantages including requirements for supply and disposal of brine used for regeneration in ion exchange and low water recovery ratio for reverse osmosis. We demonstrate the use of high surface area activated carbon electrodes functionalized with moieties having high affinity for adsorption of nitrate from aqueous solution, such as those used in ion exchange. Adsorption of surfactant molecules having a quaternary amine ionic group to the activated carbon surfaces provides functionalization of the surfaces without complex chemistries. The functionalized electrodes have adsorption capacities of about 80 mg NO3- per gram of activated carbon material. Unlike a traditional ion exchanger, the functionalized surfaces can be repeatedly regenerated by the application of an electrostatic potential which displaces the bound NO3- while leaving an excess of electronic charge on the electrode. The cell is completed by a counter electrode passing current via Faradaic reactions during regeneration. The proposed system is a hybrid form of capacitive deionization, wherein one electrode is strongly capacitive and the counter electrode is dominated bymore » Faradaic reactions. Up to approximately 40% of the initial capacity of the electrode is accessible following electrical regeneration.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [2]
  1. Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Univ. of California, Merced, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
  2. Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
  3. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1513152
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-770745
Journal ID: ISSN 1385-8947; 961385
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-07NA27344; ECCS-1542152
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Chemical Engineering Journal
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 334; Journal ID: ISSN 1385-8947
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; nitrate adsorption; activated carbon; quaternary amine functionalization; electrostatic regeneration

Citation Formats

Palko, James W., Oyarzun, Diego I., Ha, Byunghang, Stadermann, Michael, and Santiago, Juan G.. Nitrate removal from water using electrostatic regeneration of functionalized adsorbent. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2017.10.161.
Palko, James W., Oyarzun, Diego I., Ha, Byunghang, Stadermann, Michael, & Santiago, Juan G.. Nitrate removal from water using electrostatic regeneration of functionalized adsorbent. United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2017.10.161
Palko, James W., Oyarzun, Diego I., Ha, Byunghang, Stadermann, Michael, and Santiago, Juan G.. Sat . "Nitrate removal from water using electrostatic regeneration of functionalized adsorbent". United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2017.10.161. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1513152.
@article{osti_1513152,
title = {Nitrate removal from water using electrostatic regeneration of functionalized adsorbent},
author = {Palko, James W. and Oyarzun, Diego I. and Ha, Byunghang and Stadermann, Michael and Santiago, Juan G.},
abstractNote = {Nitrate is an important pollutant in drinking water worldwide, and a number of methods exist for its removal from water including ion exchange and reverse osmosis. However, these approaches suffer from a variety of disadvantages including requirements for supply and disposal of brine used for regeneration in ion exchange and low water recovery ratio for reverse osmosis. We demonstrate the use of high surface area activated carbon electrodes functionalized with moieties having high affinity for adsorption of nitrate from aqueous solution, such as those used in ion exchange. Adsorption of surfactant molecules having a quaternary amine ionic group to the activated carbon surfaces provides functionalization of the surfaces without complex chemistries. The functionalized electrodes have adsorption capacities of about 80 mg NO3- per gram of activated carbon material. Unlike a traditional ion exchanger, the functionalized surfaces can be repeatedly regenerated by the application of an electrostatic potential which displaces the bound NO3- while leaving an excess of electronic charge on the electrode. The cell is completed by a counter electrode passing current via Faradaic reactions during regeneration. The proposed system is a hybrid form of capacitive deionization, wherein one electrode is strongly capacitive and the counter electrode is dominated by Faradaic reactions. Up to approximately 40% of the initial capacity of the electrode is accessible following electrical regeneration.},
doi = {10.1016/j.cej.2017.10.161},
journal = {Chemical Engineering Journal},
number = ,
volume = 334,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {10}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
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Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 13 works
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Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: a.) Schematic of radial flow-between nitrate treatment cell with CTAB functionalized AC electrode and titanium Faradaic counter electrode. Arrows represent flow paths. b) Schematic of CTAB treatment of AC and the initial ionic exchange process in which NO3- displaces Br- due to the higher affinity of the quaternarymore » amine functional group for the former. c) Schematic of the cyclical electrical regeneration and passive adsorption in functionalized electrode. Potential, $V$cell , is applied to the electrode (left) which drives off nitrate, and simultaneously creates Faradaic reactions at the counter electrode as well as some smaller Faraday current at the AC electrode. Following regeneration, the AC electrode is electrically isolated (open circuit) and passive adsorption of nitrate occurs in the electrode along with the dissipation of the stored charge via Faradaic reactions on the active electrode.« less

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