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Title: A Thermophilic Ionic Liquid-Tolerant Cellulase Cocktail for the Production of Cellulosic Biofuels

Abstract

Generation of biofuels from sugars in lignocellulosic biomass is a promising alternative to liquid fossil fuels, but efficient and inexpensive bioprocessing configurations must be developed to make this technology commercially viable. One of the major barriers to commercialization is the recalcitrance of plant cell wall polysaccharides to enzymatic hydrolysis. Biomass pretreatment with ionic liquids (ILs) enables efficient saccharification of biomass, but residual ILs inhibit both saccharification and microbial fuel production, requiring extensive washing after IL pretreatment. Pretreatment itself can also produce biomass-derived inhibitory compounds that reduce microbial fuel production. Therefore, there are multiple points in the process from biomass to biofuel production that must be interrogated and optimized to maximize fuel production. Here, we report the development of an IL-tolerant cellulase cocktail by combining thermophilic bacterial glycoside hydrolases produced by a mixed consortia with recombinant glycoside hydrolases. This enzymatic cocktail saccharifies IL-pretreated biomass at higher temperatures and in the presence of much higher IL concentrations than commercial fungal cocktails. Sugars obtained from saccharification of IL-pretreated switchgrass using this cocktail can be converted into biodiesel (fatty acid ethyl-esters or FAEEs) by a metabolically engineered strain of E. coli. During these studies, we found that this biodiesel-producing E. coli strain was sensitivemore » to ILs and inhibitors released by saccharification. This cocktail will enable the development of novel biomass to biofuel bioprocessing configurations that may overcome some of the barriers to production of inexpensive cellulosic biofuels.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [4];  [2];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [1];  [1]
  1. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  2. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  3. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  4. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23), Biological Systems Science Division (SC-23.2 )
OSTI Identifier:
1511337
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
PLoS ONE
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 7; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 1932-6203
Publisher:
Public Library of Science
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
09 BIOMASS FUELS

Citation Formats

Park, Joshua I., Steen, Eric J., Burd, Helcio, Evans, Sophia S., Redding-Johnson, Alyssa M., Batth, Tanveer, Benke, Peter I., D'haeseleer, Patrik, Sun, Ning, Sale, Kenneth L., Keasling, Jay D., Lee, Taek Soon, Petzold, Christopher J., Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila, Singer, Steven W., Simmons, Blake A., and Gladden, John M. A Thermophilic Ionic Liquid-Tolerant Cellulase Cocktail for the Production of Cellulosic Biofuels. United States: N. p., 2012. Web. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0037010.
Park, Joshua I., Steen, Eric J., Burd, Helcio, Evans, Sophia S., Redding-Johnson, Alyssa M., Batth, Tanveer, Benke, Peter I., D'haeseleer, Patrik, Sun, Ning, Sale, Kenneth L., Keasling, Jay D., Lee, Taek Soon, Petzold, Christopher J., Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila, Singer, Steven W., Simmons, Blake A., & Gladden, John M. A Thermophilic Ionic Liquid-Tolerant Cellulase Cocktail for the Production of Cellulosic Biofuels. United States. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0037010.
Park, Joshua I., Steen, Eric J., Burd, Helcio, Evans, Sophia S., Redding-Johnson, Alyssa M., Batth, Tanveer, Benke, Peter I., D'haeseleer, Patrik, Sun, Ning, Sale, Kenneth L., Keasling, Jay D., Lee, Taek Soon, Petzold, Christopher J., Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila, Singer, Steven W., Simmons, Blake A., and Gladden, John M. Wed . "A Thermophilic Ionic Liquid-Tolerant Cellulase Cocktail for the Production of Cellulosic Biofuels". United States. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0037010. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1511337.
@article{osti_1511337,
title = {A Thermophilic Ionic Liquid-Tolerant Cellulase Cocktail for the Production of Cellulosic Biofuels},
author = {Park, Joshua I. and Steen, Eric J. and Burd, Helcio and Evans, Sophia S. and Redding-Johnson, Alyssa M. and Batth, Tanveer and Benke, Peter I. and D'haeseleer, Patrik and Sun, Ning and Sale, Kenneth L. and Keasling, Jay D. and Lee, Taek Soon and Petzold, Christopher J. and Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila and Singer, Steven W. and Simmons, Blake A. and Gladden, John M.},
abstractNote = {Generation of biofuels from sugars in lignocellulosic biomass is a promising alternative to liquid fossil fuels, but efficient and inexpensive bioprocessing configurations must be developed to make this technology commercially viable. One of the major barriers to commercialization is the recalcitrance of plant cell wall polysaccharides to enzymatic hydrolysis. Biomass pretreatment with ionic liquids (ILs) enables efficient saccharification of biomass, but residual ILs inhibit both saccharification and microbial fuel production, requiring extensive washing after IL pretreatment. Pretreatment itself can also produce biomass-derived inhibitory compounds that reduce microbial fuel production. Therefore, there are multiple points in the process from biomass to biofuel production that must be interrogated and optimized to maximize fuel production. Here, we report the development of an IL-tolerant cellulase cocktail by combining thermophilic bacterial glycoside hydrolases produced by a mixed consortia with recombinant glycoside hydrolases. This enzymatic cocktail saccharifies IL-pretreated biomass at higher temperatures and in the presence of much higher IL concentrations than commercial fungal cocktails. Sugars obtained from saccharification of IL-pretreated switchgrass using this cocktail can be converted into biodiesel (fatty acid ethyl-esters or FAEEs) by a metabolically engineered strain of E. coli. During these studies, we found that this biodiesel-producing E. coli strain was sensitive to ILs and inhibitors released by saccharification. This cocktail will enable the development of novel biomass to biofuel bioprocessing configurations that may overcome some of the barriers to production of inexpensive cellulosic biofuels.},
doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0037010},
journal = {PLoS ONE},
number = 5,
volume = 7,
place = {United States},
year = {2012},
month = {5}
}

Journal Article:
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Cited by: 76 works
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Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: A flow diagram of two potential biomass-to-biofuel bioprocessing configurations that utilize IL-pretreatment. A) Diagrams a configuration based on methods currently established in the literature and lists some potential barriers to commercialization (Problems). B) This configuration combines IL-pretreatment and saccharification into a single pot and may overcome barriers outlinedmore » in A (as listed in the solutions section), but requires an IL-tolerant cellulase cocktail, such as JTherm.« less

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Works referenced in this record:

The impact of oxidative stress on Arabidopsis mitochondria
journal, December 2002


Techno-economic analysis of a lignocellulosic ethanol biorefinery with ionic liquid pre-treatment
journal, June 2011

  • Klein-Marcuschamer, Daniel; Simmons, Blake A.; Blanch, Harvey W.
  • Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, Vol. 5, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/bbb.303

Bioconversion of cellulose into ethanol byClostridium thermocellum?product inhibition
journal, April 1983

  • Kundu, S.; Ghose, T. K.; Mukhopadhyay, S. N.
  • Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Vol. 25, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/bit.260250418

Inhibition of ethanol-producing yeast and bacteria by degradation products produced during pre-treatment of biomass
journal, August 2004

  • Klinke, H. B.; Thomsen, A. B.; Ahring, B. K.
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol. 66, Issue 1, p. 10-26
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00253-004-1642-2

Advances on biomass pretreatment using ionic liquids: An overview
journal, January 2011

  • Tadesse, Haregewine; Luque, Rafael
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 4, Issue 10, p. 3913-3929
  • DOI: 10.1039/c0ee00667j

Ionic liquid salt-induced inactivation and unfolding of cellulase from Trichoderma reesei
journal, January 2003

  • Turner, Megan B.; Spear, Scott K.; Huddleston, Jonathan G.
  • Green Chemistry, Vol. 5, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1039/b302570e

Aqueous ionic liquid pretreatment of straw
journal, July 2011


Evaluation of the biocompatibile ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphite pretreatment of corn cob for improved saccharification
journal, February 2010

  • Li, Qiang; Jiang, Xinglin; He, Yucai
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol. 87, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00253-010-2484-8

Ionic liquid tolerant hyperthermophilic cellulases for biomass pretreatment and hydrolysis
journal, January 2010

  • Datta, Supratim; Holmes, Bradley; Park, Joshua I.
  • Green Chemistry, Vol. 12, Issue 2, p. 338-345
  • DOI: 10.1039/b916564a

Rhodothermus marinus: physiology and molecular biology
journal, August 2005

  • Bjornsdottir, Snaedis H.; Blondal, Thorarinn; Hreggvidsson, Gudmundur O.
  • Extremophiles, Vol. 10, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00792-005-0466-z

Butanol Production from Crystalline Cellulose by Cocultured Clostridium thermocellum and Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4
journal, July 2011

  • Nakayama, Shunichi; Kiyoshi, Keiji; Kadokura, Toshimori
  • Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 77, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1128/AEM.00706-11

Compatible Ionic liquid-cellulases system for hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass
journal, January 2011

  • Wang, Ying; Radosevich, Mark; Hayes, Douglas
  • Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Vol. 108, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/bit.23045

Microbial production of fatty-acid-derived fuels and chemicals from plant biomass
journal, January 2010

  • Steen, Eric J.; Kang, Yisheng; Bokinsky, Gregory
  • Nature, Vol. 463, Issue 7280, p. 559-562
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature08721

Comparison of dilute acid and ionic liquid pretreatment of switchgrass: Biomass recalcitrance, delignification and enzymatic saccharification
journal, July 2010


Influence of ionic liquids on the growth ofEscherichia coli
journal, September 2005

  • Lee, Sang-Mok; Chang, Woo-Jin; Choi, Ah-Rom
  • Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering, Vol. 22, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF02705783

Glycoside Hydrolase Activities of Thermophilic Bacterial Consortia Adapted to Switchgrass
journal, July 2011

  • Gladden, John M.; Allgaier, Martin; Miller, Christopher S.
  • Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 77, Issue 16, p. 5804-5812
  • DOI: 10.1128/AEM.00032-11

Online respiration activity measurement (OTR, CTR, RQ) in shake flasks
journal, March 2004


Gene expression profiling of Escherichia coli growth transitions: an expanded stringent response model
journal, July 2002


Identification of a haloalkaliphilic and thermostable cellulase with improved ionic liquid tolerance
journal, January 2011

  • Zhang, Tao; Datta, Supratim; Eichler, Jerry
  • Green Chemistry, Vol. 13, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1039/c1gc15193b

Regenerating cellulose from ionic liquids for an accelerated enzymatic hydrolysis
journal, January 2009


Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by the cellobiohydrolase domain of CelB from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus
journal, May 2011


Towards a Rigorous Network of Protein-Protein Interactions of the Model Sulfate Reducer Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough
journal, June 2011


Metabolic engineering of a thermophilic bacterium to produce ethanol at high yield
journal, September 2008

  • Shaw, A. J.; Podkaminer, K. K.; Desai, S. G.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 105, Issue 37, p. 13769-13774
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0801266105

Advanced biofuel production in microbes
journal, January 2010

  • Peralta-Yahya, Pamela P.; Keasling, Jay D.
  • Biotechnology Journal, Vol. 5, Issue 2, p. 147-162
  • DOI: 10.1002/biot.200900220

Recovery of Sugars from Ionic Liquid Biomass Liquor by Solvent Extraction
journal, May 2010

  • Brennan, Timothy C. R.; Datta, Supratim; Blanch, Harvey W.
  • BioEnergy Research, Vol. 3, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1007/s12155-010-9091-5

In-gel digestion for mass spectrometric characterization of proteins and proteomes
journal, December 2006


Isolation and characterization of highly thermophilic xylanolytic <i>Thermus thermophilus</i> strains from hot composts
journal, January 2000

  • Lyon, Pierre-François; Beffa, Trello; Blanc, Michel
  • Canadian Journal of Microbiology, Vol. 46, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1139/cjm-46-11-1029

Thermobacillus composti sp. nov., a moderately thermophilic bacterium isolated from a composting reactor
journal, July 2007

  • Watanabe, K.; Nagao, N.; Yamamoto, S.
  • INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SYSTEMATIC AND EVOLUTIONARY MICROBIOLOGY, Vol. 57, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1099/ijs.0.64672-0

The minimal enzyme cocktail concept for biomass processing
journal, November 2009

  • Meyer, Anne S.; Rosgaard, Lisa; Sørensen, Hanne R.
  • Journal of Cereal Science, Vol. 50, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2009.01.010

Synthetic enzyme mixtures for biomass deconstruction: Production and optimization of a core set
journal, March 2010

  • Banerjee, Goutami; Car, Suzana; Scott-Craig, John S.
  • Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Vol. 106, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/bit.22741

Effect of selected aldehydes on the growth and fermentation of ethanologenic Escherichia coli
journal, October 1999


Impact of ionic liquid pretreated plant biomass on Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth and biofuel production
journal, January 2011

  • Ouellet, Mario; Datta, Supratim; Dibble, Dean C.
  • Green Chemistry, Vol. 13, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1039/c1gc15327g

ABC transporters: physiology, structure and mechanism – an overview
journal, April 2001


Substrate perturbation alters the glycoside hydrolase activities and community composition of switchgrass-adapted bacterial consortia
journal, December 2011

  • Gladden, John M.; Eichorst, Stephanie A.; Hazen, Terry C.
  • Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Vol. 109, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/bit.24388

Thermobacillus xylanilyticus gen. nov., sp. nov., a new aerobic thermophilic xylan-degrading bacterium isolated from farm soil
journal, January 2000

  • Touzel, J. P.; O'Donohue, M.; Debeire, P.
  • INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SYSTEMATIC AND EVOLUTIONARY MICROBIOLOGY, Vol. 50, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1099/00207713-50-1-315

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    The amazing potential of fungi: 50 ways we can exploit fungi industrially
    journal, July 2019


    Developing Efficient Thermophilic Cellulose Degrading Consortium for Glucose Production From Different Agro-Residues
    journal, July 2019

    • Singh, Saurabh; Jaiswal, Durgesh Kumar; Sivakumar, Nallusamy
    • Frontiers in Energy Research, Vol. 7
    • DOI: 10.3389/fenrg.2019.00061

    Effect of selected aldehydes on the growth and fermentation of ethanologenic Escherichia coli
    journal, October 1999


    Techno-economic analysis of a lignocellulosic ethanol biorefinery with ionic liquid pre-treatment
    journal, June 2011

    • Klein-Marcuschamer, Daniel; Simmons, Blake A.; Blanch, Harvey W.
    • Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, Vol. 5, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1002/bbb.303

    Advanced biofuel production in microbes
    journal, January 2010

    • Peralta-Yahya, Pamela P.; Keasling, Jay D.
    • Biotechnology Journal, Vol. 5, Issue 2, p. 147-162
    • DOI: 10.1002/biot.200900220

    Synthetic enzyme mixtures for biomass deconstruction: Production and optimization of a core set
    journal, March 2010

    • Banerjee, Goutami; Car, Suzana; Scott-Craig, John S.
    • Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Vol. 106, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1002/bit.22741

    Compatible Ionic liquid-cellulases system for hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass
    journal, January 2011

    • Wang, Ying; Radosevich, Mark; Hayes, Douglas
    • Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Vol. 108, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1002/bit.23045

    Substrate perturbation alters the glycoside hydrolase activities and community composition of switchgrass-adapted bacterial consortia
    journal, December 2011

    • Gladden, John M.; Eichorst, Stephanie A.; Hazen, Terry C.
    • Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Vol. 109, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1002/bit.24388

    Bioconversion of cellulose into ethanol byClostridium thermocellum?product inhibition
    journal, April 1983

    • Kundu, S.; Ghose, T. K.; Mukhopadhyay, S. N.
    • Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Vol. 25, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1002/bit.260250418

    Influence of ionic liquids on the growth ofEscherichia coli
    journal, September 2005

    • Lee, Sang-Mok; Chang, Woo-Jin; Choi, Ah-Rom
    • Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering, Vol. 22, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1007/bf02705783

    Inhibition of ethanol-producing yeast and bacteria by degradation products produced during pre-treatment of biomass
    journal, August 2004

    • Klinke, H. B.; Thomsen, A. B.; Ahring, B. K.
    • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol. 66, Issue 1, p. 10-26
    • DOI: 10.1007/s00253-004-1642-2

    Evaluation of the biocompatibile ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphite pretreatment of corn cob for improved saccharification
    journal, February 2010

    • Li, Qiang; Jiang, Xinglin; He, Yucai
    • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol. 87, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1007/s00253-010-2484-8

    Rhodothermus marinus: physiology and molecular biology
    journal, August 2005

    • Bjornsdottir, Snaedis H.; Blondal, Thorarinn; Hreggvidsson, Gudmundur O.
    • Extremophiles, Vol. 10, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1007/s00792-005-0466-z

    Recovery of Sugars from Ionic Liquid Biomass Liquor by Solvent Extraction
    journal, May 2010

    • Brennan, Timothy C. R.; Datta, Supratim; Blanch, Harvey W.
    • BioEnergy Research, Vol. 3, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1007/s12155-010-9091-5

    Comparison of dilute acid and ionic liquid pretreatment of switchgrass: Biomass recalcitrance, delignification and enzymatic saccharification
    journal, July 2010


    Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by the cellobiohydrolase domain of CelB from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus
    journal, May 2011


    Aqueous ionic liquid pretreatment of straw
    journal, July 2011


    Regenerating cellulose from ionic liquids for an accelerated enzymatic hydrolysis
    journal, January 2009


    The minimal enzyme cocktail concept for biomass processing
    journal, November 2009

    • Meyer, Anne S.; Rosgaard, Lisa; Sørensen, Hanne R.
    • Journal of Cereal Science, Vol. 50, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.jcs.2009.01.010

    ABC transporters: physiology, structure and mechanism – an overview
    journal, April 2001


    Online respiration activity measurement (OTR, CTR, RQ) in shake flasks
    journal, March 2004


    Microbial production of fatty-acid-derived fuels and chemicals from plant biomass
    journal, January 2010

    • Steen, Eric J.; Kang, Yisheng; Bokinsky, Gregory
    • Nature, Vol. 463, Issue 7280, p. 559-562
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature08721

    In-gel digestion for mass spectrometric characterization of proteins and proteomes
    journal, December 2006


    Ionic liquid salt-induced inactivation and unfolding of cellulase from Trichoderma reesei
    journal, January 2003

    • Turner, Megan B.; Spear, Scott K.; Huddleston, Jonathan G.
    • Green Chemistry, Vol. 5, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1039/b302570e

    Ionic liquid tolerant hyperthermophilic cellulases for biomass pretreatment and hydrolysis
    journal, January 2010

    • Datta, Supratim; Holmes, Bradley; Park, Joshua I.
    • Green Chemistry, Vol. 12, Issue 2, p. 338-345
    • DOI: 10.1039/b916564a

    Advances on biomass pretreatment using ionic liquids: An overview
    journal, January 2011

    • Tadesse, Haregewine; Luque, Rafael
    • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 4, Issue 10, p. 3913-3929
    • DOI: 10.1039/c0ee00667j

    Identification of a haloalkaliphilic and thermostable cellulase with improved ionic liquid tolerance
    journal, January 2011

    • Zhang, Tao; Datta, Supratim; Eichler, Jerry
    • Green Chemistry, Vol. 13, Issue 8
    • DOI: 10.1039/c1gc15193b

    Impact of ionic liquid pretreated plant biomass on Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth and biofuel production
    journal, January 2011

    • Ouellet, Mario; Datta, Supratim; Dibble, Dean C.
    • Green Chemistry, Vol. 13, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1039/c1gc15327g

    Gene expression profiling of Escherichia coli growth transitions: an expanded stringent response model
    journal, July 2002


    The impact of oxidative stress on Arabidopsis mitochondria
    journal, December 2002


    Metabolic engineering of a thermophilic bacterium to produce ethanol at high yield
    journal, September 2008

    • Shaw, A. J.; Podkaminer, K. K.; Desai, S. G.
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 105, Issue 37, p. 13769-13774
    • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0801266105

    Thermobacillus xylanilyticus gen. nov., sp. nov., a new aerobic thermophilic xylan-degrading bacterium isolated from farm soil
    journal, January 2000

    • Touzel, J. P.; O'Donohue, M.; Debeire, P.
    • INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SYSTEMATIC AND EVOLUTIONARY MICROBIOLOGY, Vol. 50, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1099/00207713-50-1-315

    Thermobacillus composti sp. nov., a moderately thermophilic bacterium isolated from a composting reactor
    journal, July 2007

    • Watanabe, K.; Nagao, N.; Yamamoto, S.
    • INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SYSTEMATIC AND EVOLUTIONARY MICROBIOLOGY, Vol. 57, Issue 7
    • DOI: 10.1099/ijs.0.64672-0

    Glycoside Hydrolase Activities of Thermophilic Bacterial Consortia Adapted to Switchgrass
    journal, July 2011

    • Gladden, John M.; Allgaier, Martin; Miller, Christopher S.
    • Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 77, Issue 16, p. 5804-5812
    • DOI: 10.1128/aem.00032-11

    Butanol Production from Crystalline Cellulose by Cocultured Clostridium thermocellum and Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4
    journal, July 2011

    • Nakayama, Shunichi; Kiyoshi, Keiji; Kadokura, Toshimori
    • Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 77, Issue 18
    • DOI: 10.1128/aem.00706-11

    Isolation and characterization of highly thermophilic xylanolytic <i>Thermus thermophilus</i> strains from hot composts
    journal, January 2000

    • Lyon, Pierre-François; Beffa, Trello; Blanc, Michel
    • Canadian Journal of Microbiology, Vol. 46, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.1139/cjm-46-11-1029

    Towards a Rigorous Network of Protein-Protein Interactions of the Model Sulfate Reducer Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough
    journal, June 2011


    The amazing potential of fungi: 50 ways we can exploit fungi industrially
    journal, July 2019


    Developing Efficient Thermophilic Cellulose Degrading Consortium for Glucose Production From Different Agro-Residues
    journal, July 2019

    • Singh, Saurabh; Jaiswal, Durgesh Kumar; Sivakumar, Nallusamy
    • Frontiers in Energy Research, Vol. 7
    • DOI: 10.3389/fenrg.2019.00061

      Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.